Intervention Review

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Physiotherapy versus placebo or no intervention in Parkinson's disease

  1. Claire L Tomlinson1,*,
  2. Smitaa Patel1,
  3. Charmaine Meek2,
  4. Clare P Herd3,
  5. Carl E Clarke3,
  6. Rebecca Stowe1,
  7. Laila Shah1,
  8. Catherine M Sackley4,
  9. Katherine HO Deane5,
  10. Keith Wheatley6,
  11. Natalie Ives1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Movement Disorders Group

Published Online: 10 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002817.pub4


How to Cite

Tomlinson CL, Patel S, Meek C, Herd CP, Clarke CE, Stowe R, Shah L, Sackley CM, Deane KHO, Wheatley K, Ives N. Physiotherapy versus placebo or no intervention in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD002817. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002817.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Birmingham, Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, Birmingham, UK

  2. 2

    University of Birmingham, Primary Care Clinical Sciences, Birmingham, UK

  3. 3

    College of Medical and Dental Sciences, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham, UK

  4. 4

    University of East Anglia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwich, UK

  5. 5

    University of East Anglia, Edith Cavell Building, Norwich, UK

  6. 6

    University of Birmingham, Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, School of Cancer Sciences, Birmingham, UK

*Claire L Tomlinson, Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, University of Birmingham, Robert Aitken Institute, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. c.l.smith.1@bham.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 10 SEP 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Allen 2010 {published data only}
Almeida 2012 {published data only}
Ashburn 2007 {published data only}
  • Ashburn A, Fazakarley L, Ballinger C, Pickering R, McLellan LD, Fitton C. A randomised controlled trial of a home based exercise programme to reduce the risk of falling among people with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2007;78(7):678-84.
Boehm 2011 {published data only}
  • Boehm RL, Almeida QJ, Knobl P. Sensory attention focused exercise in Parkinson's disease: a randomized double-crossover trial. Movement Disorders: 15th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Toronto 2011;26:S331-S332.
Cakit 2007 {published data only}
  • Cakit BD, Saracoglu M, Genc H, Erdem HR, Inan L. The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007;21(8):698-705.
Canning 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Canning CG, Allen NE, Dean CM, Goh L, Fung VS. Home-based treadmill training for individuals with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled pilot trial.. Clinical Rehabilitation 2012;26(9):817-826.
  • Canning CG, Allen NE, Fung VSC, Morris JGL, Dean CM. Home-based treadmill walking for individuals with Parkinson's disease: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2008;23(Suppl 1):637.
Cerri 1994 {published data only}
  • Cerri C, Arosio A, Biella AM, Premoselli S, Piccini L. Physical exercise therapy of Parkinson. Movement Disorders 1994;9(Suppl 1):68.
Chandler 1999 {published data only}
  • Chandler C, Plant R. A targeted physiotherapy service for people with Parkinson's disease from diagnosis to end stage: a pilot study. In: R. Percival, P. Hobson editor(s). Parkinson's Disease: Studies in Psychological and Social Care. Leicester: BPS Books, 1999:256-69.
  • Chandler CS, Maher S, Harrison S, Plant R. A targeted physiotherapy service for people with Parkinson's disease from diagnosis to end stage - a pilot study. Parkinson's Disease Society Welfare Research Conference. London: Parkinson's Disease Society, 1997.
de Bruin 2010a {published data only}
  • de Bruin N, Bonfield S, Hu B, Suchowersky O, Doan J, Brown L. Walking while listening to music improves gait performance in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2008;23(Suppl 1):667.
  • de Bruin N, Doan JB, Turnbull G, Suchowersky O, Bonfield S, Hu B, et al. Walking with music is a safe and viable tool for gait training in Parkinson's disease: the effect of a 13-week feasibility study on single and dual task walking. Parkinson's Disease 2010;Article ID 483530.
de Bruin 2010b {published data only}
