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Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

  1. Valeria CC Marinho1,
  2. Helen V Worthington2,*,
  3. Tanya Walsh3,
  4. Jan E Clarkson4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Oral Health Group

Published Online: 11 JUL 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 MAY 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002279.pub2


How to Cite

Marinho VCC, Worthington HV, Walsh T, Clarkson JE. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD002279. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002279.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Queen Mary University of London, Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

  2. 2

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Cochrane Oral Health Group, Manchester, UK

  3. 3

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

  4. 4

    University of Dundee, Dental Health Services Research Unit, Dundee, Scotland, UK

*Helen V Worthington, Cochrane Oral Health Group, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Coupland III Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. helen.worthington@manchester.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 11 JUL 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Arruda 2012 {published data only}
Borutta 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Borutta A, Kunzel W, Rubsam F. The caries-protective efficacy of 2 fluoride varnishes in a 2-year controlled clinical trial [Kariesprotektive Wirksamkeit zweier Fluoridlacke in einer klinisch kontrollierten Zweijahresstudie]. Deutsche Zahn Mund und Kieferheilkunde Zentralblatt 1991;79:543-9.
Borutta 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Borutta A, Hufnagl S, Möbius S, Reuscher G. Caries inhibition of fluoride varnishes among pre-school children: results after one-year. Oralprophylaxe 2006;28(1):8-14.
  • Borutta A, Reuscher G, Hufnagl S, Möbius S. Caries prevention with fluoride varnishes among preschool children [Kariesprophylaxe mit Fluoridlacken bei Vorschulkindern]. Gesundheitswesen 2006;68(11):731-4.
  • Terekhova TN, Borutta A, Shakovets NV, Klenovskaia MI, Minchenia OV. Dependence of caries protective effect of fluoride varnishes applications on first permanent molars in schoolchildren on the intensity of caries of temporary teeth. Stomatologiia 2011;90(6):61-5.
Bravo 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bravo M, Baca P, Llodra JC, Osorio E. A 24-month study comparing sealant and fluoride varnish in caries reduction on different permanent first molar surfaces. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 1997;57:184-6.
  • Bravo M, García Anllo I, Baca P, Llodra JC. A 48-month survival analysis comparing sealant (Delton) with fluoride varnish (Duraphat) in 6- to 8-year-old children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1997;25:247-50.
  • Bravo M, Llodra JC, Baca P, Osorio E. Effectiveness of visible light fissure sealant (Delton) versus fluoride varnish (Duraphat): 24-month clinical trial. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1996;24:42-6.
  • Bravo M, Montero J. Effectiveness of visible light fissure sealant (Delton) versus fluoride varnish (Duraphat): a 9-year clinical trial. Journal of Dental Research 2002;81(Spec Iss A):A-185 (Abs No 1347).
  • Bravo M, Montero J, Bravo JJ, Baca P, Llodra JC. Sealant and fluoride varnish in caries: a randomized trial. Journal of Dental Research 2005;84(12):1138-43.
  • Bravo Pérez M, Llodra Calvo JC, Baca García P, Osorio Ruiz E, Junco Lafuente P. Fissure sealants versus fluorine varnish on the first permanent molars: economic assessment [Selladores de fisuras frente a barniz de flúor en primeros molares permanentes: evaluación económica]. Atención Primaria 1995;15(3):143-7.
Chu 2002 {published data only}
Clark 1985 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Clark DC, Stamm JW, Quee TC, Robert G. Results of the Sherbrooke-Lac Megantic fluoride varnish study after 20 months. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1985;13:61-4.
  • Clark DC, Stamm JW, Robert G, Tessier C. Results of a 32-month fluoride varnish study in Sherbrooke and Lac- Megantic, Canada. Journal of the American Dental Association 1985;111:949-53.
  • Clark DC, Stamm JW, Tessier C, Robert G. The final results of the Sherbrooke-Lac Megantic fluoride varnish study. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1987;53:919-22.
