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Physiotherapy for Parkinson's disease: a comparison of techniques

  1. Claire L Tomlinson1,*,
  2. Clare P Herd2,
  3. Carl E Clarke2,
  4. Charmaine Meek3,
  5. Smitaa Patel1,
  6. Rebecca Stowe1,
  7. Katherine HO Deane4,
  8. Laila Shah1,
  9. Catherine M Sackley5,
  10. Keith Wheatley6,
  11. Natalie Ives1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Movement Disorders Group

Published Online: 17 JUN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002815.pub2


How to Cite

Tomlinson CL, Herd CP, Clarke CE, Meek C, Patel S, Stowe R, Deane KHO, Shah L, Sackley CM, Wheatley K, Ives N. Physiotherapy for Parkinson's disease: a comparison of techniques. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD002815. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002815.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Birmingham, Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, Birmingham, UK

  2. 2

    College of Medical and Dental Sciences, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham, UK

  3. 3

    University of Birmingham, Primary Care Clinical Sciences, Birmingham, UK

  4. 4

    University of East Anglia, Edith Cavell Building, Norwich, UK

  5. 5

    University of East Anglia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwich, UK

  6. 6

    University of Birmingham, Cancer Research Clinical Trials Unit, School of Cancer Sciences, Birmingham, UK

