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Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour and birth

  1. Vicki Flenady1,*,
  2. Aleena M Wojcieszek1,
  3. Dimitri NM Papatsonis2,
  4. Owen M Stock3,
  5. Linda Murray4,
  6. Luke A Jardine5,
  7. Bruno Carbonne6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 5 JUN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002255.pub2


How to Cite

Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Papatsonis DNM, Stock OM, Murray L, Jardine LA, Carbonne B. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour and birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD002255. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002255.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Mater Research Institute - The University of Queensland (MRI-UQ), Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

  2. 2

    Amphia Hospital Breda, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Breda, Netherlands

  3. 3

    Mater Mothers' Hospital, Mater Health Services, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Tasmania, School of Medicine, Hobart, Australia

  5. 5

    Mater Mothers' Hospital, Mater Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Department of Neonatology, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

  6. 6

    Hopital Trousseau, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris, Paris, France

*Vicki Flenady, Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) Centre, Mater Research Institute - The University of Queensland (MRI-UQ), Level 2 Aubigny Place, Mater Health Services, Annerley Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland, 4102, Australia. vflenady@mmri.mater.org.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 5 JUN 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Al-Qattan 2000 {published data only}
  • Al-Qattan F, Omu AE, Labeeb N. A prospective randomized study comparing nifedipine versus ritodrine for the suppression of preterm labour. Medical Principles & Practice 2000;9:164-73.
Amorim 2009 {published data only}
  • Amorim MM, Lippo LA, Costa AA, Coutinho IC, Souza AS. Transdermal nitroglycerin versus oral nifedipine administration for tocolysis: a randomized clinical trial [Nitroglicerina transdermica versus nifedipina oral para inibicao do trabalho de parto prematuro: ensaio clinico randomizado]. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia 2009;31(11):552-8.
Ara 2008 {published data only}
  • Ara I, Banu H. A prospective randomised trial of nifedipine versus placebo in preterm labour. Bangladesh Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008;23(2):61-4.
Bracero 1991 {published data only}
  • Bracero LA, Leiken E, Kirshenbaum N, Tejani N. Comparison of nifedipine and ritodrine for the treatment of preterm labor. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990 Jan 23-27; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:77.
  • Bracero LA, Leikin E, Kirshenbaum N, Tejani N. Comparison of nifedipine and ritodrine for the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Perinatology 1991;8(6):365-9.
Cararach 2006 {published data only}
  • Cararach V, Palacio M, Martinez S, Deulofeu P, Sanchez M, Cobo T, et al. Nifedipine versus ritodrine for suppression of preterm labor: comparison of their efficacy and secondary effects. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2006;127(2):204-8.
  • Martinez S, Manau MD, Vives A, Carmona F, Deulofeu P, Cararach V. A prospective and randomized study about the use of calcium blockers vs betamimetics in preterm labour. Proceedings of 14th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1994 June 5-8; Helsinki, Finland. 1994:Abstract no: 414.
Fan 2003 {published data only}
  • Fan L, Wu GF, Huang XH. The effect of calcium entry on the management of preterm labor - a randomized controlled study. Chinese Journal of Practical Gynecology and Obstetrics 2003;19(2):87-9.
Ferguson 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ferguson JE, Dyson DC, Holbrook RH Jr, Schultz T, Stevenson DK. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects associated with nifedipine and ritodrine tocolysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;161(3):788-95.
  • Ferguson JE, Dyson DC, Schutz T, Stevenson DK. A comparison of tocolysis with nifedipine or ritodrine: analysis of efficacy and maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;163(1 Pt 1):105-11.
  • Ferguson JE, Schultz TE, Stevenson DK. Neonatal bilirubin production after preterm labor tocolysis with nifedipine. Developmental Pharmacology Therapeutics 1989;12(3):113-7.
Floyd 1992 {published data only}
  • Floyd RC, McLaughlin BN, Martin RW, Roberts WE, Wiser WL, Morrison JC. Comparison of magnesium and nifedipine for primary tocolysis and idiopathic preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992;166:446.
  • Floyd RC, McLaughlin BN, Perry KG Jr, Martin RW, Sullivan CA, Morrison JC. Magnesium sulfate or nifedipine hydrochloride for acute tocolysis of preterm labor: efficacy and side effects. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Investigation 1995;5(1):25-9.
