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Intervention Review

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Amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A in children and the elderly

  1. Márcia G Alves Galvão2,
  2. Marilene Augusta Rocha Crispino Santos2,
  3. Antonio JL Alves da Cunha1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 18 JAN 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 27 JUN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002745.pub3

How to Cite

Alves Galvão MG, Rocha Crispino Santos MA, Alves da Cunha AJL. Amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A in children and the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002745. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002745.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Pediatrics, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  2. 2

    Municipal Secretariat of Health, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

*Antonio JL Alves da Cunha, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Edificio do CCS - Bloco K - 2o. andar, Sala K49, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Brazil.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 JAN 2012


This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (21 NOV 2014)


References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Clover 1986b {published data only}
  • Clover RD, Crawford SA, Abell TD, Ramsey CN Jr, Glezen WP, Couch RB. Effectiveness of rimantadine prophylaxis of children within families. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1986;140(7):706-9. [: CN-00043175]
Clover 1991 {published data only}
Crawford 1988 {published data only}
Finklea 1967 {published data only}
  • Finklea JF, Hennessy AV, Davenport FM. A field trial of amantadine prophylaxis in naturally-occurring acute respiratory illness. American Journal of Epidemiology 1967;85:403-12. [: 5337715]
Gravenstein 2005 {published data only}
  • Gravenstein S, Drinka P, Osterweil D, Schilling M, Krause P, Elliot M, et al. Inhaled zanamivir versus rimantadine for the control of influenza in a highly vaccinated long-term care population. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2005;6:359-66.
Hall 1987 {published data only}
  • Hall CB, Dolin R, Gala CL, Markovitz DM, Zhang YQ, Madore PH, et al. Children with influenza A infection: treatment with rimantadine. Pediatrics 1987;80:275-82. [: CN-00049308]
Kitamoto 1968 {published data only}
  • Kitamoto O. Therapeutic effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in influenza A2-double-blind studies. Japanese Journal of Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases 1968;15(1):17-26. [: CN-00004214]
Kitamoto 1971 {published data only}
  • Kitamoto O. Therapeutic effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in naturally occurring Hong Kong influenza - double-blind studies. Japanese Journal of Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases 1971;17(1):1-7. [: CN-0000725]
Monto 1995 {published data only}
  • Monto AS, Ohmit SE, Hornbuckle K, Pearce CL. Safety and efficacy of long-term use of rimantadine for prophylaxis of type A influenza in nursing homes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995;39:2224-8. [: CN-00121619]
Patriarca 1984 {published data only}
  • Patriarca PA, Kater NA, Kendal AP, Bregman DJ, Smith JD, Sikes RK. Safety of prolonged administration of rimantadine hydrochloride in prophylaxis of influenza A virus infections in nursing homes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1984;26(1):101-3. [: CN-00035517]
Payler 1984 {published data only}
  • Payler DK, Purdham PA. Influenza A prophylaxis with amantadine in a boarding school. The Lancet 1984;1(8375):502-4.
Schilling 1998 {published data only}
  • Schilling M, Polvinelli L, Krause P, Gravenstein M, Ambrozaitis A, Jones HH, et al. Efficacy of zanamivir for chemoprophylaxis of nursing home influenza outbreaks. Vaccine 1998;16:1771-4. [: 9778755]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
AAPCID 2007 {published data only}
Allen 2006 {published data only}
  • Allen UD, Aoki FY, Stiver HG. The use of antiviral drugs for influenza: recommended guidelines for practitioners. Canadian Journal of infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 2006;17(5):273-84.
Anonymous 2006 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Antiviral drugs in influenza: an adjunct to vaccination in some situations. Prescrire International 2006;15(81):21-30.
Anonymous 2007 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Oseltamivir: new indication. Prevention of influenza in at-risk children: vaccination is best. Prescrire International 2007;16(87):9-11.
Aoky 1985a {published data only}
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    Direct Link:
Aoky 1985b {published data only}
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Aoky 1986 {published data only}
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Atmar 1990 {published data only}
  • Atmar RL, Greenberg SB, Quarles JM, Wilson SZ, Tyler B, Feldman S, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of rimantadine small-particle aerosol. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1990;34(11):2228-33. [: CN-00073727]
Baker 1969 {published data only}
  • Baker LM, Shock MP, Iezzoni DG. The therapeutic efficacy of Symmetrel (amantadine hydrochloride) in naturally occurring influenza A2 respiratory illness. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 1969;68(12):1244-50. [: CN-00003808]
Bantia 2010 {published data only}
  • Bantia S, Kellogg D, Parker CD, Babu YS. Combination of peramivir and rimantadine demonstrate synergistic antiviral effects in sub-lethal influenza A (H3N2) virus mouse model. Antiviral Research 2010;88(3):276-80.