Frostell 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Frostell G, Birkhed D, Edwardsson S, Goldberg P, Petersson LG, Priwe C, et al. Effect of partial substitution of invert sugar for sucrose in combination with Duraphat treatment on caries development in preschool children: the Malmö Study. Caries Research 1991;25(4):304-10.
  • Peyron M, Matsson L, Birkhed D. Progression of approximal caries in primary molars and the effect of Duraphat treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1992;100:314-8.
Gugwad 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gugwad SC, Shah P, Lodaya R, Bhat C, Tandon P, Choudhari S, et al. Caries prevention effect of intensive application of sodium fluoride varnish in molars in children between age 6 and 7 years. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 2011;12:408-13.
Hardman 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hardman MC, Davies GM, Duxbury JT, Davies RM. A cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride varnish as a public health measure to reduce caries in children. Caries Research 2007;41:371-6.
Holm 1979 {published data only}
Holm 1984 {published and unpublished data}
Koch 1975 {published data only}
Lawrence 2008 {published data only}
  • Lawrence HP, Binguis D, Douglas J, McKeown L, Switzer B, Figueiredo R, et al. A 2-year community-randomized controlled trial of fluoride varnish to prevent early childhood caries in Aboriginal children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2008;36:503-16.
  • Lawrence HP, Binguis D, Switzer B, McKeown L, Figueiredo R, Laporte A, et al. Randomized fluoride varnish trial for preventing ECC in Aboriginal communities. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene 2007;41(2):113.
Liu 2012 {published data only}
Milsom 2011 {published data only}
  • Milsom KM, Blinkhorn AS, Walsh T, Worthington HV, Kearney-Mitchell P, Whitehead H, et al. A cluster-randomized controlled trial: fluoride varnish in school children. Journal of Dental Research 2011;90:1306-11.
Modeer 1984 {published and unpublished data}
  • Modeer T, Twetman S, Bergstrand F. Three-year study of the effect of fluoride varnish (Duraphat) on proximal caries progression in teenagers. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1984;92:400-7.
Salazar 2008 {published data only}
  • Salazar M. [Efetividade da aplicação semestral de verniz fluoretado no controle da cárie dentária em pré-escolares: resultados após 12 meses de acompanhamento]. Effectiveness of Bi-Annual Fluoride Varnish Application in the Control of Dental Caries in Preschool Children: Results after 12 Months of Follow-Up [Thesis]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2008.
Sköld 2005 {published data only}
  • Sköld U, Petersson LG, Lith A, Birkhed D. Effect of school-based fluoride varnish programmes on approximal caries in adolescents from different caries risk areas. Caries Research 2005;39(4):273-9.
  • Sköld UM. On caries prevalence and school-based fluoride programmes in Swedish adolescents. Swedish Dental Journal. Supplement 2005;(178):11-75.
Tagliaferro 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Tagliaferro EP, Pardi V, Ambrosano GM, Meneghim Mde C, da Silva SR, Pereira AC. Occlusal caries prevention in high and low risk schoolchildren. A clinical trial. American Journal of Dentistry 2011;24:109-14.
Tewari 1990 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Tewari A, Chawla HS, Utreja A. Caries preventive effect of three topical fluorides (1 1/2 years clinical trial in Chandigarh school children of North India). Journal of the International Association of Dentistry for Children 1984;15:71-81.
  • Tewari A, Chawla HS, Utreja A. Comparative evaluation of the role of NaF, APF & Duraphat topical fluoride applications in the prevention of dental caries--a 2 1/2 years study. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventative Dentistry 1990;8:28-35.
Weintraub 2006 {published and unpublished data}
Yang 2008 {published data only}
  • Yang G, Lin JH, Wang JH, Jiang L. Evaluation of the clinical effect of fluoride varnish in preventing caries of primary teeth. West China Journal of Stomatology 2008;26(2):159-61.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alves 1997 {published data only}
