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Computerized advice on drug dosage to improve prescribing practice

  1. Florence Gillaizeau1,
  2. Ellis Chan2,
  3. Ludovic Trinquart1,
  4. Isabelle Colombet3,
  5. RT Walton4,
  6. Myriam Rège-Walther5,
  7. Bernard Burnand5,
  8. Pierre Durieux6,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Published Online: 12 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002894.pub3


How to Cite

Gillaizeau F, Chan E, Trinquart L, Colombet I, Walton RT, Rège-Walther M, Burnand B, Durieux P. Computerized advice on drug dosage to improve prescribing practice. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD002894. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002894.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, French Cochrane Center, Paris, France

  2. 2

    Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Centre d'Epidémiologie Clinique, Paris, France

  3. 3

    Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris Descartes University, INSERM U872 eq20, Medical Informatics Department, Paris, France

  4. 4

    Barts and the London Medical School, Centre for Health Sciences, London, UK

  5. 5

    Lausanne University Hospital, Cochrane Switzerland, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland

  6. 6

    Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris Descartes University, INSERM U872 eq 22, Department of Public Health and Medical Informatics, Paris, France

*Pierre Durieux, Department of Public Health and Medical Informatics, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris Descartes University, INSERM U872 eq 22, 20 rue Leblanc, Paris, 75015, France. pierre.durieux@egp.aphp.fr. pierdurieux@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 12 NOV 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ageno 1998 {published data only}
Ageno 2000 {published data only}
  • Ageno W, Johnson J, Nowacki B, Turpie AG. A computer generated induction system for hospitalized patients starting on oral anticoagulant therapy. Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2000;83(6):849-52. [: 0340-6245]
Anderson 2007 {published data only}
  • Anderson JL, Horne BD, Stevens SM, Grove AS, Barton S, et al. Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation. Circulation 2007;116(22):2563-70.
Anderson 2008 {published data only}
  • Anderson JL. A double blind randomised trial of genotype guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiated on oral anticoagulation: the COUMAGEN study. Clinical Research in Cardiology 2008;97:8.
Asberg 2010 {published data only}
  • Asberg A, Falck P, Undset LH, Dorje C, Holdaas H, Hartmann A, et al. Computer-assisted cyclosporine dosing performs better than traditional dosing in renal transplant recipients: results of a pilot study. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2010;32(2):152-8.
Augstein 2007 {published data only}
Begg 1989 {published data only}
  • Begg EJ, Atkinson HC, Jeffery GM, Taylor NW. Individualised aminoglycoside dosage based on pharmacokinetic analysis is superior to dosage based on physician intuition at achieving target plasma drug concentrations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1989;28(2):137-41.
Blaha 2009 {published data only}
  • Blaha J, Kopecky P, Matias M, Hovorka R, Kunstyr J, Kotulak T, et al. Comparison of three protocols for tight glycemic control in cardiac surgery patients. Diabetes Care 2009;32:757-61.
Burton 1991 {published data only}
  • Burton ME, Ash CL, Hill DPJ, Handy T, Shepherd MD, Vasko MR. A controlled trial of the cost benefit of computerized Bayesian aminoglycoside administration. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1991;49(6):685-94.
Carter 1987 {published data only}
  • Carter BL, Taylor JW, Becker A. Evaluation of three dosage-prediction methods for initial in-hospital stabilization of warfarin therapy. Clinical Pharmacy 1987;6(1):37-45.
Casner 1993 {published data only}
  • Casner PR, Reilly R, Ho H. A randomized controlled trial of computerized pharmacokinetic theophylline dosing versus empiric physician dosing. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1993;53(6):684-90.
Chertow 2001 {published data only}
Claes 2005 {published data only}
  • Claes N, Buntinx F, Vijgen J, Arnout J, Vermylen J, Fieuws S, et al. The Belgian Improvement Study on Oral Anticoagulation Therapy: a randomized clinical trial. European H eart Journal 2005;26:2159-65.
Claes 2006 {published data only}
Cordingley 2009 {published data only}
  • Cordingley JJ, Vlasselaers D, Dormand NC, Wouters PJ, Squire SD, Chassin LJ, et al. Intensive insulin therapy: enhanced Model Predictive Control algorithm versus standard care. Intensive Care Medicine 2009;35(1):123-8.
Destache 1990 {published data only}
  • Destache CJ, Meyer SK, Bittner MJ, Hermann KG. Impact of a clinical pharmacokinetic service on patients treated with aminoglycosides: a cost-benefit analysis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 1990;12(5):419-26.
Fitzmaurice 2000 {published data only}
  • Fitzmaurice DA, Hobbs FD, Murray ET, Holder RL, Allan TF, Rose PE. Oral anticoagulation management in primary care with the use of computerized decision support and near-patient testing: a randomized, controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000;160(15):2343-8.
Gonzalez 1989 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez ER, Vanderheyden BA, Ornato JP, Comstock TG. Computer-assisted optimization of aminophylline therapy in the emergency department. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1989;7(4):395-401.
