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'Scared Straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency

  1. Anthony Petrosino1,*,
  2. Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino2,
  3. Meghan E Hollis-Peel3,
  4. Julia G Lavenberg4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002796.pub2


How to Cite

Petrosino A, Turpin-Petrosino C, Hollis-Peel ME, Lavenberg JG. 'Scared Straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002796. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002796.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    WestEd, Learning Innovations, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA

  2. 2

    Bridgewater State College, Criminal Justice, Bridgewater, Massachusetts, USA

  3. 3

    Northeastern University, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Boston, MA, USA

  4. 4

    University of Pennsylvania, Penn Medicine Center for Evidence-based Practice, Philadelphia, USA

*Anthony Petrosino, Learning Innovations, WestEd, 300 Unicorn Drive, 5th Floor, Woburn, Massachusetts, 01801- 3324, USA. anthony_petrosino@hotmail.com. apetros@wested.org.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Cook 1992 {published data only}
  • Cook DD. Effects of a Non-Confrontational Prisoner-Run Juvenile Delinquency Deterrence Program [Masters Thesis]. Mississippi, US: Mississippi State University, 1990.
  • Cook DD, Spirrison CL. Effects of a prisoner-operated delinquency deterrence program: Mississippi's Project Aware. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 1992;17:89-99.
Finckenauer 1982 {published data only}
  • Finckenauer JO. Scared Straight and the Panacea Phenomenon. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
GERP&DC 1979 {published data only}
  • Greater Egypt Regional Planning & Development Commission. Menard Correctional Center: Juvenile tours impact study. Carbondale, IL: Greater Egypt Regional Planning and Development Commission, 1979.
Lewis 1983 {published data only}
Locke 1986 {published data only}
  • Locke TP. An Analysis of the Kansas State Penitentiary Juvenile Education Program [Masters thesis]. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, 1982.
  • Locke TP, Johnson GM, Kirigin-Ram K, Atwater JD, Gerrard M. An evaluation of a juvenile education program in a state penitentiary. Evaluation Review 1986;10:281-98.
Michigan D.O.C. 1967 {published data only}
  • Michigan Department of Corrections. A Six Month Follow-up of Juvenile Delinquents Visiting the Ionia Reformatory. Research Report No. 4. Lansing: Michigan Department of Corrections 1967.
Orchowsky 1981 {published data only}
  • Orchowsky S, Taylor K. The Insiders Juvenile Crime Prevention Program. Richmond: Virginia Department of Corrections 1981.
Vreeland 1981 {published data only}
  • Vreeland AD. Evaluation of Face-to-Face: A Juvenile Aversion Program [thesis]. Dallas, TX: University of Texas, 1981.
Yarborough 1979 {published data only}
  • Yarborough JC. Evaluation of JOLT as a Deterrence Program. Michigan Department of Corrections 1979.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Ashcraft 1970 {unpublished data only}
  • Ashcraft JL. Closeout report on the Orleans Parish (LA) Juvenile Awareness Program. Mayor's Criminal Justice Coordinating Council 1979.
Bazemore 2004 {published data only}
  • Bazemore G, Stinchcomb JB, Leip LA. Scared smart or bored straight? Testing deterrence logic in an evaluation of police-led truancy intervention. Justice Quarterly 2004;21(2):269-99.
Berry 1985 {unpublished data only}
  • Berry RL. Shape Up: The Effects of a Prison Aversion Program on Recidivism and Family Dynamics [PhD thesis]. Greeley, CO: University of Northern Colorado, 1985.
Blunkett 2008 {published data only}
Brodsky 1970 {published data only}
  • Brodsky SL. The prisoner as an agent of attitude change: a study of prison profiles' effects. British Journal of Criminology 1970;10:280-5.
Buckner 1983 {published data only}
  • Buckner JC, Chesney-Lind M. Dramatic cures for juvenile crime: an evaluation of a prisoner-run delinquency prevention program. Criminal Justice & Behavior 1983;10(2):227-47.
Chesney-Lind 1981 {unpublished data only}
  • Lind MC. Ike Na Pa'ahao: the Experience of the Prisoners (formerly Stay Straight) - Evaluation. A Juvenile Awareness Program. Report No. 258 University of Hawaii at Manoa, Youth Development & Research Center 1981.