  • Alves AC, Medeiros UV. Fluoride varnish: Therapeutic effect in children of high caries risk. Journal of Dental Research 1997;76(5):951 (Abs No 6).
Autio-Gold 2001 {published data only}
  • Autio J, Courts F. Effect of fluoride varnish on caries progression. Journal of Dental Research 2000;79(Spec Iss 1):210 (Abs No 532).
  • Autio-Gold JT. Caries Prevention in High-Risk Preschool Children in the United States [Thesis]. Oulu, Finland: Oulu University Press, 2005.
  • Autio-Gold JT, Courts F. Assessing the effect of fluoride varnish on early enamel carious lesions in the primary dentition. Journal of the American Dental Association 2001;132:1247-53.
Billy-Pryga 1983 {published data only}
  • Billy-Pryga Z, Zakrzewka-Pysz E, Ilewicz L. [Klinische untersuchung der schutzwirkung des Fluor-Protector-Lackes in der kariesprophylaxe]. Dental Revue 1980;10:16-8.
  • Billy-Pryga Z, Zakrzewska-Pysz E. Clinical evaluation of Duraphat and Fluor-Protector preparations in caries prevention [Ocena kliniczna preparatow Duraphat i Fluor-Protector w profilaktyce prochnicowej]. Czasopismo Stomatologiczne 1983;36(2):109-15.
Bodnar 1984 {published data only}
  • Bodnar Z, Tarjan I, Keri I. Clinical experience with the use of Duraphat lacquer [A "Duraphat" lakk alkalmazasaval kapcsolatos klinikai tapasztalatok]. Fogorvosi Szenile 1984;77:279-82.
Demito 2011 {published data only}
  • Demito CF, Rodrigues GV, Ramos AL, Bowman SJ. Efficacy of a fluoride varnish in preventing white-spot lesions as measured with laser fluorescence. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 2011;45(1):25-9.
Dülgergil 2005 {published data only}
  • Dülgergil CT, Ercan E, Yildirim I. A combined application of ART-fluoride varnish for immigrant junior field-workers: 12-months follow-up field trial in rural Anatolia. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry 2005;3:97-104.
Grodzka 1982 {published and unpublished data}
Hetzer 1973 {published data only}
  • Hetzer G, Irmisch B. Caries prevention using fluoride varnish (Duraphat)--clinical results and experiences [Kariesprotektion durch Fluorlack (Duraphat)--Klinische Ergebnisse und Erfahrungen]. Deutsche Stomatologie 1973;23:917-22.
Heuser 1968 {published data only}
  • Heuser H, Schmidt HF. Dental caries prophylaxis by deep impregnation of the dental enamel with fluorine lac [Zahnkariesprophylaxe durch Tiefenimpragnierung des Zahnschmelzes mit Fluor-Lack]. Stoma Heidelb 1968;21:91-100.
  • Schmidt H. Caries prevention by means of deep impregnation of the dental enamel with fluoride lacquer. Deutsche Stomatologie 1971;21:139-42.
Hochstein 1975 {published data only}
  • Hochstein HJ, Hochstein U, Breitung L. Experience with the fluoride lacker Duraphat [Erfahrungen mit dem Fluorlack Duraphat]. ZWR 1975;84:26-30.
Ivanova 1990 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ivanova EN. The comparative efficacy of local anticaries agents [Sravnitel'naia effektivnost' mestnykh protivokarioznykh sredtsv]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1990;69:60-1.
Ji 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ji PH, Xu QL, Ba Y. Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2007;16:374-6.
Kolehmainen 1979 {published data only}
  • Kolehmainen L, Kerosuo E. The clinical effect of application of a urethane lacquer containing silane fluorine. A one-year study. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 1979;75:69-71.
Kolehmainen 1981 {published data only}
Kunin 1991 {published data only}
  • Kunin AA, Kharin OV. The use of a fluoride varnish and helium-neon laser light in preventing caries of the primary teeth [Ispol'zovanie ftoristogo laka i sveta gelii-neonovogo lazera v profilaktike kariesa vremennykh zubov]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1991;(4):71-2.
Lagutina 1978 {published data only}
  • Lagutina NJ, Vorobjev VS, Grabetskij AA, Stepanov AV. Clinical evaluation of home fluoride-containing varnish. Quintessence International 1978;9:63-6.
Lieser 1978 {published data only}
  • Lieser O, Schmidt HF. Caries preventive effect of fluoride lacquer after several year's use in children [Kariesprophylaktische Wirkung von Fluorlack nach mehrjahriger Anwendung in der Jugendzahnpflege]. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 1978;33:176-8.
Lindquist 1989 {published data only}
  • Lindquist B, Edward S, Torell P, Krasse B. Effect of different carriers preventive measures in children highly infected with mutans streptococci. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1989;97:330-7.