Hickling 1989 {published data only}
  • Hickling K, Begg E, Moore ML. A prospective randomised trial comparing individualised pharmacokinetic dosage prediction for aminoglycosides with prediction based on estimated creatinine clearance in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Medicine 1989;15(4):233-7.
Hovorka 2007 {published data only}
  • Hovorka R, Kremen J, Blaha J, Matias M, Anderlova K, Bosanska L, et al. Blood glucose control by a model predictive control algorithm with variable sampling rate versus a routine glucose management protocol in cardiac surgery patients: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2007;92:2960-4.
Hurley 1986 {published data only}
  • Hurley SF, Dziukas LJ, McNeil JJ, Brignell MJ. A randomized controlled clinical trial of pharmacokinetic theophylline dosing. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1986;134(6):1219-24.
Jowett 2009 {published data only}
  • Jowett S, Bryan S, Poller L, Van Den Besselaar AMHP, Van Der Meer FJM, Palareti G, et al. The cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted anticoagulant dosage: results from the European Action on Anticoagulation (EAA) multicentre study. Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2009; Vol. 7, issue 9:1482-90.
Kremen 2007 {published data only}
  • Kremen J, Blaha J, Kopecky P, Bosansk  L, Kotrlikova  E, Roubicek T, et al. The treatment of hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients: comparison of standard protocol and computer algorithm [In Czech] . Vnitrni Lekarstvi 2007;53(12):1269-73.
Leehey 1993 {published data only}
  • Leehey DJ, Braun BI, Tholl DA, Chung LS, Gross CA, Roback JA, et al. Can pharmacokinetic dosing decrease nephrotoxicity associated with aminoglycoside therapy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1993;4:81-90.
Le Meur 2007 {published data only}
Le Meur 2007 extract {published data only}
  • Individualized dosing of MMF is superior to fixed dosing in renal transplant patients. Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology 2008; Vol. 4, issue 1:9. [: 1745-8323]
Lesourd 2002 {published data only}
Manotti 2001 {published data only}
  • Manotti C, Moia M, Palareti G, Pengo V, Ria L, Dettori AG. Effect of computer-aided management on the quality of treatment in anticoagulated patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of APROAT (Automated Program for Oral Anticoagulant Treatment). Haematologica 2001;86(10):1060-70.
Mihajlovic 2003 {published data only}
Mihajlovic 2010 {published data only}
  • Mihajlovic G, Djukic-Dejanovic S, Jovanovic-Mihajlovic N, Jankovic S, Janjic V, Jovanovic M, et al. Comparison of safety between individualized and empiric dose regimen of amitriptyline in the treatment of major depressive episode. Psychiatria Danubina 2010; Vol. 22, issue 2:354-7. [: 0353-5053]
Mitra 2005 {published data only}
  • Mitra R, Marciello MA, Brain C, Ahangar B, Burke DT. Efficacy of computer-aided dosing of warfarin among patients in a rehabilitation hospital. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2005;84(6):423-7. [: 0894-9115]
Mungall 1994 {published data only}
  • Mungall DR, Anbe D, Forrester PL, Luoma T, Genovese R, Mahan J, et al. A prospective randomized comparison of the accuracy of computer-assisted versus GUSTO nomogram--directed heparin therapy. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1994;55(5):591-6.
Pachler 2008 {published data only}
  • Pachler C, Plank J, Weinhandl H, Chassin LJ, Wilinska ME, Kulnik R, et al. Tight glycaemic control by an automated algorithm with time-variant sampling in medical ICU patients. Intensive Care Medicine 2008;34(7):1224-30. [: 0342-4642]
Plank 2006 {published data only}
  • Plank J, Blaha J, Cordingley J, Wilinska ME, Chassin LJ, Morgan C, et al. Multicentric, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate blood glucose control by the model predictive control algorithm versus routine glucose management protocols in intensive care unit patients. Diabetes Care 2006;29(2):271-6. [: 0149-5992]
Poller 1998 pop1 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Shiach CR, MacCallum PK, Johansen AM, Munster AM, Magalhaes A, et al. Multicentre randomised study of computerised anticoagulant dosage. European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. Lancet 1998;352(9139):1505-9.
Poller 1998 pop2 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Shiach CR, MacCallum PK, Johansen AM, Munster AM, Magalhaes A, et al. Multicentre randomised study of computerised anticoagulant dosage. European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. Lancet 1998;352(9139):1505-9.
Poller 2002 {published data only}
  • Poller L. European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation (ECAA): studies on computer-assisted anticoagulant dosage. Turkish Journal of Haematology 2002;19(2):179-84. [: 1300-7777]
Poller 2003 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Jespersen J, Tripodi A, Van Den Besselaar AMHP, Van der Mer FJM, Shiac C, et al. European Action on Anti-coagulation - cost effectiveness of computer assisted anti-coagulant dosage. Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2003;1(Suppl 1):Abstract.
Poller 2008 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Keown M, Ibrahim S, Lowe G, Moia M, Turpie AG, et al. An international multicenter randomized study of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant dosage vs. medical staff dosage. Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2008; Vol. 6, issue 6:935-43.