*Claire L Tomlinson, Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, University of Birmingham, Robert Aitken Institute, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. c.l.smith.1@bham.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 17 JUN 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Almeida 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • Almeida QJ, Bhatt H. A manipulation of visual feedback during gait training in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsons Disease 2012:508720.
Braun 2011 {published data only}
  • Braun S, Beurskens A, Kleynen M, Schols J, Wade D. Rehabilitation with mental practice has similar effects on mobility as rehabilitation with relaxation in people with Parkinson's disease: a multicentre randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 2011;57(1):27-34.
Burini 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Burini D, Farabollini B, Iacucci S, Rimatori C, Riccardi G, Capecci M, et al. A randomised controlled cross-over trial of aerobic training versus Qigong in advanced Parkinson's disease. Europa Medicophysica 2006;42(3):231-8.
Chaiwanichsiri 2011 {published data only}
  • Chaiwanichsiri D. Treadmill and music cueing for gait training in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. clinicaltrials.gov 2009.
  • Chaiwanichsiri D, Wangno W, Kitisomprayoonkul W, Bhidayasiri R. Treadmill training with music cueing: a new approach for Parkinson's gait facilitation. Asian Biomedicine 2011;5(5):649-54.
Dias 2005 {published data only}
  • Dias NP, Fraga DA, Cacho EWA, Oberg TD. Training of gait with visual cues in the patient with Parkinson's disease. Fisioterapia em Movimento 2005;18(4):43-51.
Diehl 2011 {published data only}
  • Diehl D, Combs S, Staples B. Comparison of boxing training and traditional exercise on balance and quality of life outcomes in persons with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study. Movement Disorders 2011;26:S124.
Ebersbach 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Fisher 2008 {published data only}
  • Fisher BE, Wu AD, Salem GJ, Song J, Lin CH, Yip J, et al. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2008;89(7):1221-9.
Frazzitta 2009 {published data only}
  • Frazzitta G, Maestri R, Uccellini D, Bertotti G, Abelli P. Rehabilitation treatment of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing: A comparison between two physical therapy protocols using visual and auditory cues with or without treadmill training. Movement Disorders 2009;24(8):1139-43.
Hackney 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hackney ME, Kantorovich S, Levin R, Earhart GM. Effects of tango on functional mobility in Parkinson's disease: A preliminary study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy 2007;31(4):173-9.
Hackney 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Hackney 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Effects of dance on gait and balance in Parkinson's disease: A comparison of partnered and nonpartnered dance movement. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2010;24(4):384-92.
Hass 2006 {published data only}
  • Hass CJ, Waddell DE, Wolf SL, Juncos JL, Gregor RJ. The influence of tai chi training on locomotor ability in Parkinson's disease. American Society of Biomechanics (www.asbweb.org/conferences/2006/pdfs/154.pdf). 2006:154.
Hirsch 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hirsch MA. Activity dependent enhancement of balance following strength and balance training. PhD Thesis, Florida State University 1996. [: UMI Number: 9622856]
  • Hirsch MA, Toole T, Maitland CG, Rider RA. The effects of balance training and high-intensity resistance training on persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003;84(8):1109-17.
Joudoux 2011 {published data only}
  • Joudoux S, Santiago T, Hutin E, Bayle N, Gracies JM. Randomised controlled single-blind trial comparing two rehabilitation programs in Parkinson's disease at a moderate stage: Methodology. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. Conference proceeding 2011;54:e104.
Juncos 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Juncos JL. Chinese exercise modalities in Parkinson's disease. controlled-trials.com 2010.
  • Juncos JL, Haber M, Waddell D, Gregor R, Wohl SL. A controlled study of aerobic exercise and Chinese exercise modalities in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2006;66(5 Suppl 2):A314.
Khallaf 2011 {published data only}
  • Khallaf MES, Fathy H. Influence of moderate aerobic exercises on activities of daily living and depression in patients with Parkinson's disease. European Journal of Neurology. Conference proceeding 2011;18:439.
Li 2012 {published data only}
  • Li F, Fitzgerald K. Postural stability in Parkinson's disease patients after Tai Chi training: A randomised controlled trial. WFN XIX World Congress on Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. 2012; Vol. 18:s155.
  • Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Eckstrom E, Stock R, Galver J, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2012;366(6):511-9.
  • Sieber B, Fuzhong L. Tai Chi and Parkinson's disease. Report Database 2008.
Loureiro 2010 {published data only}