Dean 1982 {published data only}
  • Dean DG. The impact of a juvenile awareness program on select personality traits of male clients. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation 1982;6(3):73-85.
Feinstein 2005 {published data only}
  • Feinstein S. Another look at scared straight. The Journal of Correctional Education 2005;56(1):40-4.
Gilman 1977 {unpublished data only}
  • Gilman L, Milin RK. An Evaluation of the Lifers' Group Juvenile Awareness Program. New Jersey State Prison, Rahway, New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: Department of Corrections 1977.
Langer 1980 {unpublished data only}
  • Langer S. Fear in the Deterrence of Delinquency: a Critical Analysis of the Rahway State Prison Lifers' Program [PhD thesis]. Newark, NJ: Rutgers University, 1980.
Lloyd 1995 {published data only}
  • Lloyd C. To Scare Straight or Educate? The British Experience of Day Visits to Prison for Young People. Home Office Research Study No. 149. London, UK 1995.
Mitchell 1986 {published data only}
  • Mitchell JJ, Williams SA. SOS: reducing juvenile recidivism. Corrections Today 1986;48(3):70-1.
Muhammed 1999 {published data only}
  • Muhammed L. Kids and crooks revisited: some were 'Scared Straight!'. USA Today 1999:4D.
Nelson 1991 {unpublished data only}
  • Nelson Z. The Day in Prison Program. The First Twelve Months. Community based Corrections Division, Victoria Office of Corrections, Australia 1991.
NSW BoS 1980 {unpublished data only}
  • New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Day in Gaol Programme: Research Report No. 8. New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 1980.
Nygard 1980 {published data only}
  • Nygard CH. Synopsis of the Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations from the Evaluational Study of the Department's Youth Assistance Programs. New York State Department of Correctional Services, Division of Program Planning, Research and Evaluation 1980.
O'Malley 1993 {published data only}
  • O'Malley P, Coventry G, Walters R. Victoria's Day in Prison Program: an evaluation and critique. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 1993;26(2):171-83.
Portnoy 1986 {published data only}
  • Portnoy RN. Ego Defenses as a Predictor of Deterrence [PhD thesis]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 1986.
Rasmussen 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Rasmussen DW, Yu Y. An Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Innovations in Duval County, Florida. Tallahasse, FL: Florida State University 1996.
Shapiro 1978 {unpublished data only}
  • Shapiro A. Scared Straight [film]. Santa Monica, CA: Pyramid Films 1978.
Storvoll 1998 {published data only}
  • Storvall AE, Hovland A. The Ullersmo Project: Scared Straight in Norway 1992-1996 [Ullersmoprosjecktet: "Scared Straight" I Norge 1992-1996]. Nodisk Trddskrift for Kriminalvidenskab 1998;85(2):122-35.
Trotti 1980 {unpublished data only}
  • Trotti TC. Save the Children Program - An Analysis of Client Reaction. South Carolina Department of Youth Services, Research and Evaluation Unit 1980.
Wilson 2010 {published data only}
Windell 2005 {published data only}
  • Windell JO, Allen Jr JS. An application of fear appeal messages to enhance the benefits of a jail encounter program for youthful offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2005;3(4):388-94.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Blum 2001
  • Blum J, Woodlee Y. Trying to give kids a good scare. The Washington Post 2001 Jun 3:C01.
Cook 1990
  • Cook DD. Effects of A Non-Confrontational Prisoner-Run Juvenile Delinquency Deterrence Program [Master's thesis]. Mississippi, US: Mississippi State University, 1990.
Denhart 2011
  • Denhart A. Beyond Scared Straight's real-life controversy, 2011. www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/02/23/beyond-scared-straights-real-life-controversy.html (accessed 9 February 2013).
Dishion 1999
Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Davey-Smith, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;7:629-34.
Finckenauer 1999
  • Finckenauer JO, Gavin PW, Hovland A, Storvoll E. [SCARED STRAIGHT! : THE PANACEA PHENOMENON REVISITED / JAMES O. FINCKENAUER, PATRICIA W. GAVIN ; WITH ARILD HOVLAND, ELISABET STORVOLL. Prospect Heights, Ill. : Waveland Press, c1999.]. Scared Straight: The Panacea Phenomenon Revisited. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1999.
