Intervention Review

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Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury

  1. Ruwan J Fernando1,*,
  2. Abdul H Sultan2,
  3. Christine Kettle3,
  4. Ranee Thakar2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 8 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 2 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002866.pub3


How to Cite

Fernando RJ, Sultan AH, Kettle C, Thakar R. Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD002866. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002866.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Urogynaecology, London, UK

  2. 2

    Croydon University Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Croydon, UK

  3. 3

    Staffordshire University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Staffordshire, UK

*Ruwan J Fernando, Department of Urogynaecology, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. ruwan.fernando@imperial.nhs.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 8 DEC 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. 'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. 'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 1 Faecal urgency.
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 2 Flatus incontinence.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 3 Faecal incontinence.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 4 Alteration in faecal continence.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 5 One or more anal incontinence symptoms (Faecal urgency, flatus incontinence, faecal incontinence, alteration in faecal continence) not prespecified outcome.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 6 Deterioration of anal incontinence symptoms.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 7 Perineal pain.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 8 Need for perineal injection at 3 months.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 9 Perineal pain/dyspareunia.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 10 Dyspareunia.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 11 Quality of life scale 1: lifestyle.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 12 Quality of life scale 2: coping and behaviour.
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 13 Quality of life scale 3: depression and self-perception.
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 14 Quality of life scale 4: embarrassment.
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 15 Anal incontinence score.
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Overlap versus end-to-end, Outcome 16 Anal incontinence score > 10.