  • Loureiro APC, Stori FR, Chen R, Ribas CG, Loureiro CC. Comparative study of conventional physiotherapy and virtual rehabilitation using Wii Fit for improvement of balance in Parkinson's disease patients. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25 Suppl 3:S714.
Mak 2008 {published data only}
  • Mak MK, Hui-Chan CW. Effect of 4-week training with audio-visual cues on sit-to-stand in Parkinsonian patients. Movement Disorders 2005;20 Suppl 10:388.
  • Mak MKY, Hui-Chan CWY. Cued task-specific training is better than exercise in improving sit-to-stand in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2008;23(4):501-9.
McGinley 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • McGinley JL, Martin C, Huxham FE, Menz HB, Danoudis M, Murphy AT, et al. Feasibility, safety, and compliance in a randomized controlled trial of physical therapy for Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease 2012:795294.
  • Morris ME, Menz HB, McGinley JL, Huxham FE, Murphy AT, Iansek R, et al. Falls and mobility in Parkinson's disease: protocol for a randomised controlled clinical trial. BMC Neurology 2011;11:93.
  • Watts JJ, McGinley JL, Huxham F, Menz HB, Iansek R, Murphy AT, et al. Cost effectiveness of preventing falls and improving mobility in people with Parkinson disease: protocol for an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial. BMC Geriatrics 2008;8:23.
Miyai 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Ueda Y, Yamamoto H, Nozaki S, Saito T, et al. Treadmill training with body weight support: Its effect on Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000;81(7):849-52.
Miyai 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Yamamoto H, Ueda Y, Saito T, Nozaki S, et al. Long-term effect of body weight-supported treadmill training in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002;83(10):1370-3.
Morris 2009 {published data only}
  • Martin CL, Morris ME, Iansek R. Carry-over effects of inpatient rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2008;23 Suppl 1:675.
  • Morris ME, Iansek R. Effects of strategy training compared to exercises for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson disease: A randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2006;21:688.
  • Morris ME, Iansek R, Kirkwood B. A randomized controlled trial of movement strategies compared with exercise for people with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24(1):64-71.
  • Morris ME, Iansek R, Kirkwood B, Danoudis M, Martin CL. Carry-over effects of movement strategy training in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S270.
  • Schenkman M. Reply: A randomized controlled trial of movement strategies compared with exercise for people with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2010;25(4):524.
Palmer 1986 {published data only}
  • Palmer SS, Mortimer JA, Webster DD, Bistevins R, Dickinson GL. Comparison of stretch exercises and karate training as therapy for Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1984;65(10):626.
  • Palmer SS, Mortimer JA, Webster DD, Bistevins R, Dickinson GL. Exercise therapy for Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1986;67(10):741-5.
Pelosin 2010 {published data only}
  • Pelosin E, Avanzino L, Bove M, Stramesi P, Nieuwboer A, Abbruzzese G. Action observation improves freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2010;24(8):746-52.
Picelli 2012 {published data only}
  • Picelli A, Melotti C, Origano F, Waldner A, Fiaschi A, Santilli V, et al. Robot-assisted gait training in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2012;26(4):353-61.
Poliakoff 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Poliakoff E, Galpin A, McDonald K, Dick J, Kellett M, Hayes S, et al. The effect of gym training on multiple outcomes in Parkinson's disease: A pilot randomised waiting-list controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S374.
Reuter 2011 {published data only}
  • Reuter I, Mehnert S, Leone P, Kaps M, Oechsner M, Engelhardt M. Effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and nordic walking on Parkinson's disease. Journal of Aging Research 2011;2011:232473.
Ridgel 2009 {published data only}
Robichaud 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chen D, Corcos DM. Motor deficits - Experimental and clinical correlates. Report Database 2009.
  • Corcos D, Robichaud JA, David FJ, Vaillancourt DE, Poon C, Rafferty M, et al. 24 months of exercise improves the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2012;78:S02.003.
  • Rafferty MR, Robichaud JA, David FJ, Poon C, Vaillancourt DE, Comella CL, et al. Long-term exercise improves and maintains physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2012;27 Suppl 1:S135.
  • Robichaud JA, Corcos D. The effect of exercise on individuals with Parkinson's disease. ClinicalTrials.gov 2007.
  • Robichaud JA, Corcos D. The effect of exercise on individuals with Parkinson's disease. controlled-trials.gov 2009.
  • Robichaud JA, David FJ, Poon C, Rafferty M, Vaillancourt DE, Comella CL, et al. Long-term progressive exercise improves bradykinesia and muscle weakness. Movement Disorders 2012;27 Suppl 1:S136.
Schenkman 2012a {published data only}
  • Schenkman M, Hall DA, Baron AE, Schwartz RS, Mettler P, Kohrt WM. Exercise for people in early- or mid-stage Parkinson disease: a 16-month randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy 2012;92(11):1395-410.