Barr 2007 {published data only}
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Barr 2007b {published data only}
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Bauer 2007 {published data only}
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Belenky 1998 {published data only}
  • Belenky S, Gentile D, Doyle W, Patel A, Hayden F, Skoner D. Rimantadine effect on specific serum hemagglutination inhibition and nasal antibodies in experimental influenza virus exposure of adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157(3):A173. [: CN-00428220]
Bloomfield 1970 {published data only}
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Boltz 2010 {published data only}
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Brady 1990 {published data only}
  • Brady MT, Sears SD, Pacini DL, Samorodin R, DePamphilis J, Oakes M, et al. Safety and prophylactic efficacy of low-dose rimantadine in adults during an influenza A epidemic. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1990;34(9):1633-6. [: CN-00073150]
Brammer 2009 {published data only}
Bricaire 1990 {published data only}
  • Bricaire F, Hannoun C, Boissel JP. Prevention of influenza A. Effectiveness and tolerance of rimantadine hydrochloride [Prevention de la grippe A. Efficacite et tolerance du chlor hydrate de rimantadine]. Nouvelle Presse Médicale 1990;19(2):69-72. [: CN-00065369]
Bryson 1990 {published data only}
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Burch 2009 {published data only}
  • Burch J, Paulden M, Conti S, Stock C, Corbett M, Welton NJ, et al. Antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2009;13(58):1-265.
Cady 2011 {published data only}
  • Cady SD, Wang J, Wu Y, Degrado WF, Hong M. Specific binding of adamantane drugs and direction of their polar amines in the pore of the influenza M2 transmembrane domain in lipid bilayers and dodecylphosphocholine micelles determined by NMR spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011;133(12):4274-84.
Callmander 1968 {published data only}
  • Callmander E, Hellgren L. Amantadine hydrochloride as a prophylactic in respiratory infections. A double-blind investigation of its clinical use and serology. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and The Journal of New Drugs 1968;8(3):186-9.
Carter 2008 {published data only}
  • Carter NJ, Plosker GL. Prepandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 (split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted) [Prepandrix(trademark)]: a review of its use as an active immunization against influenza A subtype H5N1 virus. BioDrugs 2008;22(5):279-92.
Cayley 2010 {published data only}
Chawla 2009 {published data only}
  • Chawla R, Sharma RK, Bhardwaj JR. Influenza A (H1N1) outbreak and challenges for pharmacotherapy. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2009;53(2):113-26.
Chemaly 2006 {published data only}
  • Chemaly RF, Ghosh S, Bodey GP, Rohatgi N, Safdar A, Keating MJ el al. Respiratory viral infections in adults with hematologic malignancies and human stem cell transplantation recipients: a retrospective study at a major cancer center. Medicine (Baltimore) 2006;85(5):278-87.
Chen 2007 {published data only}
Cheng 2004 {published data only}
Cheng 2009 {published data only}
  • Cheng HY. Assessing the quality of evidence from randomized, controlled dug and nutritional supplement trials conducted among nursing home residents between 1968 and 2004: what can we learn?. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2009;10(1):28-35.
Choi 2009 {published data only}
Chou 2008 {published data only}
Cohen 1976 {published data only}
  • Cohen A, Togo Y, Khakoo R, Waldman R, Sigel M. Comparative clinical and laboratory evaluation of the prophylactic capacity of ribavirin, amantadine hydrochloride, and placebo in induced human influenza type A. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1976;133(Suppl):A114-20. [: CN-0014092]
Cohen 2006 {published data only}
  • Cohen J, Cairns C, Paquette C, Faden L. Compairing patient access to pharmaceuticals in the UK and US. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 2006;5(3):177-87.
Cowling 2008 {published data only}
  • Cowling BJ, Fung ROP, Cheng CKY, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Seto WH, et al. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PLoS ONE 2008;3:5.
Curran 2010 {published data only}
  • Curran MP,  Leroux-Roels I. Inactivated split-virion seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix®): a review of its use in the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults and the elderly. Drugs 2010;70(12):1519-43.
Dawkins 1968 {published data only}
  • Dawkins AT Jr, Gallager LR, Togo Y, Hornick RB, Harris BA. Studies on induced influenza in man. II. Double-blind study designed to assess the prophylactic efficacy of an analogue of amantadine hydrochloride. Journal of the American Medical Association 1968;203:1095-9. [: CN-00001969]
De la Camara 2007 {published data only}
  • De La Camara R, Lopez-Jimenez J, Vallejo C, Vazquez L, Luis Perez J, Varo E, et al. Update on viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica 2007;25(Suppl 1):2-11.