Poller 2008 PARMA 5 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Keown M, Ibrahim S, Lowe G, Moia M, Turpie AG, et al. A multicentre randomised clinical endpoint study of PARMA 5 computer-assisted oral anticoagulant dosage. British Journal of Haematology 2008; Vol. 143, issue 2:274-83.
Poller 2009 DAWN AC {published data only}
  • Poller L, Keown M, Ibrahim S, Lowe G, Moia M, Turpie AG, et al. A multicentre randomised assessment of the DAWN AC computer-assisted oral anticoagulant dosage program. Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2009;101(3):487-94. [: 0340-6245]
Poller 2009 erratum {published data only}
  • Poller. Erratum: A multicentre randomised assessment of the DAWN AC computer-assisted oral anticoagulant dosage program (Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2009) 101 (487-494)). Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2009;101(4):794. [: 0340-6245]
Rodman 1984 {published data only}
  • Rodman JH, Jelliffe RW, Kolb E, Tuey DB, de Guzman MF, Wagers PW, et al. Clinical studies with computer-assisted initial lidocaine therapy. Archives of Internal Medicine 1984;144(4):703-9.
Rousseau 2010 {published data only}
  • Rousseau A, Laroche M-L, Venisse N, Loichot-Roselmac C, Turcant A, Hoizey G, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of individualized mycophenolate mofetil dosing in kidney transplant patients in the APOMYGRE trial. Transplantation 2010; Vol. 89, issue 10:1255-62.
Saager 2008 {published data only}
  • Saager L, Collins GL, Burnside B, Tymkew H, Zhang L, Jacobsohn E, et al. A randomized study in diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery comparing computer-guided glucose management with a standard sliding scale protocol. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 2008; Vol. 22, issue 3:377-82.
Sato 2011 {published data only}
  • Sato T, Carvalho G, Sato H, Lattermann R, Schricker T. Glucose and insulin administration while maintaining normoglycemia during cardiac surgery using a computer-assisted algorithm. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2011;13:79-84.
Terrell 2010 {published data only}
  • Terrell KM, Perkins AJ, Hui SL, Callahan CM, Dexter PR, Miller DK. Computerized decision support for medication dosing in renal insufficiency: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2010; Vol. 56, issue 6:623-9.
Theil 1993 fentanyl {published data only}
  • Theil DR, Stanley TE 3rd, White WD, Goodman DK, Glass PS, Bai SA, et al. Midazolam and fentanyl continuous infusion anesthesia for cardiac surgery: a comparison of computer-assisted versus manual infusion systems. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(3):300-6.
Theil 1993 midazolam {published data only}
  • Theil DR, Stanley TE 3rd, White WD, Goodman DK, Glass PS, Bai SA, et al. Midazolam and fentanyl continuous infusion anesthesia for cardiac surgery: a comparison of computer-assisted versus manual infusion systems. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(3):300-6.
Vadher 1997 {published data only}
  • Vadher B, Patterson DL, Leaning M. Evaluation of a decision support system for initiation and control of oral anticoagulation in a randomised trial. BMJ 1997;314(7089):1252-6.
Vadher 1997 pop1 {published data only}
  • Vadher BD, Patterson DL, Leaning M. Comparison of oral anticoagulant control by a nurse-practitioner using a computer decision-support system with that by clinicians. Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 1997;19(3):203-7.
Vadher 1997 pop2 {published data only}
  • Vadher BD, Patterson DL, Leaning M. Comparison of oral anticoagulant control by a nurse-practitioner using a computer decision-support system with that by clinicians. Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 1997;19(3):203-7.
Verner 1992 {published data only}
  • Verner D, Seligmann H, Platt S, Dany S, Almog S, Zulty L, et al. Computer assisted design of a theophylline dosing regimen in acute bronchospasm: serum concentrations and clinical outcome. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1992;43(1):29-33.
Wexler 2010 {published data only}
  • Wexler DJ, Shrader P, Burns SM, Cagliero E. Effectiveness of a computerized insulin order template in general medical inpatients with type 2 diabetes: a cluster randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2010; Vol. 33, issue 10:2181-3.
White 1987 {published data only}
  • White RH, Hong R, Venook AP, Daschbach MM, Murray W, Mungall DR, et al. Initiation of warfarin therapy: comparison of physician dosing with computer-assisted dosing. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1987;2(3):141-8.
White 1991 {published data only}
  • White RH, Mungall D. Outpatient management of warfarin therapy: comparison of computer-predicted dosage adjustment to skilled professional care. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 1991;13(1):46-50.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abbrecht 1982 {published data only}
  • Abbrecht PH, O'Leary TJ, Behrendt DM. Evaluation of a computer-assisted method for individualized anticoagulation: retrospective and prospective studies with a pharmacodynamic model. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1982;32(1):129-36.
Absalom 2003 {published data only}
  • Absalom AR, Kenny GNC. Closed-loop control of propofol anaesthesia using bispectral index: performance assessment in patients receiving computer-controlled propofol and manually controlled remifentanil infusions for minor surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2003;90(6):737-41. [: 0007-0912]
Albisser 2007 {published data only}
  • Albisser AM, Wright CE, Sakkal S. Averting iatrogenic hypoglycemia through glucose prediction in clinical practice: progress towards a new procedure in diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2007;76:207-14.