Ganla 1999 {published data only}
  • Ganla K, Shroff S, Desail S, Bhinde A. A prospective comparison of nifedipine and isoxsuprine for tocolysis. Bombay Hospital Journal 1999;41(2):259-63.
Garcia-Velasco 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Garcia-Velasco JA, Gonzalez Gonzalez A. A prospective, randomized trial of nifedipine vs. ritodrine in threatened preterm labor. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1998;61:239-44.
George 1991 {published data only}
  • George SS, George K, Jairaj P. A randomized controlled study of nifedipine and isoxuprine in the treatment of preterm labor. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India 1991;41(6):765-7.
Glock 1993 {published data only}
  • Glock JL, Morales WJ. Efficacy and safety of nifedipine vs magnesium sulfate in the management of preterm labor: a randomized study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;169(4):960-4.
  • Morales WJ, Glock D. Efficacy and safety of nifedipine vs magnesium sulfate in the management of preterm labor: a randomized study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168:375.
Jaju 2011 {published data only}
  • Jaju PB, Dhabadi VB. Nifedipine versus ritodrine for suppression of preterm labor and analysis of side effects. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 2011;61(5):534-7.
Janky 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Janky E, Leng JJ, Cormier PH, Salamon R, Meynard J. A randomized study of the treatment of threatened premature labor. Nifedipine versus ritodrine. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (Paris) 1990;19:478-82.
Jannet 1997 {published data only}
  • Jannet D, Abankwa A, Guyard B, Carbonne B, Marpeau L, Milliez J. Nicardipine versus salbutamol in the treatment of premature labor. A prospective randomized study. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1997;73(1):11-6.
Kara 2009 {published data only}
  • Kara M, Yilmaz E, Avci I, Oge T. Comparison of nifedipine with magnesium sulphate plus terbutaline for the treatment of preterm labor [Preterm eylem tedavisinde nifedipin ile magnezyum sulfat ve terbutalinin etkilerinin karsilastirilmasi]. Turk Jinekoloji ve Obstetrik Dernegi Dergisi 2009;6(4):250-6.
Kashanian 2005 {published data only}
  • Kashanian M, Akbarian AR, Soltanzadeh M. Atosiban and nifedipin for the treatment of preterm labor. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2005;91(1):10-4.
  • Kashanian M, Soltanzadeh M, Sheikh Ansari N. Atosiban and nifedipin for the treatment of preterm labor. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2008;115(s1):69.
Kashanian 2011 {published data only}
  • Kashanian M, Bahasadri S, Zolali B. Comparison of the efficacy and adverse effects of nifedipine and indomethacin for the treatment of preterm labor. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2011;113(3):192-5.
Klauser 2012 {published data only}
Koks 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Koks CA, Brolmann HA, de Kleine MJ, Manger PA. A randomized comparison of nifedipine and ritodrine for suppression of preterm labor. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1998;77(2):171-6.
Kose 1995 {published data only}
  • Kose D, Karaosmanoglu S, Yeniguc CT, Yucesoy I, Ozben C, Baysal C. Efficacy and safety of nifedipin in the management of preterm labor. Jinekoloji Ve Obstetrik Dergisi 1995;9:165-70.
Kupferminc 1993 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kupferminc M, Lessing JB, Peyser MR. A comparative, prospective, randomized study of nifedipine vs ritodrine for suppressing preterm labor. Proceedings of 39th Annual Meeting of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation; 1992 March 18-21; San Antonio, Texas, USA. 1992:335.
  • Kupferminc M, Lessing JB, Yaron Y, Peyser MR. Nifedipine versus ritodrine for suppression of preterm labour. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1993;100(12):1090-4.
Laohapojanart 2007 {published data only}
  • Laohapojanart N, Soorapan S, Wacharaprechanont T, Ratanajamit C. Safety and efficacy of oral nifedipine versus terbutaline injection in preterm labour. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2007;90(11):2462-7.
Larmon 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Larmon J, Ross B, May W, Dickerson G, Fischer R, Morrison JC. Oral nicardipine versus intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999;181:1432-7.
  • Ross E, Ross B, Dickerson G, Fischer R, Morrison J. Oral nicardipine versus intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1998;178(1):181.
Lyell 2007 {published data only}
  • Lyell D, Penn A, Caughey A, Kogut E, McClellan L, Adams B, et al. Neonatal outcomes following antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure: follow up from a magnesium vs. nifedipine tocolysis RCT. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;201(6 Suppl 1):S180-1.
  • Lyell DJ, Pullen K, Campbell L, Ching S, Druzin ML, Chitkara U, et al. Magnesium sulfate compared with nifedipine for acute tocolysis of preterm labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;110(1):61-7.