Hall 1999
  • Hall A. Jailhouse shock aims to scare youths straight. The Scotsman 1999 26 Oct:12.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Klenowski 2010
  • Klenowski PM, Bell KJ, Dodson KD. An empirical evaluation of juvenile awareness programs in the United States: can juveniles be 'Scared Straight'?. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2010;49:254-72.
Kvaraceus 1964
  • Kvaraceus W. Juvenile Delinquency: A Problem for the Modern World. New York, NY, USA: UNESCO, 1964.
Lipsey 1992
  • Lipsey MW. Juvenile delinquency treatment: a meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects. In: Cook TC, Cooper H, Cordray DS, Hartmann H, Hedges LV, Light RL, et al. editor(s). Meta-Analysis for Explanation. New York: Russell Sage, 1992:83-127.
Locke 1984
  • Locke TP. An Analysis of the Kansas State Penitentiary Juvenile Education Program [Master's thesis]. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, 1984.
Lundman 1993
  • Lundman RJ. Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
McCord 2001
  • McCord J, Widom C, Crowell N. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.
Petrosino 1997
  • Petrosino AJ. 'What Works?' Revisited Again: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments in Rehabilitation, Deterrence and Delinquency Prevention [thesis]. Ann Arbor, MI: Rutgers University, 1997.
Petrosino 2000
  • Petrosino A, Turpin-Petrosino C, Finckenauer JO. Well-meaning programs can have harmful effects! Lessons from experiments in Scared Straight and other like programs. Crime & Delinquency 2000;46:354-79.
Petrosino 2010
  • Petrosino A, Turpin-Petrosino C, Guckenburg S. Formal system processing of juveniles: effects on delinquency. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2010; Vol. 1. [DOI: 10.4073/csr.2010.1]
Prevention First 2008
  • Prevention First. Ineffectiveness of Fear Appeals in Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug (ATOD) Prevention. Springfield, IL 2008.
RevMan 2011 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Robinson 2011
  • Robinson LO, Slowikowski J. Scary - and ineffective. Traumatizing at-risk kids is not the way to lead them away from crime and drugs, 2011. articles.baltimoresun.com/2011-01-31/news/bs-ed-scared-straight-20110131_1_straight-type-programs-straight-program-youths (accessed 9 February 2013).
Scripps 1999
  • Scripps J. Prison tour serves as a wake-up call. The Forum 1999 Oct 27:1.
Sherman 1997
  • Sherman LW, Gottfredson D, MacKenzie D, Eck J, Reuter P, Bushway S. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. A Report to the United States Congress. College Pk, MD: University of Maryland, 1997.
Swanson 2003
  • Swanson, United Press International. Commentary: Scared Straight, 2003. www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2003/08/21/Commentary-Scared-Straight/UPI-54131061493455/3w3635 (accessed 9 February 2013).
Trusty 1995
  • Trusty G. Sheriff's office, juvenile court resources used for restarts. Louisiana Youth Care Magazine 1995; Vol. 18, issue 5:3-5.
U-CAN 2001
  • United Community Action Network. Services: Wisetalk (Scared Straight). www.ucan.av.org/services.htm (no longer available) (last accessed 26 April 2001).
UPN 1999
  • United Paramount Network (UPN). Scared Straight! 20 years later, 2009. www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKU-b9YhWn4 (accessed 9 February 2013).
US Census 2012
  • US Census Bureau. Law enforcement: courts, prisons, and arrests, 2012. www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/law_enforcement_courts_prisons/arrests.html (accessed 9 February 2013).
US Department of Justice 2012
  • US Department of Justice. FAQ: Why doesn’t CrimeSolutions.gov make more use of findings from meta-analysis?. www.crimesolutions.gov. 2012 (accessed 9 February 2013).
US HCEL 1979
  • US Congress, House Committee on Education and Labor. Oversight on Scared Straight. Hearings before the House Subcommittee on Human Resources, 96th Congress, 1st Session, 4 June 1979; Vol. General Printing Office: Washington, DC.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Petrosino 2002
Petrosino 2004
  • Petrosino A, Turpin-Petrosino C, Buehler J. "Scared Straight" and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2004; Vol. 2. [DOI: 10.4073/csr.2004.2]