  • Schenkman M, Shinowara N. Exercise, physical function and Parkinson's disease. Report Database 2009.
  • Shinowara N. Gait and step training to prevent fall in Parkinson's disease. Report Database 2009.
Shankar 2009 {published data only}
  • Shankar A, Labelle N, Derwent L, Bonfield S, Eliasziw M, Hu B, et al. Treadmill-walking with music shows a synergistic improvement in gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S281-2.
Shen 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Shen X, Mak MKY. Effects of 12-week strategy-focused balance training on balance performance and balance confidence in patients with Parkinson's disease. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal 2011;29(2):100.
Shiba 1999 {published data only}
  • Shiba Y, Obuchi S, Toshima H, Yamakita H. Comparison between visual and auditory stimulation in gait training of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. World Congress of Physical Therapy Conference. 1999.
Sigurgeirsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Sigurgeirsson AT, Bjarnadottir OH, Thorsteinsdottir MH, Ingvarsson PE. The effect of high-volume walking with visual cues on gait in Parkinson's patients. A randomised controlled trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009; Vol. 15 Suppl 2:S192.
Smania 2010 {published data only}
  • Smania N, Corato E, Tinazzi M, Stanzani C, Fiaschi A, Girardi P, et al. Effect of balance training on postural instability in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2010;24(9):826-34.
Talakkad 2011 {published data only}
  • Gupta A, Ganesan M, Pal P, Talakkad S. Effect of partial weight-supported treadmill gait training on balance in patients with Parkinson disease. 2011 Annual Assembly of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2011; Vol. 3, issue 10:S163-4.
  • Talakkad S, Ganesan M, Gupta A, Pal PK, Trichur R. Effect of partial weight supported treadmill gait training on cardiovascular dynamics in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2011;26 Suppl 2:s173.
Thaut 1996 {published and unpublished data}
Toole 2005 {published data only}
  • Maitland CG, Toole T, Warren E, Hubmann MF. The effects of loading and unloading on gait and balance control in Parkinsonism. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004;85:E13.
  • Toole T, Maitland CG, Warren E, Hubmann MF, Panton L. The effects of loading and unloading treadmill walking on balance, gait, fall risk, and daily function in Parkinsonism. NeuroRehabilitation 2005;20(4):307-22.
Vivas 2011 {published data only}
  • Vivas J, Arias P, Cudeiro J. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2011;92(8):1202-10.
Werner 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Yang 2010 {published data only}
  • Yang YR, Lee YY, Cheng SJ, Wang RY. Downhill walking training in individuals with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2010;89(9):706-14.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Byl 2009 {published data only}
  • Byl N. Enhancing safe mobility in patients with Parkinson's disease: effect of dual task training during aerobic and moderate exercise. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009;15 Suppl 2:S122.
Cheon 2012 {published data only}
  • Cheon SM, Sung HR, Chae BK, Kim JW. Effects of different exercises in the patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2012;18:s154.
Chouza 2011 {published data only}
Cianci 2010 {published data only}
  • Cianci H, Robinson K, Bunting-Perry L, Sollenberger J, Nooregian J, Duda J. Are wheeled walkers with visual cues efficacious to treat freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16 Suppl 1:S64.
Donovan 2011 {published data only}
  • Donovan S, Lim C, Diaz N, Browner N, Rose P, Sudarsky LR, et al. Laserlight cues for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease: An open-label study. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2011;17(4):240-5.
Farley 2005 {published data only}
  • Farley BG, Koshland GF. Learning Big (TM): Efficacy of a large-amplitude exercise approach for patients with Parkinson's disease-bradykinesia to balance. Movement Disorders 2005;20 Suppl 10:466.
Filippin 2010 {published data only}
  • Filippin NT, da Costa PHL, Mattioli R. Effects of treadmill-walking training with additional body load on quality of life in subjects with Parkinson's disease. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 2010;14(4):344-50.
Frazzitta 2012 {published data only}
  • Frazzitta G, Bertotti G, Riboldazzi G, Turla M, Uccellini D, Boveri N, et al. A new approach to rehabilitation of Parkinsonian patients: The intensive rehabilitation treatment. Movement Disorders 2011;26:s127.
  • Frazzitta G, Bertotti G, Riboldazzi G, Turla M, Uccellini D, Boveri N, et al. Effectiveness of intensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment on disease progression in Parkinsonian patients: A randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2012;26(2):144-50.
Gobbi 2009 {published data only}
  • Gobbi L, Oliveira-Ferreira M, Aetano MJ, irani-Silva E, Arbieri F, Tella F, et al. Exercise programs improve mobility and balance in people with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009; Vol. 15 Suppl 2:S6.