Alvis 1985 {published data only}
  • Alvis JM, Reves JG, Govier AV, Menkhaus PG, Henling CE, Spain JA, et al. Computer-assisted continuous infusions of fentanyl during cardiac anesthesia: comparison with a manual method. Anesthesiology 1985;63(1):41–9.
Barletta 2009 {published data only}
  • Barletta J, McAllen K, Eriksson E, Thayer S, Deines G, Blau S, et al. The effect of a computer-assisted insulin infusion protocol on glucose control and variability in a surgical intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine 2009:A25. [: 0090-3493]
Barras 2008 {published data only}
Barras 2010 {published data only}
  • Barras MA, Duffull SB, Atherton JJ, Green B. Individualized dosing of enoxaparin for subjects with renal impairment is superior to conventional dosing at achieving therapeutic concentrations. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2010;32(4):482-8.
Bartal 2003 {published data only}
Berg 2009 {published data only}
Burger 2003 {published data only}
  • Burger D, Hugen P, Reiss P, Gyssens I, Schneider M, Kroon F, et al. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nelfinavir and indinavir in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS 2003;17(8):1157-65. [: 0269-9370]
Bury 2005 {published data only}
Caraballo 2008 {published data only}
  • Caraballo PJ, North F, Peters S, Puffer M, Nyman M, Epps S, et al. Use of decision support to prevent errors when documenting height and weight in the hospital electronic medical record. AMIA 2008; Vol. Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium :890.
Carter 1987a {published data only}
  • Carter BL, Taylor JW, Becker A. Evaluation of three dosage-prediction methods for initial in-hospital stabilization of warfarin therapy. Clinical Pharmacy 1987;6(1):37-45.
Cavalcanti 2009 {published data only}
  • Cavalcanti AB, Silva E, Pereira AJ, Caldeira-Filho M, Almeida FP, Westphal GA, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing a computer-assisted insulin infusion protocol with a strict and a conventional protocol for glucose control in critically ill patients. Journal of Critical Care 2009;24:371-8.
Chan 2006 {published data only}
  • Chan ALF, Wang H-Y, Leung HWC. Incorporation of a gentamicin dosage calculator into a computerized prescriber-order-entry system. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2006;63(14):1344-5. [: 1079-2082]
Chiarelli 1990 {published data only}
Cohen 2007 {published data only}
  • Cohen P, Rogol AD, Howard CP, Bright GM, Kappelgaard A-M, Rosenfeld RG, et al. Insulin growth factor-based dosing of growth hormone therapy in children: a randomized, controlled study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2007;92(7):2480-6. [: 0021-972X]
Collins 2004 {published data only}
  • Collins CD, Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Miller AS, Sierawski SJ, Roux RK. Effect on amphotericin B lipid complex use of a clinical decision support system for computerized prescriber order entry. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2004;61(13):1395-9. [: 1079-2082]
Cupissol 1996 {published data only}
  • Cupissol D, BrŠS J, Gestin-Boyer C, Nouguier-Soul‚ J, Vian L, Tep A, et al. Validation of a new interactive software monitoring a controlled-flow infusion pump for cisplatin dosage regimen adjustment. Bulletin du Cancer 1996;83(8):664-76.
Demakis 2000 {published data only}
  • Demakis JG, Beauchamp C, Cull WL, Denwood R, Eisen SA, Lofgren R, et al. Improving residents' compliance with standards of ambulatory care. Results from the VA Cooperative Study on Computerized Reminders. JAMA 2000;284:1411-6.
Dillon 1989 {published data only}
  • Dillon KR, Dougherty SH, Casner P, Polly S. Individualized pharmacokinetic versus standard dosing of amikacin: a comparison of therapeutic outcomes. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1989;24:581-9.
Donovan 2010 {published data only}
  • Donovan JL, Kanaan AO, Thomson MS, Rochon P, Lee M, Gavendo L, et al. Effect of clinical decision support on psychotropic medication prescribing in the long-term care setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2010;58(5):1005-7. [: 0002-8614]
Doran 2004 {published data only}
  • Doran CV, Hudson NH, Moorhead KT, Chase JG, Shaw GM, Hann CE. Derivative weighted active insulin control modelling and clinical trials for ICU patients. Medical Engineering & Physics 2004; Vol. 26, issue 10:855-66. [: 1350-4533]
Dortch 2008 {published data only}
  • Dortch MJ, Mowery NT, Ozdas A, Dossett L, Cao H, Collier B, et al. A computerized insulin infusion titration protocol improves glucose control with less hypoglycemia compared to a manual titration protocol in a trauma intensive care unit. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2008;32(1):18-27. [: 0148-6071]
Evans 1998 {published data only}
  • Evans RS, Pestotnik SL, Classen DC, Clemmer TP, Weaver LK, Orme JF, et al. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(4):232-8. [: 0028-4793]
Evans 1998a {published data only}
  • Evans WE, Relling MV, Rodman JH, Crom WR, Boyett JM, Pui CH. Conventional compared with individualized chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(8):499-505. [: 0028-4793]
Evans 1999 {published data only}
Faber 2006 {published data only}
Feldstein 2006 {published data only}
  • Feldstein AC, Smith DH, Perrin N, Yang X, Rix M, Raebel MA, et al. Improved therapeutic monitoring with several interventions. A randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166:1848-54.