Mawaldi 2008 {published data only}
Nassar 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Nassar A, Khalil A, Awwad J, Abu Musa A, Tabbara J, Usta I. A randomized trial of two dose regimens of nifedipine for management of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;197(6 Suppl 1):S206.
  • Nassar AH, Abu-Musa AA, Awwad J, Khalii A, Tabbara J, Usta IM. Two dose regimens of nifedipine for management of preterm labor: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Perinatology 2009;26(8):575-81.
Padovani 2012 {published data only}
  • Padovani TR, Lopes LC. Nifedipine and terbutaline: comparative study of effectiveness and safety in preventing preterm labor. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2012;119(Suppl 3):S761.
Papatsonis 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Houtzager BA, Hogendoorn S, Samson JF, Papatsonis D, Van Wassenaer AG. Nine years' follow up of children born from mothers who participated in a RCT of nifedipine versus ritodrine for threatened preterm labor [abstract]. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14-17; Washington DC, USA. 2005:Abstract no: 2100.
  • Houtzager BA, Hogendoorn SM, Papatsonis DNM, Samsom JF, van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, et al. Long-term follow up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine for the management of preterm labour. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2005;113:324-31.
  • Papatsonis DM, Hogendoorn SM, Houtzager BA, van Wassenaer AG, Samsom JF. Long-term follow-up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine in the management of preterm labor [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; Vol. 191, issue 6 Suppl 1:S106.
  • Papatsonis DN, Kok JH, van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Neonatal effects of nifedipine and ritodrine for preterm labor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;95(4):477-81.
  • Papatsonis DN, Kok JH, van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Neonatal effects of nifedipine and ritodrine in the management of preterm labor. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand; 2001 March; Canberra, Australia. 2001:100.
  • Papatsonis DN, van Geijn HP, Ader HJ, Lange FM, Bleker OP, Dekker GA. Nifedipine and ritodrine in the management of preterm labor: a randomized multicenter trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;90(2):230-4.
  • Papatsonis DN, van Geijn HP, Ader HJ, Lange FM, Bleker OP, Dekker GA. Tocolytic efficacy of nifedipine versus ritodrine; results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174:306.
  • Papatsonis DN, van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects after nifedipine and ritodrine tocolysis. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2003;82(1):5-10.
  • Papatsonis DN, van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Maternal admission characteristics as risk factors for preterm birth. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 2004;112:43-8.
  • Papatsonis DNM, Kok JH, Samsom JF, Lange FM, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Neonatal morbidity after randomised trial comparing nifedipine with ritodrine in the management of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1):S117.
  • Papatsonis DNM, van Geijn HP, Dekker GA. Nifedipine as a safe and effective tocolytic agent in the treatment of preterm labor (letter). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;183:513.
  • Papatsonis DNM, van Geijn HP, Kok JH, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Adjuvant use of indomethacin for preterm labor: is it safe to use?. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand; 2001 March; Canberra, Australia. 2001:296.
Rayamajhi 2003 {published data only}
  • Rayamajhi R, Pratap K. A comparative study between nifedipine and isoxsuprine in the suppression of preterm labour. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 2003;1(2):85-90.
Read 1986 {published data only}
Salim 2012 {published data only}
  • Garmi G. Nifedipine compared to atosiban for treating preterm labor. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 9 April 2008) 2008.
  • Salim R, Garmi G, Nachum Z, Zafran N, Baram S, Shalev E. Nifedipine compared with atosiban for treating preterm labor: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;120(6):1323-31.
Taherian 2007 {published data only}
  • Taherian A, Dehdar P. Comparison of efficacy and safety of nifedipine versus magnesium sulphate in treatment of preterm labour. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2007;12(3):136-42.
Trabelsi 2008 {published data only}
  • Trabelsi K, Hadj Taib H, Amouri H, Abdennadheur W, Ben Amar H, Kallel W, et al. Nicardipine versus salbutamol in the treatment of premature labor: comparison of their efficacy and side effects. Tunisie Medicale 2008;86(1):43-8.
Valdes 2012 {published data only}
  • Valdes E, Salinas H, Toledo V, Lattes K, Cuellar E, Perucca E, et al. Nifedipine versus fenoterol in the management of preterm labor: a randomized, multicenter clinical study. Gynecologic & Obstetric Investigation 2012;74(2):109-15.