  • Gobbi LTB, Oliveira-Ferreira MDT, Caetano MJD, Lirani-Silva E, Barbieri FA, Stella F, et al. Exercise programs improve mobility and balance in people with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009;15 Suppl 3:S49-52.
Haase 2011 {published data only}
  • Haase M. The immediate effects of rhythmic arm swing and finger tapping exercises on gait of Parkinson's patients. ProQuest 2011.
Kamsma 1995 {published data only}
  • Kamsma YPT, Brouwer WH, Lakke JPWF. Training of compensational strategies for impaired gross motor skills in Parkinson' disease. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 1995;11(4):209-29.
Klassen 2007 {published data only}
  • Klassen L, Dal Bello-Haas V, Sheppard M, Metcalfe A. Evaluating the benefits of group exercise and group exercise and education programs for individuals with Parksinson's disease (PD). Physiotherapy 2007;93 Suppl 1:S91.
Knobl 2011 {published data only}
  • Knobl PE. An evaluation of motor imagery and exercise interventions in Parkinson's disease. ProQuest 2011.
  • Knobl PE, Almeida QJ. Rehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: Is it the sensory or attention focus that improves disease severity in sensory-attention focused interventions?. Movement Disorders 2011;26 Suppl 2:s153.
Lee 2011 {published data only}
  • Lee KS, Lee WH, Hwang S. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy improves fine and gross motor performance of the upper limb in Parkinson disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2011;90(5):380-6.
Ma 2009 {published data only}
  • Ma HI, Hwang WJ, Lin KC. The effects of two different auditory stimuli on functional arm movement in persons with Parkinson's disease: a dual-task paradigm. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23(3):229-37.
Marchese 2000 {published data only}
  • Abbruzzese G, Diverio M, Zucchi F, Marchese R. Comparison of two physical therapy approaches in the rehabilitation of parkinsonian patients. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 1999;5 Suppl:S49.
  • Marchese R, Diverio M, Zucchi F, Lentino C, Abbruzzese G. Comparison of two physical therapy approaches in the rehabilitation of parkinsonian patients: a comparison of two physical therapy protocols. Movement Disorders 2000;15(5):879-83.
Modugno 2010 {published data only}
  • Modugno N. Long-term program of social theatre for the management of motor and motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25 Suppl 3:S721.
  • Modugno N, Iaconelli S, Fiorilli M, Lena F, Kusch I, Mirabella G. Active theater as a complementary therapy for Parkinson's disease rehabilitation: A pilot study. The Scientific World Journal 2010;10:2301-13.
Munneke 2010 {published data only}
  • Keus SH, Bloem BR, Nijkrake M, Lim LI, Munneke M. The ParkNet trial: Implementation of an evidence-based guideline for physical therapy in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2006;21:S122.
  • Keus SHJ, Nijkrake MJ, Borm GF, Kwakkel G, Roos RAC, Berendse HW, et al. The ParkinsonNet trial: design and baseline characteristics. Movement Disorders 2010;25(7):830-7.
  • Munneke M, Kens S, Nijkrake M, Kwakkel G, Berendse H, Roos R, et al. Efficiency of evidence-based physiotherapy for Parkinson's disease: the ParkinsonNet Trial. Movement Disorders 2008;23 Suppl 1:669.
  • Munneke M, Nijkrake M, Keus SHJ, Kwakkel G, Berendse HW, Roos RAC, et al. Efficacy of community-based physiotherapy networks for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Neurology 2010;9(1):46-54.
  • Munneke M, Nijkrake MJ, Keus SHJ, Lim IIK, Borm GF, van der Wilt GJ, et al. Efficiency of physiotherapy in Parkinson's disease: The ParkNet trial. Movement Disorders 2007;22 Suppl 16:629.
  • Nijkrake MJ, Keus SHJ, Overeem S, Oostendorp RAB, Vlieland TPMV, Mulleners W, et al. The ParkinsonNet concept: development, implementation and initial experience. Movement Disorders 2010;25(7):823-9.
Pacchetti 2000 {published data only}
  • Pacchetti C, Mancini F, Aglieri R, Fundaro C, Martignoni E, Nappi G. Active music therapy in Parkinson's disease: An integrative method for motor and emotional rehabilitation. Psychosomatic Medicine 2000;62(3):386-93.
Pohl 2003 {published data only}
  • Pohl M, Rockstroh G, Ruckriem S, Mrass G, Mehrholz J. Immediate effects of speed-dependent treadmill training on gait parameters in early Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003;84(12):1760-6.
Rochester 2011 {published data only}
Sage 2009a {published data only}
Sage 2009b {published and unpublished data}
  • Sage MD, Almeida QJ. A Canadian approach to exercise rehabilitation: a systematic evaluation of strategies to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S276-7.
Sage 2010 {published data only}
Stallibrass 2001 {published data only}
  • Stallibrass C. Controlled trial to evaluate the effects of lessons in the Alexander Technique on the management of disability by people with Parkinson's disease. National Research Register 2001.
Tamir 2007 {published data only}
  • Tamir R, Dickstein R, Huberman M. Integration of motor imagery and physical practice in group treatment applied to subjects with Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2007;21(1):68-75.
Tickle-Degnen 2010 {published data only}
  • Tickle-Degnen L, Ellis T, Saint-Hilaire M, Thomas CA, Wagenaar RC. Efficacy of self-management rehabilitation on quality of life outcomes in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S377-8.