DeLaney 2010 {published data only}
  • DeLaney E, Smith MJ, Harvey BT, Pelletier KJ, Aquino MP, Stone JM, et al. Extracorporeal life support for pandemic influenza: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pandemic management. Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology 2010;42(4):268-80.
Denys 1963 {published data only}
  • Denys A, Szram S, Tkaczewski W, Niedzielska H, Bochenska J, Kulawczyk M, et al. Antiviral activity of rimantadine, virological, pathomorphological, and clinical studies. Acta Microbiologica Polonica. Series A: Microbiologia Generalis 1973;5:217-20. [: CN-00009559]
Dolamore 2003 {published data only}
  • Dolamore MJ. Influenza prophylaxis in long-tern care facility: a case-control study of the risk factors for adverse drug reactions to amantadine. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 2003;64(9):753. [MEDLINE: 2004048279]
Dolin 1982 {published data only}
  • Dolin R, Reichman RC, Madore HP, Maynard R, Linton PN, Webber-Jones J. A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. The New England Journal of Medicine 1982;307(10):580-4. [: CN-00201667]
Doyle 1998 {published data only}
  • Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, Patel A, Hayden FG. Effect of rimantadine on induced specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody and nasal IgA titres after experimental exposure of adults to influenza A virus. Antiviral Therapy 1998;3(1):19-23. [: CN-00201667]
Drinevskii 1998 {published data only}
  • Drinevskii VP, Osidak LV, Natsina VK, Afanas'eva OI, Mil'kint KK, Danini GV, et al. Chemotherapeutics for treatment of influenza and other viral respiratory tract infections in children [Khimiopreparaty v terapii grippa i drugikh respiratomykh infektsii u detei]. Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiia 1998;43(9):29-34. [: CN-00332458]
Drinka 1998 {published data only}
  • Drinka PJ, Gravenstein S, Schilling M, Krause P, Miller BA, Shult P. Duration of antiviral prophylaxis during nursing home outbreaks of influenza. A comparison of 2 protocols. Archives of Internal Medicicine 1998;158(19):2155-9. [: CN-00156407]
Enger 2004 {published data only}
Falagas 2010 {published data only}
  • Falagas ME, Vouloumanou EK, Baskouta E, Rafailidis PI, Polyzos K, Rello J. Treatment options for 2009 H1N1 influenza: evaluation of the published evidence. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2010;35(5):421-30.
Farlow 2008 {published data only}
Fiore 2008 {published data only}
Furuta 2005 {published data only}
Galabov 2006 {published data only}
  • Galabov AS, Simeonova L, Gegova G. Rimantadine and oseltamivir demonstrate synergistic combination effect in an experimental infection with type A (H3N2) influenza virus in mice. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy 2006;17(5):251-8.
Galbraith 1969a {published data only}
  • Galbraith AW, Oxford JS, Schild GC, Watson GI. Protective effect of 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride on influenza A2 infections in the family environment: a controlled double-blind study. Lancet 1969;2(7629):1026-8. [: CN-00003903]
Galbraith 1969b {published data only}
  • Galbraith AW, Oxford JS, Schild GC, Watson GI. Study of 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride used apophylactically during the Hong-Kong influenza epidemic in the family environment. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1969;41(3):677-82. [: 00004308]
Galbraith 1971 {published data only}
  • Galbraith AW, Oxford JS, Schild GC, Potter CW, Watson GI. Therapeutic effect of 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride in naturally occurring influenza A 2-Hong Kong infection. A controlled double-blind study. Lancet 1971;2(7716):113-5. [: 00006011]
Galbraith 1973 {published data only}
  • Galbraith AW, Schild GC, Potter CW, Watson GI. The therapeutic effect of amantadine in influenza occurring during the winter of 1971-2 assessed by double-blind study. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1973;23(126):34-7. [: CN-00008567]
Garman 2004 {published data only}
Gerth 1966 {published data only}
  • Gerth HJ. Influenza prevention with 1-amino-adamantan-hydrochloride.II [Grippeprophylaxe mit 1-Amino-adamantan-hydrochlorid]. Die Medizinische Welt 1966;2:96-100. [: CN-00000687]
Griffin 2004 {published data only}
  • Griffin SDC, Harvey R, Clarke DS, Barclay WS, Harris M, Rowlands DJ. A conserved basic loop in hepatitis C virus p7 protein is required for amantadine-sensitive ion channel activity in mammalian cells but is dispensable for localization to mitochondria. The Journal of General Virology 2004;85(2):451-61. [MEDLINE: 2004096848]
Guo 2007 {published data only}
Hay 1986 {published data only}
  • Hay AJ, Zambon MC, Wolstenholme AJ, Skehel JJ, Smith MH. Molecular basis of resistance of influenza A viruses to amantadine. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1986;18:19-29. [: 00341317]
Hayden 1979 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Hall WJ, Douglas RGJ, Speers DM. Amantadine aerosols in normal volunteers; pharmacology and safety testing. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1979;16(5):644-50. [: CN-00341319]