Van De Water 2008 {published data only}
Weerakul 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Zhang 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Zhang X, Liu M. Clinical observations on the prevention and treatment of premature labor with nifedipine. Hua-Hsi i Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao [Journal of West China University of Medical Sciences] 2002;33(2):288-90.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Al-Omari 2006 {published data only}
  • Al-Omari WR, Al-Shammaa HB, Al-Tikriti EM, Ahmed KW. Atosiban and nifedipine in acute tocolysis: A comparative study. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2006;128:129-34.
  • Al-Omari WR, Al-Tikriti E, Al-Shamma H. Atosiban and nifedipine in acute tocolysis, comparative study [abstract]. XVIIIth European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2004 May 12-15; Athens, Greece. 2004:103.
Breart 1979 {published data only}
  • Breart G, Sureau C, Rumeau-Rouquette C. A study of the comparative efficiency of ifenprodil and ritodrine in the treatment of threatening premature labour [translation]. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (Paris) 1979;8(3):261-3.
Carr 1993 {published data only}
Chawanpaiboon 2011 {published data only}
  • Chawanpaiboon S, Pimol K, Sirisomboon R. Comparison of success rate of nifedipine, progesterone, and bed rest for inhibiting uterine contraction in threatened preterm labor. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2011;37(7):787-91.
  • Chawanpaiboon S, Sutantawibul A, Pimol K, Sirisomboon R, Worapitaksanond S. Preliminary study: Comparison of the efficacy of progesterone and nifedipine in inhibiting threatened preterm labour in Siriraj Hospital. Thai Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2009;17:23-9.
Dasari 2007 {published data only}
  • Dasari P, Kodenchery MM. Psychological factors in preterm labor and psychotherapeutic intervention. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 2007;97(3):196-7.
Dunstan-Boone 1990 {published data only}
  • Dunstan-Boone G, Bond A, Thornton YS. A comparison of verapamil vs ritodrine for the treatment of preterm labor. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990; Houston, Texas, USA, 1990:83. 1990:83.
El-Sayed 1998 {published data only}
  • El-Sayed YY, Holbrook RH Jr, Gibson R, Chitkara U, Druzin ML, Baba D. Diltiazem for maintenance tocolysis of preterm labor: comparison to nifedipine in a randomized trial. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 1998;7(5):217-21.
Husslein 2007 {published data only}
  • Husslein P, Cabero Roura L, Dudenhausen JW, Helmer H, Frydman R, Rizzo N, et al. Atosiban versus usual care for the management of preterm labor. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2007;35(4):305-13.
Junejo 2008 {published data only}
  • Junejo N, Mumtaz F, Unar BA. Comparison of salbutamol and nifedipine as a tocolytic agent in the treatment of preterm labor. Journal of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences 2008;7(2):115-9.
Juon 2008 {published data only}
  • Juon AM, Kühn-Velten WN, Burkhardt T, Krahenmann F, Zimmermann R, von Mandach U. Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) as an alternative to slow-release for tocolysis--tolerance and pharmacokinetic profile. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 2008;140:27-32.
Maitra 2007 {published data only}
  • Maitra N, Christian V, Kavishvar A. Tocolytic efficacy of nifedipine versus ritodrine in preterm labor. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2007;97(2):147-8.
  • Maitra N, Christian V, Verma RN, Desai VA. Maternal and fetal cardiovascular side effects of nifedipine and ritodrine used as tocolytics. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India 2007;57(2):131-4.
Malik 2007 {published data only}
  • Malik KK. Comparison of nifedipine with salbutamol as tocolytic agents in preterm labour. Biomedica 2007;23:111-5.
Meyer 1990 {published data only}
Papadopoulos 1997 {published data only}
  • Papadopoulos V, Decavalas G, Tzingounis V. Nifedipine versus ritodrine in the treatment of preterm labor. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Supplement 1997;76(167:1):88.
Piovano 1985 {published data only}
  • Piovano A, Carboni F, Casale O, D'Angelo A, Oses A. Calcium antagonism in the control of adverse reactions during utero-inhibition. Archives of Gynecology 1985;237 Suppl 1:98.
Rodriguez-Escudero 1981 {published data only}
  • Rodriguez-Escudero FJ, Aranguren G, Benito JA. Verapamil to inhibit the cardiovascular side effects of ritodrine. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1981;19:333-6.
Shim 2006 {published data only}
  • Shim JY, Park YW, Yoon BH, Cho YK, Yang JH, Lee Y, et al. Multicentre, parallel group, randomised, single-blind study of the safety and efficacy of atosiban versus ritodrine in the treatment of acute preterm labour in Korean women. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2006;113(11):1228-34.
Smith 1993 {published data only}