  • de Bruin N, Doan J, Turnbull G, Bonfield S, Suchowersky O, Hu B, et al. The effects of a music accompanied walking program on obstacle crossing behaviours in people with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25, issue Suppl 3:S697.
Duncan 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • Duncan RP, Earhart GM. Randomized controlled trial of community-based dancing to modify disease progression in Parkinson disease. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair 2012;26(2):132-43.
  • Earhart GM, Rotello JMM, Duncan RP. Short-term effects of a community-based tango program on motor and non-motor symptoms, activities of daily living, and motor complications in PD. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25, issue Suppl 3:S697-8.
Ellis 2005 {published data only}
  • Ellis T, de Goede CJ, Feldman RG, Wolters EC, Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC. Efficacy of a physical therapy program in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2005;86(4):626-32.
  • de Goede CJT, Ellis T, Wagenaar RC, Feldman RCH, Wolters E, Kwakkel G. Effects of group physiotherapy for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cross-over trial. Nederlands Tijdschrift Fysiotherapie 2004;114(3):78-82.
Fisher 2008 {published data only}
  • Fisher BE, Wu AD, Salem GJ, Song J, Lin CH, Yip J, et al. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2008;89(7):1221-9.
Ganesan 2010 {published data only}
  • Ganesan M, Pal PK, Gupta A, Talakad S. Effect of partial weight supported treadmill gait training on balance in patients of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16, issue Suppl 1:S66.
Goodwin 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Goodwin V, Richards S, Ewings P, Taylor A, Campbell J. Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease: the GETuP trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009;15(Suppl 2):S83.
  • Goodwin VA, Richards SH, Ewings P, Taylor AH, Campbell JL. Preventing falls in Parkison's disease: the GETuP trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009; Vol. 15, issue Suppl 2:S49.
  • Goodwin VA, Richards SH, Henley W, Ewings P, Taylor AH, Campbell JL. An exercise intervention to prevent falls in people with Parkinson's disease: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial . Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2011;82(11):1232-8.
Haase 2011 {published data only}
  • Haase M. The immediate effects of rhythmic arm swing and finger tapping exercises on gait of Parkinson's patients . ProQuest 2011.
Hackney 2009 {published data only}
Homann 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Homann CN, Crevenna R, Kojnig H, Kurzl B, Reinprecht S, Wenzel K, et al. Can physiotherapy improve axial symptoms in parkinsonian patients? A pilot study with the computerized movement analysis battery Zebris. Movement Disorders 1998;13(Suppl 2):234.
Keus 2007b {published data only}
  • Keus SH, Bloem BR, van Hilten JJ, Ashburn A, Munneke M. Effectiveness of physiotherapy in Parkinson's disease: the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2007;13(2):115-21.
Klassen 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Klassen L, Dal Bello-Haas V, Sheppard M, Metcalfe A. Evaluating the benefits of group exercise and group exercise and education programs for individuals with Parkinson's disease. Physiotherapy 2007;93(Suppl 1):S91.
Kurtais 2008 {published data only}
  • Kurtais Y, Kutlay S, Tur BS, Gok H, Akbostanci C. Does treadmill training improve lower-extremity tasks in Parkinson disease? A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2008;18(3):289-91.
Lehman 2005 {published data only}
  • Lehman DA, Toole T, Lofald D, Hirsch MA. Training with verbal instructional cues results in near-term improvement of gait in people with Parkinson disease. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy 2005;29(1):2-8.
Mak 2008 {published data only}
  • Mak MK, Hui-Chan CW. Cued task-specific training is better than exercise in improving sit-to-stand in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2008;23(4):501-9.
  • Mak MK, Hui-Chan CW. Effect of 4-week training with audio-visual cues on sit-to-stand in Parkinsonian patients. Movement Disorders 2005;20(Suppl 10):388.
Marjama-Lyons 2002 {published data only}