Fety 1998 {published data only}
  • Fety R, Rolland F, Barberi-Heyob M, Hardouin A, Campion L, Conroy T, et al. Clinical impact of pharmacokinetically-guided dose adaptation of 5-fluorouracil: results from a multicentric randomized trial in patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinomas. Clinical Cancer Research 1998;4(9):2039-45. [: 1078-0432]
Field 2009 {published data only}
  • Field TS, Rochon P, Lee M, Baril JL, Gurwitz JH. Computerized clinical decision support during medication ordering for long-term care residents with renal insufficiency. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety (PDS) 2009:S121-2. [: 1053-8569]
Field 2009a {published data only}
  • Field TS, Rochon P, Lee M, Gavendo L, Baril JL, Gurwitz JH. Computerized clinical decision support during medication ordering for long-term care residents with renal insufficiency. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2009;16(4):480-5. [: 1067-5027]
Fihn 1994 {published data only}
  • Fihn SD, McDonell MB, Vermes D, Henikoff JG, Martin DC, Callahan CM, et al. A computerized intervention to improve timing of outpatient follow-up: a multicenter randomized trial in patients treated with warfarin. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1994;9(3):131-9.
Fitzmaurice 1996 {published data only}
  • Fitzmaurice DA, Hobbs FD, Murray ET, Bradley CP, Holder R. Evaluation of computerized decision support for oral anticoagulation management based in primary care. British Journal of General Practice 1996;46(410):533-5. [: 0960-1643]
Fitzmaurice 1998 {published data only}
  • Fitzmaurice DA, Hobbs FD, Murray ET. Primary care anticoagulant clinic management using computerized decision support and near patient international normalized ratio (INR) testing: routine data from a practice nurse-led clinic. Family Practice 1998;15(2):144-6.
Flanders 2009 {published data only}
  • Flanders SJ, Juneja R, Roudebush CP, Carroll J, Golas A, Elias BL. Glycemic control and insulin safety: the impact of computerized intravenous insulin dosing. American Journal of Medical Quality 2009; Vol. 24, issue 6:489-97.
Fritsch 2009 {published data only}
Fukudo 2009 {published data only}
Gamelin 2008 {published data only}
  • Gamelin E, Delva R, Jacob J, Merrouche Y, Raoul JL, Pezet D, et al. Individual fluorouracil dose adjustment based on pharmacokinetic follow-up compared with conventional dosage: results of a multicenter randomized trial of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2008;26(13):2099-105.
Ghazal-Aswad 1997 {published data only}
  • Ghazal-Aswad S, Highley M, Bailey N, Lind M, Siddiqui N, Sinha DP, et al. A randomised phase III study to compare the toxicity and efficacy of carboplatin given by pharmacokinetically guided formula compared to conventional dosing in epithelial ovarian cancer. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76:26.
Gopakumaran 2004 {published data only}
  • Gopakumaran B. "Intelligent dosing system": a useful computer program for diabetes management?. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2004; Vol. 6, issue 3:336-8. [: 1520-9156]
Griffey 2012 {published data only}
  • Griffey R T, Lo H G, Burdick E, Keohane C, Bates D W. Guided medication dosing for elderly emergency patients using real-time, computerized decision support. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2012;19:86-93.
Guarracino 2001 {published data only}
  • Guarracino F, De Cosmo D, Penzo D, Tedesco M, Bossi A, Zussa C, et al. Automated protamine dose assay in heparin reversal management after cardiopulmonary by pass. Minerva Anestesiologica 2001;67(4):165-9. [: 0375-9393]
Guarracino 2003 {published data only}
  • Guarracino F, Penzo D, De Cosmo D, Vardanega A, De Stefani R. Pharmacokinetic-based total intravenous anaesthesia using remifentanil and propofol for surgical myocardial revascularization. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2003;20(5):385-90. [: 0265-0215]
Hermayer 2007 {published data only}
  • Hermayer KL, Neal DE, Hushion TV, Irving MG, Arnold PC, Kozlowski L, et al. Outcomes of a cardiothoracic intensive care web-based online intravenous insulin infusion calculator study at a Medical University Hospital. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2007;9(6):523-34. [: 1520-9156]
Hobbs 1996 {published data only}
Hoffman 2004 {published data only}
  • Hoffman AR, Strasburger CJ, Zagar A, Blum WF, Kehely A, Hartman ML, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of an individualized dosing regimen for adult growth hormone replacement therapy in comparison with fixed body weight-based dosing. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2004;89(7):3224-33. [: 0021-972X]
Horn 2002 {published data only}
  • Horn W, Popow C, Miksch S, Kirchner L, Seyfang A. Development and evaluation of VIE-PNN, a knowledge-based system for calculating the parenteral nutrition of newborn infants. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 2002;24(3):217-28.