  • Smith CS, Woodland MB. Clinical comparison of oral nifedipine and subcutaneous terbutaline for initial tocolysis. American Journal of Perinatology 1993;10:280-4.
  • Woodland MB, Smith C, Byers J, Bolognese R, Weiner S. Clinical comparison of oral nifedipine and subcutaneous terbutaline use for initial tocolysis. Proceedings of 10th Annual meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricans; 1990; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:523.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Chong 1991 {published data only}
  • Yi CS, Kim DK. A comparison of tocolytic effects of ritodrine hydrochloride and nifedipine in the treatment of preterm labour. Journal of Catholic Medical College 1991;44(1):231-8.
de Heus 2009 {published data only}
  • de Heus R, Mulder EJ, Derks JB, Visser GH. The effects of the tocolytics atosiban and nifedipine on fetal movements, heart rate and blood flow. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2009;22(6):485-90.
Dubay 1992 {published data only}
  • Dubay P, Singhal D, Bhagoliwal A, Mishra RS. Assessment of newborns of mothers treated with nifedipine and isoxsuprine. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 1992;42(6):778-80.
Haghighi 1999 {published data only}
Lotfalizadeh 2010 {published data only}
  • Lotfalizadeh M, Teymoori M. Comparison of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate in the treatment of preterm. Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility 2010; Vol. 13, issue 2.
Mathew 1997 {published data only}
  • Mathew S, Ashok. A comparative study of tocolytic effect of nifedipine and isoxsuprine hydrochloride. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76(167):90.
Roy 1993 {published data only}
  • Roy UK, Pan S. Use of calcium antagonist (nifedipine) in premature labour. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1993;91(1):8-10.
Sharma 2000 {published data only}
  • Sharma A. A randomized comparison of nifedipine and ritodrine for suppression of preterm labour [abstract]. XVI FIGO World Congress of Obstetrics & Gynecology; 2000 Sept 3-8; Washington DC, USA. 2000:Book 2; 156.
Sofat 1994 {published data only}
  • Sofat R, Gill BK, Goyal A. Comparison of nifedipine and isoxsuprine in the arrest of preterm labour. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1994;46 Suppl:59.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
APOSTEL III 2011 {published data only}
  • Oudijk MA, Heida KY, Mol BW, van Vliet EOG. Assessment of perinatal outcome by use of specific tocolytics in early labour. Subtitle: Nifedipine versus Atosiban in the treatment of threatened preterm labour. http://www.studies-obsgyn.nl/apostel3/page.asp?page_id=931(accessed 18 November 2013).
Gonzalez 2011 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez Gonzalez L. Administration of Nifidepine versus Atosiban in pregnant women with a threat of premature labor. ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed 21 May 2013) 2011.
Snyder 1989 {published data only}
  • Snyder S. Trial to compare the efficacy of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate as tocolytics. Personal Communication 1989.
Vis 2009 {published data only}
  • Vis J, Opmeer B, van der Post J, van Straalen J, Mol BW, Kok J, et al. Does fibronectin status influence the effectiveness of sustained tocolysis in women with threatened preterm labor?. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011;204(1 Suppl):S199.
  • Vis JY, Wilms FF, Oudijk MA, Porath MM, Scheepers HC, Bloemenkamp KW, et al. Cost-effectiveness of fibronectin testing in a triage in women with threatened preterm labor: alleviation of pregnancy outcome by suspending tocolysis in early labor (APOSTEL-I trial). BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009;9:38.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abbas 2006
  • Abbas OM, Nassar AH, Kanj NA, Usta IM. Acute pulmonary edema during tocolytic therapy with nifedipine. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;195:e3-e4.
Abidin 1992
  • Abidin RR, de Brock AJLL, Gerris JRM, Vermulst AA. NOSI: Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index. Swets en Zeitlinger b.v, Lisse, Switzerland, 1992.
Achenbach TM
  • Achenback TM. Manual for the Child Behaviour Checklist and Revised Child Behaviour Profile. Burlington VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 1983.
Akerman 2007
  • Akerman G, Mignon A, Tsatsaris V, Jacqmin S, Cabrol D, Goffinet F. Pulmonary edema during calcium-channel blockers therapy: role of predisposing or pharmacologic factors?. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology (Paris) 2007;36(4):389-92.
Bain 2013
Coomarasamy 2003
Crowther 2002
  • Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001060]
Doyle 2009
  • Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S, Rouse D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004661.pub3]
Duckitt 2002
  • Duckitt K, Thornton S. Nitric oxide donors for the treatment of preterm labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002860]
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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