Maiwald 1974 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Maiwald HJ. Topical application of fluoride varnish for dental caries prevention in collectives following a 3-year testing period [Lokalapplikation von Fluorschulzlack zur Kariespravention in Kollektiven nach dreij''ahriger Kontrollzeit]. Stomatologie der DDR 1974;24:123-5.
  • Maiwald HJ, Geiger L. Local application of fluorine protective varnish for caries prevention in collectivities [Lokalapplikation von Fluorschutzlack zur Kariesprophylaxe in Kollektiven]. Deutsche Stomatologie 1973;23:56-63.
Maiwald 1978 {published data only}
  • Maiwald HJ, Kunzel W, Weatherell J. The use of a fluoride varnish in caries prevention. Journal of the International Association of Dentistry for Children 1978;9:31-5.
Mari 1988 {published data only}
  • Mari A, Toth K, Kiss Z, Szita V. The effect of Fluor Protector lacquer on the primary and permanent teeth in children consuming fluoridated table salt [A Fluor Protector lakk hatasa fluorozott sot fogyaszto gyermekek tej- es maradofogazatanak allapotara]. Fogorvosi Szemle 1988;81:225-30.
Mari 1988a {published data only}
  • Mari A, Toth K, Kiss Z, Savay G. The effect of Duraphat lacquer on the condition of the permanent teeth in children consuming fluoridated table salt [A Duraphat lakk hatasa fluorozott sot fogyaszto gyermek maradofogazatanak allapotara]. Fogorvosi Szemle 1988;81:169-74.
Murray 1977 {published data only}
Pashaev 1977 {published data only}
  • Pashaev KP. Comparative assessment of the caries prevention effectiveness of different fluorine preparations [Sravnitel'naia otsenka kariesprofilakticheskoi effektivnosti razlichnykh preparatov ftora]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1977;56:82-4.
Petersson 1998 {published data only}
Ramos 1995 {published data only}
  • Ramos SB. Effect of Fortnightly Rinsing with a 0.2 per cent NaF Solution and a Fluoride Varnish with 5 per cent NaF in Dental Caries Prevention: Comparative Study in Students of the Northern Region of Sao Paulo city, Brazil, 1992-1993 [Thesis]. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1995.
Ramos-Gomez 2012 {published data only}
  • Ramos-Gomez FJ, Gansky SA, Featherstone JD, Jue B, Gonzalez-Beristain R, Santo W, et al. Mother and youth access (MAYA) maternal chlorhexidine, counselling and paediatric fluoride varnish randomized clinical trial to prevent early childhood caries. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012;22(3):169-79.
Riethe 1977 {published data only}
  • Riethe P, Streib W, Schubring G. Clinical trials of Nuva Seal, Epoxylite 9070 and Fluor-Protector [Klinische Untersuchungen mit Nuva Seal, Epoxylite 9070 und Fluor-Protector]. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 1977;32:853-5.
Rodríguez Miró 1988 {published data only}
  • Rodríguez Miró MJ, Vega Valdés D. Evaluation of semiannual combined-treatment with fluoride-chlorhexidine varnish and toothbrushing with chlorhexidine toothpaste for 15 days every 3 months in hypercariogenic children [Valoración del tratamiento combinado de aplicaciones semestrales de barniz-flúor-clorhexidine y del cepillado dental por 15 días cada tres meses con la crema dental con clorhexidine en niños hipercariogénicos]. Revista Cubana de Estomatología 1988;25(3):28-35.
Ruszynska 1978 {published data only}
  • Ruszynska H, George B, Anholcer H, Haber Milewska T. Clinical evaluation of fluor-protector varnish in dental caries prevention [Badania kliniczne nad skutecznoscia stosowania lakieru fluor-protektor w zapobieganiu prochnicy]. Czasopismo Stomatologiczne 1978;31:1021-5.
Salem 1979 {published data only}
  • Salem LV, Raschio AJ, Montoya VC. [Klinische untersuchung über die karieshemmende langzeitwirkung des Fluor-Protector-Lackes]. Kariesprophylaxe 1979;1:145-8.
Schioth 1981 {published data only}
  • Schioth JT. Effect of fluoride lacquering on the need of dental care in a group of adolescent school pupils [Effekten av fluorlakkering pa tannbehandlings-behovet hos en gruppe ungdomsskoleelever]. Norske Tannlaegeforenings Tidende 1981;91:123-6.
Schmidt 1970 {published data only}
  • Schmidt HF. Caries prophylaxis by means of local application of sodium fluoride with special reference to long term fluoridation [Untersuchungen zur Prophylaxe der Zahnkaries durch ortliche Applikation von Natriumfluorid unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Langzeitfluoridierung]. Stoma Heidelb 1970;23:5-40.