Hayden 1980 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Hall WJ, Douglas FG Jr. Therapeutic effects of aerolized amantadine in naturally acquired infection due to influenza A virus. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1980;141(5):535-42. [: CN-00022657]
Hayden 1981 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Gwaltney JM Jr, Van de Castle RL, Adams KF, Giordani F. Comparative toxicity of amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride in healthy adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1981;19(2):226-33. [: CN-00029040]
Hayden 1982 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Zylidnikov DM, Iljenko VI, Padolka YV. Comparative therapeutic effect of aerolized and oral rimantadine HCl in experimental human influenza A virus infection. Antiviral Research 1982;2(3):147-53. [: CN-00029306]
Hayden 1985 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Minocha A, Spyker DA, Hoffman HE. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride in young and elderly adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1985;28(2):216-21. [: CN-00341320]
Hayden 1986 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Monto AS. Oral rimantadine hydrochloride therapy of influenza A virus H3N2 subtype infection in adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1986;29(2):339-41. [: CN-0017 4577]
Hayden 1989 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Belshe RB, Clover RB, Hay AJ, Oakes MG, Soo W. Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families. New England Journal of Medicine 1989;321(25):1696-702. [: CN-00064208]
Hayden 1991 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Sperber SJ, Belshe RB, Clover RD, Hay AJ, Pyke S. Recovery of drug-resistant influenza A virus during therapeutic use of rimantadine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1991;35:1741-7. [: CN-00079594]
Hayden 2000 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Gubareva LV, Monto AS, Klein TC, Elliott MJ, Hammond JM, et al. Inhaled zanamivir for the prevention of influenza in families. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(18):1282-9. [: CN-00399563]
Hayden 2006 {published data only}
  • Hayden FG, Pavia AT. Antiviral management of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;194(Suppl 2):155-61.
Hornick 1969 {published data only}
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Hota 2007 {published data only}
Hout 2006 {published data only}
  • Hout DR, Gomez LM, Pacyniak E, Miller JM, Hill MS, Stephens EB. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) susceptible to rimantadine. Virology 2006;348(2):449-61.
Hout 2006b {published data only}
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Hurt 2007 {published data only}
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Ilyushina 2005 {published data only}
Ilyushina 2006 {published data only}
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Ilyushina 2007 {published data only}
  • Ilyushina NA, Gorkova EA, Russell CJ, Hoffmann E, Webster RG. Contribution of H7 haemagglutinin to amantadine resistance and infectivity of influenza virus. Journal of General Virology 2007;88(4):1266-74.
Ilyushina 2007b {published data only}
  • Ilyushina NA, Hoffmann E, Solomon R, Webster RG, Govorkova EA. Amantadine-oseltamivir combination therapy for H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. Antiviral Therapy 2007;12(3):363-70.
Ison 2006 {published data only}
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Ito 2000 {published data only}
  • Ito S, Iijima N, Kanemaki K, Hayashi S, Hujii S, Watanabe T, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride in patients with epidemic influenza A virus infection. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi [Journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society] 2000;38(12):897-902. [: CN: 00327106]
Ito 2006 {published data only}
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Jefferson 2006a {published data only}
Jefferson 2009a {published data only}
  • Jefferson T, Demicheli V, Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti D. Amantadine and rimantadine for preventing and treating influenza A in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001169.pub3; PUBMED: PMID: 12137620]
Jones 2006 {published data only}
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Kalia 2008 {published data only}
Kantor 1980 {published data only}
  • Kantor RJ, Stevens D, Potts DW, Noble GR. Prevention of influenza A/USSR/77 (H1N1): an evaluation of the side effects and efficacy of amantadine in recruits at Fort Sam Houston. Military Medicine 1980;145(5):312-5. [: CN-00176323]
Kawai 2005 {published data only}
  • Kawai N, Ikematsu H, Iwaki N, Satoh I, Kawashima T, Maeda T, et al. Factors influencing the effects of oseltamivir and amantadine for the treatment of influenza: a multicenter study from Japan of the 2002-2003 influenza season. Clinical Infectious Diseases: an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2005;40:1309-16.