Hwang 2004 {published data only}
  • Hwang HG, Chang IC, Hung WF, Sung ML, Yen D. The design and evaluation of clinical decision support systems in the area of pharmacokinetics. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine 2004;29(3-4):239-51.
Jankovic 1999 {published data only}
  • Jankovic SM, Timotijevic I, Mihajlovic GS, Dukic-Dejanovic S. Comparison of two approaches to amitriptyline dose individualisation. European Journal of Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics 1999;24(2):163-8. [: 0398-7639]
Jannuzzi 2000 {published data only}
  • Jannuzzi G, Cian P, Fattore C, Gatti G, Bartoli A, Monaco F, et al. A multicenter randomized controlled trial on the clinical impact of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The Italian TDM Study Group in Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41(2):222-30. [: 0013-9580]
Jellinek 2005 {published data only}
  • Jellinek SP, Cohen V, Likourezos A, Goldman WM, Lashley EL. Analyzing a health-system's use of unfractionated heparin to ensure optimal anticoagulation. Journal of Pharmacy Technology 2005;21(2):69-78. [: 8755-1225]
Judge 2006 {published data only}
  • Judge J, Field T S, DeFlorio M, Laprino J, Auger J, Rochon P, et al. Prescribers' responses to alerts during medication ordering in the long term care setting. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2006;13:385-90.
Jung 2009 {published data only}
  • Jung H, Land C, Nicolay C, De Schepper J, Blum WF, Schonau E. Growth response to an individualized versus fixed dose GH treatment in short children born small for gestational age: the OPTIMA study. European Journal of Endocrinology 2009; Vol. 160, issue 2:149-56.
Kazemi 2011 {published data only}
  • Kazemi A, Ellenius J, Pourasghar F, Tofighi S, Salehi A, Amanati A, et al. The effect of computerized physician order entry and decision support system on medication errors in the neonatal ward: e xperiences from an Iranian teaching hospital. Journal of Medical Systems 2011;35(1):25-37. [: 0148-5598]
Kirk 2005 {published data only}
Koide 2000 {published data only}
Kristrom 2009 {published data only}
  • Kristrom B, Aronson AS, Dahlgren J, Gustafsson J, Halldin M, Ivarsson SA, et al. Growth hormone (GH) dosing during catch-up growth guided by individual responsiveness decreases growth response variability in prepubertal children with GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2009;94(2):483-90. [: 0021-972X]
Kroese 2005 {published data only}
la Cour Freiesleben 2009 {published data only}
  • la Cour Freiesleben N, Lossl K, Bogstad J, Bredkjaer HE, Toft B, Rosendahl M, et al. Individual versus standard dose of rFSH in a mild stimulation protocol for intrauterine insemination: a randomized study. Human Reproduction 2009;24(10):2523-30.
Lester 2006 {published data only}
Ligtenberg 2006 {published data only}
  • Ligtenberg JJ, Meertens JH, Monteban-Kooistra WE, Tulleken JE, Zijlstra JG. Multicentric, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate blood glucose control by the model predictive control algorithm versus routine glucose management protocols in intensive care unit patients: response to Plank et al. Diabetes Care 2006; Vol. 29, issue 8:1987-8.
Lillis 2003 {published data only}
  • Lillis K. Automated dosing. Computerized physician order entry reduces risk of medication and dosing errors in neonatal ICU. Health Management Technology 2003;24(11):36-7. [: 1074-4770]
Liu 2006 {published data only}
  • Liu N, Chazot T, Genty A, Landais A, Restoux A, McGee K, et al. Titration of propofol for anesthetic induction and maintenance guided by the bispectral index: closed-loop versus manual control. A prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Anesthesiology 2006;104(4):686-95. [: 0003-3022]
Manotti 2001 maintenance {published data only}
  • Manotti C, Moia M, Palareti G, Pengo V, Ria L, Dettori AG. Effect of computer-aided management on the quality of treatment in anticoagulated patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of APROAT (Automated PRogram for Oral Anticoagulant Treatment). Haematologica 2001;86(10):1060-70.
Mar Fernandez 1996 {published data only}
  • Fernandez de Gatta MD, Calvo MV, Hernandez JM, Caballero D, San Miguel JF, Dominguez-Gil A. Cost-effectiveness analysis of serum vancomycin concentration monitoring in patients with hematologic malignancies. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1996;60(3):332-40. [: 0009-9236]
Mar Fernandez 2009 {published data only}
  • Mar Fernandez de Gatta MD, Victoria Calvo M, Ardanuy R, Dominguez-Gil A, Lanao JM, Moreno SR. Evaluation of population pharmacokinetic models for amikacin dosage individualization in critically ill patients. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology 2009;61(6):759-66. [: 0022-3573]
Matheny 2008 {published data only}
  • Matheny ME, Sequist TD, Seger AC, Fiskio JM, Sperling M, Bugbee D, et al. A randomized trial of electronic clinical reminders to improve medication laboratory monitoring. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2008;15:424-9.
Maurizi 2011 {published data only}
  • Maurizi AR, Lauria A, Maggi D, Palermo A, Fioriti E, Manfrini S, et al. A novel insulin unit calculator for the management of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2011;13:425-8.