Seppä 1982 {published data only}
  • Birkeland JM. Trials - results - conclusions. Duraphat - Fluor Protector [Forsok - funn - konklusjon. Duraphat - Fluor Protector]. Den Norske Tannlaegeforenings Tidende 1981;91(10):368-9.
  • Seppä L, Hausen H, Luoma H. Relationship between caries and fluoride uptake by enamel from two fluoride varnishes in a community with fluoridated water. Caries Research 1982;16:404-12.
  • Seppä L, Hausen H, Tuutti H, Luoma H. Effect of a sodium fluoride varnish on the progress of initial caries lesions. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1983;91:96-8.
  • Seppä L, Tuutti H, Luoma H. A 2-year report on caries prevention by fluoride varnishes in a community with fluoridated water. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1981;89:143-8.
  • Seppä L, Tuutti H, Luoma H. Post-treatment effect of fluoride varnishes in children with a high prevalence of dental caries in a community with fluoridated water. Journal of Dental Research 1984;63:1221-2.
  • Seppä L, Tuutti H, Luoma H. Three-year report on caries prevention of using fluoride varnishes for caries risk children in a community with fluoridated water. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1982;90:89-94.
Shobha 1987 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Shobha T, Nandlal B, Prabhakar AR, Sudha P. Fluoride varnish versus acidulated phosphate fluoride for schoolchildren in Manipal. Journal of the Indian Dental Association 1987;59:157-60.
Slade 2011 {published data only}
  • Roberts-Thomson KF, Slade GD, Bailie RS, Endean C, Simmons B, Leach AJ, et al. A comprehensive approach to health promotion for the reduction of dental caries in remote Indigenous Australian children: a clustered randomised controlled trial. International Dental Journal 2010;60(3 Suppl 2):245-9.
  • Slade GD, Bailie RS, Roberts-Thomson K, Leach AJ, Raye I, Endean C, et al. Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2011;39(1):29-43.
Splieth 2000 {published data only}
  • Splieth CH, Baekken S, Rosin M. Effectiveness of different topical fluoride applications in schoolchildren. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2000;1:107-42.
Suntsov 1991 {published data only}
  • Suntsov VG, Distel' VA, Zhorova TN, Buiankina RG, Toropov VN, Bulanova EL, et al. The trace efficacy of dental caries prevention in children [Sledovaia effektivnost' profilaktiki kariesa zubov u detei]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1991;(2):69-71.
Suwansingha 2011 {published data only}
  • Suwansingha O, Rirattanapong P. Effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted of permanent molar in high caries risk. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2012;43(3):808-13.
Todorashko 1983 {published data only}
  • Todorashko OV. Results of the combined use of remodent and fluorine lacquer for dental caries prevention in preschoolers [Rezul'taty sochetannogo primeneniia remodenta i ftorlaka dlia profilaktiki kariesa zubov u doshkol'nikov]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1983;62:12-3.
Tranaeus 2001 {published data only}
  • Tranaeus S, Al-Khateeb S, Björkman S, Twetman S, Angmar-Månsson B. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor incipient lesions in caries-active children. A comparative study of remineralisation by fluoride varnish and professional cleaning. European Journal of Oral Sciences 2001;109:71-5.
Treide 1980 {published and unpublished data}
  • Treide A, Hebenstreit W, Gunther A. Collective preschool caries prevention using a fluoride-containing varnish [Kollektive Kariespravention im Vorschulalter unter Verwendung eines fluoridhaltigen Lackes]. Stomatologie der DDR 1980;30:734-9.
van Eck 1984 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Groeneveld A, Theuns HM, Kwant GW. Effect of a fluoride-containing lacquer on dental caries. Journal of Dental Research 1982;61:569.
  • Theuns HM, Groeneveld A, van Eck AA. Clinical experimental field trials of the caries-preventive effect of a fluoride lacquer [Een klinisch experimenteel veldonderzoek naar het caries- preventieve effect van een fluoridelak]. Netherlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde 1985;92:66-9.
  • van Eck AA, Theuns HM, Groeneveld A. Effect of annual application of polyurethane lacquer containing silane-fluoride. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1984;12:230-2.