Khakoo 1981 {published data only}
  • Khakoo RA, Watson GW, Waldman RH, Ganguly R. Effect of inosiplex (Isoprinosine (Reg. trademark)) on induced human influenza A infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1981;7(4):389-97. [: CN-00192285]
Kim 2011 {published data only}
  • Kim SH, Hong SB, Yun SC, Choi WI, Ahn JJ, Lee YJ, et al. Corticosteroid treatment in critically ill patients with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection: analytic strategy using propensity scores. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(9):1207-14.
Kirkby 2010 {published data only}
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Kiso 2004 {published data only}
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Knight 1969 {published data only}
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Knight 1970a {published data only}
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Knight 1970b {published data only}
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Korenke 2008 {published data only}
Krylov 1978 {published data only}
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Kulichenko 2003 {published data only}
  • Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshikina EN, Wikman G. A randomized controlled study of Kan Jang versus amantadine in the treatment of influenza in Volgograd. Journal of Erbal Pharmacotherapy 2003;3(1):77-93. [: CN-00473824]
Langlet 2009 {published data only}
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Le Tissier 2005 {published data only}
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Leeming 1969 {published data only}
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Leone 2005 {published data only}
Leung 1979 {published data only}
  • Leung P, McIntosh K, Chai H. Amantadine prophylaxis against influenza A/USSR in children with chronic asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1979;63(3):140. [: CN-00353210]
Lim 2007 {published data only}
Lin 2006 {published data only}
  • Lin CH, Huang YC, Chi CH, Huang CG, Tsao KC, Lin TY. Neurologic manifestations in children with influenza B virus infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2006;25(11):1081-3.
Linder 2005 {published data only}
Lipatov 2007 {published data only}
  • Lipatov AS, Evseenko VA, Yen HL, Zaykovskaya AV, Durimanov AG, Zolotykh SI, et al. Influenza (H5N1) viruses in poultry, Russian Federation, 2005-2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007;13(4):539-46.
Little 1976 {published data only}
  • Little JW, Hall WJ, Douglas RG Jr, Hyde RW, Speers DM. Amantadine effect on peripheral airways abnormalities in influenza A study in 15 students with natural influenza A infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 1976;85(2):177-82. [: CN-00014385]
Little 1978 {published data only}
  • Little JW, Hall WJ, Douglas RG Jr, Mudholkar GS, Speer DM, Patel K. Airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza A infection. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1978;118(2):295-303. [: CN-00018956]
Lutz 2005 {published data only}
  • Lutz A, Dyall J, Olivo PD, Pekosz A. Virus-inducible reporter genes as a tool for detecting and quantifying influenza A virus replication. Journal of Virological Methods 2005;126(1-2):13-20.
Lynd 2005 {published data only}
Machado 2004 {published data only}
Mallia 2007 {published data only}
  • Mallia P, Johnston SL. Influenza infection and COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2007;2(1):55-64.
Maricich 2004 {published data only}
  • Maricich SM, Neul JL, Lotze TE, Cazacu AC, Uyeki TM, Demmler GJ, et al. Neurologic complications associated with influenza A in children during the 2003-2004 influenza season in Houston, Texas. Pediatrics 2004;114(5):626-33.
Mase 2007 {published data only}
  • Mase M, Eto M, Imai K, Tsukamoto K, Yamaguchi S. Characterization of H9N2 influenza A viruses isolated from chicken products imported into Japan from China. Epidemiology and Infection 2007;135(3):386-91.
Mate 1970 {published data only}
  • Mate J, Simon M, Juvancz I, Takatsy G, Hollos I, Farkas E. Prophylatic use of amantadine during Hong Kong influenza epidemic. Acta Microbiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 1970;17(3):285-96.
Mate 1971 {published data only}
  • Mate J, Simon M, Juvancz I. Use of Viregyt (amantadine hydrochloride) in the treatment of epidemic influenza. Therapia Hungarica 1971;19(3):117-21. [: CN-00006813]
Matheson 2007 {published data only}
Matsuya 2007 {published data only}
  • Matsuya Y, Sasaki K, Ochiai H, Nemoto H. Synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydrofuran-fused perhydrophenanthrenes as a new anti-influenza agent having novel structural characteristic. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2007;15(1):424-32.
Matthews 2004 {published data only}
McCullers 2004 {published data only}
McKay 2006 {published data only}
Mishin 2005 {published data only}
Miyachi 2011 {published data only}
  • Miyachi K, Watanabe A, Iida H, Hattori H, Ukai H, Takano T, et al. Comparison of the efficacies of amantadine treatment of swine-origin influenza virus A H1N1 and seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 in Japan (2008-2009). Journal of infection and chemotherapy: official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy 2011;17(4):524-9.
Moffat 2008 {published data only}
Monto 1979 {published data only}
  • Monto AS, Gunn RA, Bandyk MG, King CL. Prevention of Russian influenza by amantadine. JAMA 1979;241(10):1003-7.