McCluggage 2010 {published data only}
  • McCluggage L, Lee K, Potter T, Dugger R, Pakyz A. Implementation and evaluation of vancomycin nomogram guidelines in a computerized prescriber-order-entry system. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2010;67(1):70-5.
McCowan 2001 {published data only}
  • McCowan C, Neville RG, Ricketts IW, Warner FC, Hoskins G, Thomas GE. Lessons from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate computer decision support software to improve the management of asthma. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine 2001;26:191-201.
McCoy 2008 {published data only}
  • McCoy AB, Peterson JF, Gadd CS, Danciu I, Waitman LR. A system to improve medication safety in the setting of acute kidney injury: initial provider response. Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium 2008:1051.
McCoy 2010 {published data only}
  • McCoy AB, Waitman LR, Gadd CS, Danciu I, Smith JP, Lewis JB, et al. A computerized provider order entry intervention for medication safety during acute kidney injury: a quality improvement report. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2010;56(5):832-41.
McDonald 1976 {published data only}
  • McDonald CJ. Use of a computer to detect and respond to clinical events: its effect on clinician behavior. Annals of Internal Medicine 1976;84(2):162-7.
McDonald 1980 {published data only}
  • McDonald CJ, Wilson GA, McCabe GP, Jr. Physician response to computer reminders. JAMA 1980;244(14):1579-81.
McMichael 1993 {published data only}
  • McMichael J, Lieberman R, Doyle H, McCauley J, Fung J, Starzl TE. An intelligent and cost-effective computer dosing system for individualizing FK506 therapy in transplantation and autoimmune disorders. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1993;33(7):599-605.
McMullin 1997 {published data only}
  • McMullin ST, Reichley RM, Kahn MG, Dunagan WC, Bailey TC. Automated system for identifying potential dosage problems at a large university hospital. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 1997;54(5):545-9. [: 1079-2082]
McMullin 2004 {published data only}
  • McMullin ST, Lonergan TP, Rynearson CS, Doerr TD, Veregge PA, Scanlan ES. Impact of an evidence-based computerized decision support system on primary care prescription costs. Annals of Family Medicine 2004; Vol. 2, issue 5:494-8. [: 1544-1709]
McMullin 2005 {published data only}
  • McMullin ST, Lonergan TP, Rynearson CS. Twelve-month drug cost savings related to use of an electronic prescribing system with integrated decision support in primary care. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 2005;11(4):322-32. [: 1083-4087]
Motykie 1999 {published data only}
  • Motykie GD, Mokhtee D, Zebala LP, Caprini JA, Kudrna JC, Mungall DR. The use of a Bayesian forecasting model in the management of warfarin therapy after total hip arthroplasty. Journal of Arthroplasty 1999;14(8):988-93. [: 0883-5403]
Mullett 2001 {published data only}
Murchie 1989 {published data only}
  • Murchie CJ, Kenny GN. Comparison among manual, computer-assisted, and closed-loop control of blood pressure after cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia 1989;3(1):16-19.
Nash 2005 {published data only}
  • Nash IS, Rojas M, Hebert P, Marrone SR, Colgan C, Fisher LA, et al. Reducing excessive medication administration in hospitalized adults with renal dysfunction. American Journal of Medical Quality 2005;20(2):64-9. [: 1062-8606]
Newby 2002 {published data only}
  • Newby LK, Harrington RA, Bhapkar MV, Van de Werf F, Hochman JS, Granger CB, et al. An automated strategy for bedside aPTT determination and unfractionated heparin infusion adjustment in acute coronary syndromes: insights from PARAGON A. Journal of Thrombosis & Thrombolysis 2002;14(1):33-42. [: 0929-5305]
Nieuwenhuyze 1995 {published data only}
  • Van den Nieuwenhuyzen MC, Engbers FH, Burm AG, Vletter AA, van Kleef JW, Bovill JG. Computer-controlled infusion of alfentanil versus patient-controlled administration of morphine for postoperative analgesia: a double-blind randomized trial. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1995;81(4):671-9.
Nightingale 2000 {published data only}
Oppenheim 2002 {published data only}
  • Oppenheim MI, Vidal C, Velasco FT, Boyer AG, Cooper MR, Hayes JG, et al. Impact of a computerized alert during physician order entry on medication dosing in patients with renal impairment. Proceedings/AMIA Annual Symposium 2002:577-81. [: 1531-605X]
Overhage 1997 {published data only}
  • Overhage JM, Tierney WM, Zhou XH, McDonald CJ. A randomized trial of "corollary orders" to prevent errors of omission. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 1997;4:364-75.
Palen 2006 {published data only}
  • Palen TE, Raebel M, Lyons E, Magid DM. Evaluation of laboratory monitoring alerts within a computerized physician order entry system for medication orders. American Journal of Managed Care 2006;12:389-95.