  • Marjama-Lyons J, Smith L, Mylar B, Nelson J, Holliday G, Seracino D. Tai Chi and reduced rate of falling in Parkinson's disease: a single-blinded pilot study. Movement Disorders 2002;17(Suppl 5):190.
Meek 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Meek C, Sackley CM, Clarke CE, Soundy AA, Winward C, Esser P, et al. Long-term individual fitness enablement (LIFE) for Parkinson's disease: a feasibility study. Movement Disorders 2010; Vol. 25, issue Suppl 3:S713.
Nieuwboer 2007 {published data only}
  • Nieuwboer A, Kwakkel G, Rochester L, Jones D, van Wegen E, Willems AM. The effects of cueing therapy on gait and gait related mobility in people with Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE project. Movement Disorders 2006;21:S126.
  • Nieuwboer A, Kwakkel G, Rochester L, Jones D, van Wegen E, Willems AM, et al. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2007;78(2):134-40.
Protas 2005 {published data only}
  • Protas EJ, Mitchell K, Williams A, Qureshy H, Caroline K, Lai EC. Gait and step training to reduce falls in Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation 2005;20(3):183-90.
Purchas 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Purchas MA, MacMahon DG. The effects of Tai Chi training on general wellbeing and motor performance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD): a pilot study. Movement Disorders 2007;22(Suppl 16):260.
Sage 2009a {published data only}
Schenkman 1998 {published data only}
  • Schenkman M, Cutson TM, Kuchibhatla M, Chandler J, Pieper CF, Ray L, et al. Exercise to improve spinal flexibility and function for people with Parkinson's disease: a randomised, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998;46:1207-16.
Schilling 2008 {published data only}
  • Schilling BK, Ledoux MS, Pfeiffer RF, Karlage RE, Weiss LW, Falvo MJ. Effects of lower-body resistance training in persons with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2008;23(Suppl 1):639.
Schmitz-Hubsch 2006 {published data only}
Shankar 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Shankar A, de Bruin N, Bonfield S, Derwent L, Eliasziw M, Hu B, et al. Benefit of music therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2008;23(Suppl 1):608.
Shankar 2009 {published data only}
  • Shankar A, Labelle N, Derwent L, Bonfield S, Eliasziw M, Hu B, et al. Treadmill-walking with music shows a synergistic improvement in gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2009;24(Suppl 1):S281-2.
Stack 2012 {published data only}
  • Stack E, Roberts H, Ashburn A. The PIT: SToPP trial-A feasibility randomised controlled trial of home-based physiotherapy for people with Parkinson's disease using video-based measures to preserve assessor blinding. Parkinson's Disease 2012; Article Number: 360231:1-8.
Stozek 2003 {published data only}
  • Stozek J, Rudzinska M, Longawa K, Szczudlik A. The effect of the complex rehabilitation on posture and gait in Parkinson disease. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska 2003;37(Suppl 5):67-81.
Taheri 2011 {published data only}
  • Taheri H, Pejhan A, Taherzadeh J, Seyedahmadi M, Keavanloo F. Effect of a physical therapy program based on balance and gait in patients with Parkinson. Journal of Isfahan Medical School 2011;29(153):November.
Talakad 2011 {published data only}
  • Gupta A, Ganesan M, Pal P, Talakkad S. Effect of partial weight-supported treadmill gait training on balance in patients with Parkinson disease. 2011 Annual Assembly of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2011; Vol. 3, issue 10:S163-4.
  • Talakad S, Ganesan M, Gupta A, Pal PK, Trichur R. Effect of partial weight supported treadmill gait training on cardiovascular dynamics in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2011;26(Suppl. 2):s173.
Thaut 1996 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Bergen 2002 {published data only}
  • Bergen JL, Toole T, Elliott RG, Wallace B, Robinson K, Maitland CG. Aerobic exercise intervention improves aerobic capacity and movement initiation in Parkinson's disease patients. NeuroRehabilitation 2002;17(2):161-8.
Blackinton 2002 {published data only}
  • Blackinton MT, Summerall L, Waguespack K. Tertiary prevention in Parkinson disease: results from a preliminary study. Neurology Report 2002;26(3):160-165.
Bridgewater 1997 {published data only}