Morrison 2007 {published data only}
  • Morrison D, Roy S, Rayner C, Amer A, Howard D, Smith JR, et al. A randomized, crossover study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of amantadine and oseltamivir administered alone and in combination. PLoS One 2007;2(12):e1305.
Muldoon 1976 {published data only}
  • Muldoon RL, Stanley ED, Jackson GG. Use and withdrawal of amantadine chemoprophylaxis during epidemic influenza A. The American Review of Respiratory Disease 1976;113:487-91. [: CN-00203757]
Nafta 1970 {published data only}
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Natsina 1994 {published data only}
  • Natsina VK, Drinevskii VP, Milkint KK. Remantadine in the treatment of influenza in children [Primenenie remantadina dlia lecheniia grippa u detei]. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk Vestnik 1994;9:51-5. [: CN-00110913]
Nuesch 2007 {published data only}
  • Nuesch R. [Antiviral treatment of influenza in humans]. Therapeutische Umschau 2007;64(11):635-41.
O'Donoghute 1973 {published data only}
  • O'Donoghute JM, Ray CG, Terry DW Jr, Beaty HN. Prevention of nosocomial influenza infection with amantadine. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1973;97(4):276-82. [: CN-00008489]
Obrosova-Serova 1972 {published data only}
  • Obrosova-Serova NP, Fedorova GI, Glukhov PI, Shal'nov MI, Litvinov VG. Effectiveness of midantan and interferon inducers as means of non-specific prevention of influenza [Izuchenie effektivnosti midantana i stimuliatorav interferona kak sredstv nespetsificheskoi profilaktiki grippa]. Antibiotiki 1972;17:734-8. [: CN-00007887]
Oker-Blom 1970 {published data only}
  • Oker-Blom N, Hovi T, Leinikki P, Palosuo T, Petterson R, Suni J. Protection of man from natural infection with influenza A2 Hong Kong virus by amantadine: a controlled field trial. British Medical Journal 1970;3(724):676-8. [: CN-00004991]
Ong 2007 {published data only}
Pachucki 2004 {published data only}
  • Pachucki CT, Kurshid MA, Nawrocki J. Utility of reverse transcriptase PCR for rapid diagnosis of influenza A virus infection and detection of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004;42(6):2796-8. [MEDLINE: 2004251487]
Peiris 2004 {published data only}
Pemberton 1986 {published data only}
  • Pemberton RM, Jennings R, Potter CW, Oxford JS. Amantadine resistance in clinical influenza A (H3N2) and (H1N1) virus isolates. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1986;18:135-40. [: CN-00341484]
Petterson 1980 {published data only}
  • Petterson RF, Hellstrom PE, Penttinen K, Pyhala R, Tokola O, Vartio T, et al. Evaluation of amantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: a controlled field trial among young adults and high-risk patients. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1980;142(3):377-83. [: CN-00023981]
Pritchard 1989 {published data only}
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Quarles 1981 {published data only}
Quilligan 1966 {published data only}
  • Quilligan JJ Jr, Hirayama H, Baernstein HD Jr. The suppression of A2 influenza in children by the chemoprophylactic use of amantadine. Journal of Pediatrics 1966;69(4):572-5. [: CN-00000801]
Rabinovich 1969 {published data only}
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Reis 2006 {published data only}
  • Reis J, John D, Heimeroth A, Mueller HH, Oertel WH, Arndt T, et al. Modulation of human motor cortex excitability by single doses of amantadine. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31(12):2758-66.
Reuman 1989a {published data only}
  • Reuman PD, Bernstein DI, Keely SP, Young EC, Sherwood, JR, Schiff GM. Differential effect of amantadine hydrochloride on systemic and local immune response to influenza A. Journal of Medical Virology 1989;27(2):137-41. [: CN-00058423]
Reuman 1989b {published data only}
  • Reuman PD, Bernstein DI, Keefer MC, Young EC, Sherwood JR, Schiff GM. Efficacy and safety of low dosage amantadine hydrochloride as prophylaxis for influenza A. Antiviral Research 1989;11(1):27-40. [: CN-00059636]
Risenbrough 2005 {published data only}
Rose 1980 {published data only}
  • Rose HJ. Therapeutic effects of aerosolized amantadine in naturally acquired infection due to influenza A virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1980;141(5):535-42. [: CN-00022657]
Rothberg 2005 {published data only}
Saito 2006 {published data only}
  • Saito R, Li D, Shimomura C, Masaki H, Le MR, Nquyen HL, et al. An off-seasonal amantadine-resistant H3N2 influenza outbreak in Japan. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 2006;210(1):21-7.
