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Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients

  1. Irene Kwan1,*,
  2. Frances Bunn2,
  3. Ian G Roberts3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 23 APR 2001

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 JUN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002803

How to Cite

Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts IG. Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD002803. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002803.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, National Collaborating Centre For Women's and Children's Health, London, UK

  2. 2

    University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Research in Primary and Community Care, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK

  3. 3

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Injuries Group, London, UK

*Irene Kwan, National Collaborating Centre For Women's and Children's Health, Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 2-16 Goodge Street, London, W1T2QA, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 APR 2001



References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
Black 1998 {published data only}
  • Black CA, Buderer NMF, Blaylock B, Hogan BJ. Comparative study of risk factors for skin breakdown with cervial orthotic devices: Philadelphia and Aspen. Journal of Trauma Nursing 1998;5(3):62-6.
Chan 1996 {published data only}
  • Chan D, Goldberg RM, Mason J, Chan L. Backboard versus mattress splint immobiliszation: a comparison of symptoms generated. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1996;14(3):293-8.
Cline 1985 {published data only}
Cordell 1995 {published data only}
Delbridge 1993 {published data only}
  • Delbridge TR, Auble TE, Garrison HG, Menegazzi JJ. Discomfort in healthy volunteers immobilized on wooden backboards and vacuum mattress splints. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 1993;8(3 Suppl):S63.
Graziano 1987 {published data only}
Hamilton 1996 {published data only}
  • Hamilton RS, Pons PT. The efficacy and comfort of full-body vacuum splints for cervical-spine immobilization. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1996;14(5):553-9.
Hauswald 2000 {published data only}
  • Hauswald M, Hsu M, Stockoff C. Maximising comfort and minimizing ischemia: a comparison of four methods of spinal immobilisation. Prehospital Emergency Care 2000;4:250-2.
Jedlicka 1999 {published data only}
  • Jedlicka DS. A comparison of the effects of two methods of spinal immobilization on respiratory effort in the older adult. Dissertation Abstracts International 1999;58-05B:2354.
Johnson 1996 {published data only}
Lerner 1998 {published data only}
  • Lerner EB, Billittier AJ 4th, Moscati RM. The effects of neutral positioning with and without padding on spinal immobilization of healthy subjects. Prehospital Emergency Care 1998;2(2):112-6.
Lunsford 1994 {published data only}
  • Lunsford TR, Davidson M, Lunsford BR. The effectiveness of four contemporary cervical orthoses in restricting cervical motion. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics 1994;6(4):93-9.
Manix 1995a {published data only}
  • Manix T, Gunderson MR, Garth GC. Comparison of prehospital cervical immobilization devices using video and electromyography. Prehospital Disaster Medicine 1995;10(4):232-8.
Manix 1995b {published data only}
  • Manix T. How effective are body-to-board strapping techniques?. Journal of Emergency Medical Services 1995;20(6):44-50.
Mazolewski 1994 {published data only}
Perry 1999 {published data only}
Totten 1999 {published data only}
  • Totten VY, Sugarman DB. Respiratory effects of spinal immobilization. Prehospital Emergency Care 1999;3(4):347-52.
Walton 1995 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
ACS 1997
  • American College of Surgeons. Advanced trauma Life Support Program for Doctors. 6th Edition. Chicago: American College of Surgeons, 1997.
Advanced LS 1993
  • Advanced LS. Advanced Paediatric Life Support. Vol. 1st edn, London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1993.
Altman 1996
Burney 1993
Butman 1996
  • Butman A, Schelble DT, Vomacka RW. The relevance of the occult cervical spine controversy and mechanism of injury to prehospital protocols: a review of the issues and literature. Prehospital Disaster Medicine 1996;11:228-33.
Davies 1996
Davis 1993
Domeier 1999
  • Domeier RM. NAEMSP Position Paper: Indications for prehospital spinal immobilisation. Prehospital Emergency Care 1999;3:251-3.
Hauswald 1998
Hewitt 1994
Hoffman 2000
  • Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, Todd KH, Zucker M. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343:94-9.
Houghton 1996
McHugh 1998
Miller 1994
  • Miller TR, et al. Costs of head and neck injury and a cost-benefit analysis of bicycle helmets. In: Levine RS editor(s). Head and Neck Injury. New York: Society of Automotive Engineering, 1994:211-40.
Orledge 1998
Schulz 1995
  • Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman D. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995;273(5):408-12.
SCI Center 1998
  • The National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord Injury: facts and figures at a glance. Birmingham, Alabama: University of Alabama at Birmingham National Spinal Injury Center, 1998.
Wang 1990