  • Tickle-Degnen L, Ellis T, Saint-Hilaire M, Thomas CA, Wagenaar RC. Self-management rehabilitation and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2010;25(2):194-204.
  • White DK, Wagenaar RC, Ellis TD, Tickle-Degnen L. Changes in walking activity and endurance following rehabilitation for people with Parkinson disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009;90(1):43-50.
Wulf 2009 {published data only}
Yen 2011 {published data only}
  • Yen CY, Lin KH, Hu MH, Wu RM, Lu TW, Lin CH, et al. Effects of virtual reality-augmented balance training on sensory organization and attentional demand for postural control in people with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy 2011;91(6):862-78.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Brauer 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Brauer SG, Woollacott MH, Lamont R, Clewett S, O'Sullivan J, Silburn P, et al. Single and dual task gait training in people with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology 2011;11:90.
Protas 2005 {published data only}
  • Protas EJ, Mitchell K, Williams A, Qureshy H, Caroline K, Lai EC. Gait and step training to reduce falls in Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation 2005;20(3):183-90.
Schenkman 2012b {published data only}
  • Schenkman M. Endurance exercise in Parkinson's disease. controlled_trials.com 2012.
  • Schenkman M. Study in Parkinson's disease of exercise (SPARX). ClinicalTrials.gov 2011.
Smith 2009 {published data only}
  • Smith S, Dibble L. High force resistance training and dopamine replacement effects on hypokinesia in Parkinson disease. ClinicalTrials.gov 2009.
Uc 2010 {published data only}
  • Uc EY, Newman SR. Effects of aerobic exercise in Parkinson's disease. ClinicalTrials.gov 2010.
van Nimwegen 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Speelman AD, van Nimwegan M, Smulders K, Overeem S, Borm G, Backx F, et al. Rationale and design of the Parkfit study: a randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16 Suppl 1:S58.
  • Speelman AD, van Nimwegen ML, Smulders K, Overeem S, Borm GF, Backx FJG, et al. Design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted program to increase physical activity in Parkinson patients. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25 Suppl 3:S679.
  • van Nimwegen M, Speelman A, Smulders S, Overeem S, Borm G, Backx F, et al. Rationale and design of the ParkFit study: A randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity in patient with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24 Suppl 1:S284.
  • van Nimwegen M, Speelman AD, Smulders K, Overeem S, Borm GF, Backx FJG, et al. Design and baseline characteristics of the ParkFit study, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted behavioral program to increase physical activity in Parkinson patients. BMC Neurology 2010;10:70.
  • van Nimwegen ML, Speelman AD, Gerrits MS, Bloem BR, Munneke M. Monitoring treatment fidelity in the ParkFit Study, a multifaceted behavioral program to increase physical activity in Parkinson patients. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25 Suppl 3:S678.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Allen 2011
Berg 1992
  • Berg KO, Wooddauphinee SL, Williams JI. Measuring balance in the elderly - validation of an instrument. Canadian Journal of Public Health-Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique 1992;83:S7-S11.
Boutron 2008a
  • Boutron I, Moher D, Altman DG, Schulz K, Ravaud P, for the CONSORT group. Methods and processes of the CONSORT Group: example of an extension for trials assessing nonpharmacologic treatments. Annals of Internal Medicine 2008;148(4):W60-6.
Boutron 2008b
  • Boutron I, Moher D, Altman DG, Schulz K, Ravaud P, for the CONSORT group. Extending the CONSORT statement to randomized trials of nonpharmacologic treatment: explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine 2008;148(4):295-309.
Chartered Society of Physiotherapy
  • The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. In: The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, editor(s). Rules of professional conduct. 2nd Edition. London: The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, 2002.
Crizzle 2006
Deane 2001a
  • Deane K, Jones DE, Playford ED, Ben-Shlomo Y, Clarke CE. Physiotherapy versus placebo or no intervention in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, (3):CD002817.
Deboer 1996
  • Deboer AGEM, Wijker W, Speelman JD, Dehaes JCJM. Quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease: Development of a questionnaire. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1996;61(1):70-4.
Doll 1980
Duncan 1990
Fahn 1987
  • Fahn S, Elton RL. UPDRS Development Committee. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldestein M editor(s). Recent developments in Parkinson's disease. Florham Park, NJ: Macmillan Health Care Information, 1987:153-63.
Gage 2004
Gibb 1988
Giladi 2000
  • Giladi N, Shabtai H, Simon ES, Biran S, Tal J, Korczyn AD. Construction of freezing of gait questionnaire for patients with Parkinsonism. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2000;6(3):165-70.
Goodwin 2008
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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