Sato 2008 {published data only}
  • Sato M, Saito R, Sato I, Tanabe N, Shobugawa Y, Sasaki A, et al. Effectiveness of oseltamivir treatment among children with influenza A or B virus infections during four successive winters in Niigata City, Japan. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 2008;214(2):113-20.
Sauerbrei 2006 {published data only}
  • Sauerbrei A, Haertl A, Brandstaedt A, Schmidtke M, Wutzler P. Utilization of the embryonated egg for in vivo evaluation of the anti-influenza virus activity of neuraminidase inhibitors. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 2006;195(2):65-71.
Schapira 1971 {published data only}
  • Schapira M, Oxford JS, Galbraith AW. Therapeutic effect of 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride in naturally. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1971;21(113):695-7. [: CN-00006890]
Schmidt 2004 {published data only}
Sears 1987 {published data only}
  • Sears SD, Clements ML. Protective efficacy of low dose amantadine in adults challenge with wild-type influenza A virus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31(10):1470-3. [: CN-00052243]
Semlitsch 1992 {published data only}
  • Semlitsch HV, Anderer P, Saletu B. Topographic mapping of long latency "cognitive" event-related potentials (P 300): a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with amantadine in mild dementia. Journal of Neural Transmission. Parkinson's Disease and Dementia Section 1992;4:319-36. [: CN-00087210]
Serkedjieva 2007 {published data only}
  • Serkedjieva J, Toshkova R, Antonova-Nikolova S, Stefanova T, Teodosieva A, Ivanova I. Effect of a plant polyphenol-rich extract on the lung protease activities of influenza-virus-infected mice. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy 2007;18(2):75-82.
Shuler 2007 {published data only}
  • Schuler CM, Iwamoto M, Bridges CB, Marin M, Neeman R, Gargiullo P, et al. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza among children aged 6 to 59 months, 2003-2004. Pediatrics 2007;119(3):587-95.
Shvetsova 1974 {published data only}
  • Shvetsova EG, Malysheva AM, Karapats NM, Oleinikova EV, Vasil'eva RI. Comparative study of the epidemiological efficacy of specific and nonspecific influenza preventive agents [Sravnitel'noe izuchenie epidemiologicheskoi effektivnosti speisificheskikh i nespetsificheskikh sredstv profilaktiki grippa]. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii [Journal of microbiology, epidemiology and immunobiology] 1974;51(4):47-51. [: CN-00010299]
Simeonova 2009 {published data only}
  • Simeonova L, Gegova G, Galabov AS. Rimantadine and oseltamivir combination effects in a therapeutic course of application against influenza a (H3N2) in mice. Antiviral Research 2009;82(2):A37.
Skoner 1999 {published data only}
  • Skoner DP, Gentile DA, Patel A, Doyle WJ. Evidence for cytokine mediation of disease expression in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;180(1):10-4. [: CN-00163791]
Smorodintsev 1970a {published data only}
  • Smorodintsev AA, Zlydnikov DM, Kiselva AM, Romanov JA, Kanantsev AP, Rumovsky VI. Evaluation of amantadine in artificially induced A2 and B influenza. JAMA 1970;213(9):1448-54. [: CN-00004739]
Smorodintsev 1970b {published data only}
  • Smorodintsev AA, Karpuhin GI, Zlydnikov DM, Malyseva AM, Svecova EG, Burov SA, et al. The prophylactic effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in an epidemic of Hong Kong influenza in Leningrad in 1969. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1970;42(6):865-72. [: CN-00005082]
Smorodintsev 1970c {published data only}
  • Smorodintsev AA, Karpuhin GI, Zlydnikov DM. The prospect of amantadine for prevention of influenza A in humans (effectiveness of amantadine during influenza A2/Hong Kong epidemics in January-February 1969 in Leningrad. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1970;173:44-73.
Somani 1991 {published data only}
  • Somani SK, Degelau J, Cooper SL, Guay DRP, Ehresman D, Zaske D. Comparision of pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of amantadine 50 and 100 mg daily doses in elderly nursing home residents. Pharmacotherapy 1991;11(6):440-66. [: CN-00441230]
Tajima 2006 {published data only}
  • Tajima T, Kakayama E, Kondo Y, Hirai F, Ito H, Iitsuka T, et al. Etiology and clinical study of community-acquired pneumonia in 157 hospitalized children. Journal of infection and chemotherapy: official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy 2006;12(6):372-9.
Takemura 2005 {published data only}
  • Takemura Y, Ishida H, Saitoh H, Kure H, Kakoi H, Ebisawa K, et al. Economic consequence of immediate testing for C-reactive protein and leukocyte count in new outpatients with acute infection. Clinica Chimica Acta: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 2005;360(1-2):114-21.