  • Bridgewater KJ, Sharpe MH. Aerobic exercise and early Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 1996;10:233-41.
  • Bridgewater KJ, Sharpe MH. Trunk muscle training and early Parkinson's disease. Physiotherapy Theory and Practise 1997;13(2):139-53.
Byl 2009 {published data only}
  • Byl N. Enhancing safe mobility in patients with Parkinson's disease: effect of dual task training during aerobic and moderate exercise. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2009;15(Suppl 2):S122.
Chouza 2011 {published data only}
Christofoletti 2010 {published data only}
  • Christofoletti G, Beinotti F, Borges G, Damasceno BP. Physical therapy improves the balance of patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16, issue Suppl 1:S58.
  • Christofoletti G, Freitas RT, Candido ER, Cardoso CS. Effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment on static and dynamic balance of subjects with Parkinson's disease. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa 2010;17(3):259-63.
Cianci 2010 {published data only}
  • Cianci H, Robinson K, Bunting-Perry L, Sollenberger J, Nooregian J, Duda J. Are wheeled walkers with visual cues efficacious to treat freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16, issue Suppl 1:S64.
Comella 1994 {published data only}
Forkink 1996 {published data only}
  • Forkink A, Toole T, Hirsch MA, Lehman DA, Maitland CG. The effects of a balance and strengthening program on equilibrium in Parkinsonism. Working Paper Series: Pepper Institute on Ageing and Public Policy. Vol. PI-96-33, Tallahassee (FL): Florida State University, 1996.
  • Toole T, Hirsch MA, Forkink A, Lehman DA, Maitland CG. The effects of a balance and strength training program on equilibrium in Parkinsonism: a preliminary study. NeuroRehabilitation 2000;14(3):165-174.
Formisano 1992 {published data only}
  • Formisano R, Pratesi L, Modarelli FT, Bonifati V, Meco G. Rehabilitation and Parkinson's disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1992;24(3):157-60.
Gibberd 1981 {published data only}
  • Gibberd FB, Page NG, Spencer KM, Kinnear E, Hawksworth JB. Controlled trial of physiotherapy and occupational therapy for Parkinson's disease. British Medical Journal 1981;282(6271):1196.
  • Gibberd FB, Page NG, Spencer KM, Kinnear E, Williams JB. A controlled trial of physiotherapy for Parkinson's disease. In: Rose FC, Capildeo R editor(s). Recent Progress in Parkinson's Disease. Tunbridge Wells: Pitman Medical, 1981:401-3.
Guo 2009 {published data only}
  • Guo LP, Jiang YP, Yatsuya H, Yoshida Y, Sakamoto J. Group education with personal rehabilitation for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2009;36(1):51-9.
Haas 2006 {published data only}
  • Haas CT, Turbanski S, Kessler K, Schmidtbleicher D. The effects of random whole-body-vibration on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation 2006;21(1):29-36.
Hurwitz 1989 {published data only}
  • Hurwitz A. The benefit of a home exercise regimen for ambulatory Parkinson's disease patients. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 1989;21(3):180-4.
Kapur 2011 {published data only}
Katsikitis 1996 {published data only}
Kaut 2011 {published data only}
  • Kaut O, Allert N, Coch C, Paus S, Grzeska A, Minnerop M, et al. Stochastic resonance therapy in Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation 2011;28(4):353-8.
King 2009 {published data only}
  • King LK, Almeida QJ, Ahonen H. Short-term effects of vibration therapy on motor impairments in Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation 2009;25(4):297-306.
Knobl 2011 {published data only}
  • Knobl PE. An evaluation of motor imagery and exercise interventions in Parkinson's disease. ProQuest 2011.
  • Knobl PE, Almeida QJ. Rehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: is it the sensory or attention focus that improves disease severity in sensory-attention focused interventions?. Movement Disorders 2011;26(Suppl 2):s153.
Koc 2012 {published data only}
  • Koc A. The effects of home exercise program on balance and activity of daily living in Parkinsonian patients. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 2012;18:s153.
Lee 2012 {published data only}
  • Lee HJ, Kim SY, Chae Y, Kim MY, Yin C, Jung WS, et al. QI dance in patient with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 2012;18(Suppl 2):S157.