Wacińska-Drabińska 1987 {published data only}
  • Wacińska-Drabińska M. Effect of Fluor-Protector varnish on the inhibition of the carious process in milk teeth [Wplyw lakieru Fluor-Protector na zahamowanie procesu prochnicowego w zebach mlecznych]. Czasopismo Stomatologiczne 1987;40(8):528-32.
Wegner 1976 {published data only}
Winter 1975 {published data only}
  • Winter K. Caries prophylaxis by local application of sodium fluoride lacquer [Kariesprophylaxe durch Lokalapplikation von Natriumfluorid-Lack]. Zahnarztlicher Gesundheitsdienst 1975;(3):1-2.
  • Winter K. Caries prophylaxis by means of local application of sodium fluoride lacquer [Kariesprophylaxe durch Lokalapplikation von Natriumfluorid-Lack]. Zahnarztliche Mitteilungren 1975;65:215-21.
Wojtowicz 1986 {published data only}
  • Wojtowicz D, Banach J. Clinical evaluation of Duraphat varnish in the prevention of dental caries in children and in the control of cervical hypersensitivity in adults [Ocena kliniczna laku Duraphat w profilaktyce prochnicy zebow u dzieci oraz w zwalczaniu wrazliwosci szyjek zebow u doroslych]. Czasopismo Stomatologiczne 1986;39:213-8.
Xhemnica 2008 {published data only}
  • Xhemnica L, Sulo D, Rroço R, Hysi D. Fluoride varnish application: a new prophylactic method in Albania. Effect on enamel carious lesions in permanent dentition. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2008;9:93-6.
Zimmer 1999 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Macpherson 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • Macpherson L. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish (Duraphat®) with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile Oral Health Improvement Programme: an RCT. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01674933.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ammari 2003
  • Ammari AB, Bloch-Zupan A, Ashley PF. Systematic review of studies comparing the anti-caries efficacy of children's toothpaste containing 600 ppm of fluoride or less with high fluoride toothpastes of 1,000 ppm or above. Caries Research 2003;37(2):85-92.
Azarpazhooh 2008
  • Azarpazhooh A, Main PA. Fluoride varnish in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 2008;74(1):73-9.
Bader 2004
Bartizek 2001
  • Bartizek RD, Gerlach RW, Faller RV, Jacobs SA, Bollmer BW, Biesbrock AR. Reduction in dental caries with four concentrations of sodium fluoride in a dentifrice: a meta-analysis evaluation. Journal of Clinical Dentisty 2001;12(3):57-62.
Bawden 1998
Beltrán-Aguilar 2000
  • Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Goldstein JW, Lockwood SA. Fluoride varnishes. A review of their clinical use, cariostatic mechanism, efficacy and safety. Journal of the American Dental Association 2000;131(5):589-96.
Bratthall 1996
Burt 1998
Carvalho 2010
  • Carvalho DM,  Salazar M,  Oliveira BH,  Coutinho ES. Fluoride varnishes and decrease in caries incidence in preschool children: a systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 2010;13(1):139-49.
Chaves 2002
Chen 1995
  • Chen MS. Oral health of disadvantaged populations. In: Cohen LK, Gift CH editor(s). Disease Prevention and Oral Health Promotion. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1995:152-212.
Clark 1982
Clark 1985a
  • Clark DC, Hanley JA, Stamm JW, Weinstein PL. An empirically based system to estimate the effectiveness of caries- preventive agents. A comparison of the effectiveness estimates of APF gels and solutions, and fluoride varnishes. Caries Research 1985;19:83-95.
De Bruyn 1987
de Liefde 1998
  • de Liefde B. The decline of caries in New Zealand over the past 40 years. New Zealand Dental Journal 1998;94:109-13.
Dubey 1965
Egger 1997
Featherstone 1988
  • Featherstone JDB, Ten Cate JM. Physicochemical aspects of fluoride-enamel interactions. In: Ekstrand J, Fejerskov O, Silverstone LM editor(s). Fluoride in Dentistry. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1988:125-49.
Featherstone 1999
Glass 1982
  • Glass RL. The first international conference on the declining prevalence of dental caries. Journal of Dental Research 1982;61:1301-83.
Harbord 2005
Helfenstein 1994
Higgins 2011
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Horowitz 1996
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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