Tappenden 2009 {published data only}
  • Tappenden P, Jackson R, Cooper K, Rees A, Simpson E, Read R, et al. Amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir for the prophylaxis of influenza (including a review of existing guidance no. 67): A systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2009;13(11):iii-148.
Terabayashi 2006 {published data only}
  • Terabayashi T, Morita M, Ueno M, Nakamura T, Urashima T. Inhibition of influenza-virus-induced cytopathy by sialylglycoconjugates. Carbohydrate Research 341;13:2246-53.
Thomas 2008 {published data only}
Thompson 1987 {published data only}
  • Thompson J, Fleet W, Lawrence E, Pierce E, Morris L, Wright P. A comparison of acetaminophen and rimantadine in the treatment of influenza A infection in children. Journal of Medical Virology 1987;21(3):249-55. [: CN-00047234]
Togo 1968 {published data only}
  • Togo Y, Hornick RB, Dawkins AT Jr. Studies on induced influenza in man. I. Double-blind studies designed to assess prophylactic efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride against a2/Rockville/1/65 strain. Journal of the American Medical Association 1968;203(13):1089-94. [: CN-00001827]
Togo 1970 {published data only}
  • Togo Y, Hornick RB, Felitti VJ, Kaufman ML, Dawkins AT Jr, Kilpe VE, et al. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of amantadine in patients with naturally occurring A2 influenza. JAMA 1970;211(7):1149-56. [: CN-00004092]
Togo 1972 {published data only}
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Townsend 2006 {published data only}
Van der Wouden 2005 {published data only}
Van Voris 1981 {published data only}
  • Van Voris LP, Betts RF, Hayden FG, Christmas WA, Douglas RG Jr. Successful treatment of naturally occurring influenza A/USSR/77 H1N1. JAMA 1981;245(11):1128-31. [: CN-00024393]
Van Voris 1985 {published data only}
  • Van Voris LP, Betts RF, Menegus MA, Murphy BR, Roth FK, Douglas RG Jr. Serological diagnosis of influenza A/USSR/77 H1N1 infection: value of ELISA compared to other antibody techniques. Journal of Medical Virology 1985;16(4):315-20. [: CN-00039377]
Wailoo 2008 {published data only}
Webster 1986 {published data only}
  • Webster R, Kawaoka Y, Bean W. Vaccination as strategy to reduce the emergence of amantadine and rimantadine-resistant strains of A/Chick/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2) influenza virus. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1986;18:157-64. [: CN-00341633]
Welton 2008 {published data only}
  • Welton NJ, Cooper NJ, Ades AE, Lu G, Sutton AJ. Mixed treatment comparison with multiple outcomes reported inconsistently across trials: evaluation of antivirals for treatment of influenza A and B. Statistics in Medicine 2008;27(27):5620-39.
Wendel 1966 {published data only}
Whitley 2007 {published data only}
Wingfield 1969 {published data only}
  • Wingfield WL, Pollack D, Grunert RR. Therapeutic efficacy of amantadine HCl and rimantadine HCl in naturally occurring influenza A2 respiratory illness in man. New England Journal of Medicine 1969;281(11):579-84.
Wong 2006 {published data only}
Wright 1976 {published data only}
  • Wright PF, Khaw KT, Oxman MN, Shwachman H. Evaluation of the safety of amantadine-HCL and the role of respiratory viral infections in children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1976;134(2):144-9. [: CN-00208364]
Wultzler 2004 {published data only}
  • Wultzler P, Kossow KD, Lode H, Ruf BR, Scholz H, Vogel GE, et al. Antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in primary care: German recommendations. Journal of Clinical Virology: The Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 2004;31(2):84-91. [: Unique identifier: 15364262]
Yamaura 2003 {published data only}
  • Yamaura K, Yoshihara M. Investigation of the reconsultation rate and pharmacoeconomic evaluation of period of influenza treatment by oseltamivir. Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 2003;123(10):887-91.
Younkin 1983 {published data only}
  • Younkin SW, Betts RF, Roth FK, Douglas RG Jr. Reduction in fever and symptoms in young adults with influenza A/Brazil/78 H1N1 infection after treatment with aspirin or amantadine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1983;23(4):577-82. [: CN-00031339]
Yuen 2005 {published data only}
  • Yuen KY, Wong SS. Human infection by avian influenza A H5N1. Hong Kong Medical Journal 2005;11(3):189-99.
Zeuzem 1999 {published data only}
  • Zeuzem S, Teuber G, Naumann U, Berg T, Raedle J, Hartmann S, et al. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of interferon-alfa with and without amantadine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1999;30(4):200A. [: CN-00271208]

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References to other published versions of this review

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
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  4. References to other published versions of this review
Alves Galvão 2008