Patti 1996 {published data only}
  • Patti F, Reggio A, Nicoletti F, Sellaroli T, Deinite G, Nicoletti F. Effects of rehabilitation therapy on parkinsonians' disability and functional independence. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 1996;10(4):223-31.
Pohl 2003 {published data only}
  • Pohl M, Rockstroh G, Ruckriem S, Mrass G, Mehrholz J. Immediate effects of speed-dependent treadmill training on gait parameters in early Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003;84(12):1760-6.
Rochester 2011 {published data only}
Sage 2009b {published and unpublished data}
  • Sage MD, Almeida QJ. A Canadian approach to exercise rehabilitation: a systematic evaluation of strategies to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24(Suppl 1):S276-7.
Stallibrass 2002 {published data only}
Tickle-Degnen 2010 {published data only}
  • Tickle-Degnen L, Ellis T, Saint-Hilaire M, Thomas CA, Wagenaar RC. Efficacy of self-management rehabilitation on quality of life outcomes in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 2009;24(Suppl 1):S377-8.
  • Tickle-Degnen L, Ellis T, Saint-Hilaire M, Thomas CA, Wagenaar RC. Self-management rehabilitation and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2010;25(2):194-204.
  • White DK, Wagenaar RC, Ellis TD, Tickle-Degnen L. Changes in walking activity and endurance following rehabilitation for people with Parkinson disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009;90(1):43-50.
Van Gerpen 2010 {published data only}
  • Van Gerpen J, Saucier M, Matthews M. Attentuating gain freezing and stride reduction in Pakinsonian patients with an attachable, adjustable laser (the Mobilaser): a pilot trial. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2010; Vol. 16, issue Suppl 1:S85.
Wade 2003 {published data only}
  • Wade DT, Gage H, Owen C, Trend P, Grossmith C, Kaye J. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for people with Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003;74(2):158-62.
Wells 1999 {published data only}
  • Wells MR, Giantinoto S, D'Agate D, Areman RD, Fazzini EA, Dowling D, Bosak A. Standard osteopathic manipulative treatment acutely improves gait performance in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 1999;99(2):92-8.
Yen 2011 {published data only}
  • Yi YC, Hwa LK, Hsia HM, Meei WR, Wu LT, Hwa LC, et al. Effects of virtual reality-augmented balance training on sensory organization and attentional demand for postural control in people with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial ... including Invited Commentary with Author Response. Physical Therapy 2011;91(6):862-78.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Canning 2009 {published data only}
  • Canning CG, Sherrington C, Lord SR, Fung VS, Close JC, Latt MD, Howard K, Allen NE, O'Rourke SD, Murray SM. Exercise therapy for prevention of falls in people with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. BMC Neurology 2009;9:4.
Ledger 2008 {published data only}
  • Ledger S, Galvin R, Lynch D, Stokes EK. A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of an individual auditory cueing device on freezing and gait speed in people with Parkinson's disease. BMC Neurology 2008;8:46.
Martin 2009 {published data only}
  • Martin CL, Morris ME, Menz HB, Taylor NF, Watts JJ. Home-based rehabilitation to reduce falls and disability in Parkinson's disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2009;24(Suppl 1):S268.
Schenkman 2009 {published data only}
  • Schenkman M, Shinowara N. Exercise, physical function and Parkinson's disease. Report Database 2009.
Schenkman 2012 {published data only}
  • Schenkman M. Endurance exercise in Parkinson's disease. controlled_trials.com 2012.
Woo 2010 {published data only}
  • Woo CW. The effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in patients with Parkinson's disease, a randomized controlled trial. clinicaltrials.gov March 2010.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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Berg 1992
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Bloem 2001
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Steffen 2008
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Talley 2008
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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