Pea 2002 {published data only}
  • Pea F, Bertolissi M, Di Silvestre A, Poz D, Giordano F, Furlanut M. TDM coupled with Bayesian forecasting should be considered an invaluable tool for optimizing vancomycin daily exposure in unstable critically ill patients. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2002;20(5):326-32. [: 0924-8579]
Peck 1973 {published data only}
Peters 1996 {published data only}
  • Peters A, Kerner W. Analytical design and clinical application of an intelligent control system for insulin treatment [Analytisches Design und klinische Anwendung eineslernfähigen Regelsystems für die Pharmakotherapie mit Insulin]. Biomedizinische Technik 1996;41(1-2):2-13.
Peterson 1986 {published data only}
  • Peterson CM, Jovanovic L, Chanoch LH. Randomized trial of computer-assisted insulin delivery in patients with type I diabetes beginning pump therapy. American Journal of Medicine 1986;81(1):69-72.
Peterson 2005 {published data only}
  • Peterson JF, Kuperman GJ, Shek C, Patel M, Avorn J, Bates DW. Guided prescription of psychotropic medications for geriatric inpatients. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;165(7):802-7. [: 0003-9926]
Peterson 2007 {published data only}
  • Peterson JF, Rosenbaum BP, Waitman LR, Habermann R, Powers J, Harrell D, et al. Physicians' response to guided geriatric dosing: initial results from a randomized trial. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2007;129(Pt 2):1037-40. [: 0926-9630]
Phillips 2008 {published data only}
  • Phillips IE, Nelsen C, Peterson J, Sullivan TM, Waitman LR. Improving aminoglycoside dosing through computerized clinical decision support and pharmacy therapeutic monitoring systems. AMIA 2008; Vol. Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium.:1093.
Piazza 2009 {published data only}
  • Piazza G, Goldhaber SZ. Computerized decision support for the cardiovascular clinician: applications for venous thromboembolism prevention and beyond. Circulation 2009; Vol. 120, issue 12:1133-7. [: 0009-7322]
Poller 1993 {published data only}
  • Poller L, Wright D, Rowlands M. Prospective comparative study of computer programs used for management of warfarin. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1993;46(4):299–303.
Popovic-Todorovic 2003 {published data only}
  • Popovic-Todorovic B, Loft A, Bredkjaeer HE, Bangsboll S, Nielsen IK, Andersen AN. A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing an individual dose of recombinant FSH based on predictive factors versus a 'standard' dose of 150 IU/day in 'standard' patients undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. Human Reproduction 2003;18(11):2275-82. [: 0268-1161]
Proost 2003 {published data only}
  • Proost JH, Punt NC. Dose individualization in PharmDIS-e+. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2003;41(10):451-8. [: 0946-1965]
Roberts 2010 {published data only}
  • Roberts GW, Farmer CJ, Cheney PC, Govis SM, Belcher TW, Walsh SA, et al. Clinical decision support implemented with academic detailing improves prescribing of key renally cleared drugs in the hospital setting. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2010; Vol. 17, issue 3:308-12.
Rochon 2006 {published data only}
  • Rochon PA, Field TS, Bates DW, Lee M, Gavendo L, Erramuspe-Mainard J, et al. Clinical application of a computerized system for physician order entry with clinical decision support to prevent adverse drug events in long-term care. CMAJ 2006;174(1):52-4. [: 0820-3946]
Rood 2005 {published data only}
  • Rood E, Bosman RJ, van der Spoel JI, Taylor P, Zandstra DF. Use of a computerized guideline for glucose regulation in the intensive care unit improved both guideline adherence and glucose regulation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2005;12(2):172-80. [: 1067-5027]
Rothschild 2002 {published data only}
  • Rothschild JM, Lee TH, Bae T, Bates DW. Clinician use of a palmtop drug reference guide. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2002; Vol. 9, issue 3:223-9. [: 1067-5027]
Rothschild 2003 {published data only}
  • Rothschild JM, Keohane CA, Thompson S, Bates DW. Intelligent intravenous infusion pumps to improve medication administration safety. Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium 2003:992.
Rothschild 2005 {published data only}
  • Rothschild JM, Keohane CA, Cook EF, Orav EJ, Burdick E, Thompson S, et al. A controlled trial of smart infusion pumps to improve medication safety in critically ill patients. Critical Care Medicine 2005; Vol. 33, issue 3:533-40. [: 0090-3493]
Rotman 1996 {published data only}
  • Rotman BL, Sullivan AN, McDonald TW, Brown BW, DeSmedt P, Goodnature D, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a computer based physician workstation in an outpatient setting: implementation barriers to outcome evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 1996;3(5):340-8.
Roumie 2005 {published data only}
  • Roumie CL, Elasy TA, Greevy R, Griffin MR, Liu X, Stone WJ, et al. Improving blood pressure control through provider education, provider alerts, and patient education: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;145:165-75.
Ruiz 1993 {published data only}
  • Ruiz R, Borches D, Gonzalez A, Corral J. A new sodium-nitroprusside-infusion controller for the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology 1993;27(3):244-51.
Ryff-de Leche 1992 {published data only}
  • Ryff-de Leche A, Engler H, Nutzi E, Berger M, Berger W. Clinical application of two computerized diabetes management systems: comparison with the log-book method. Diabetes Research 1992;19(3):97-105.
Santana 2003 {published data only}
  • Santana VM, Zamboni WC, Kirstein MN, Tan M, Liu T, Gajjar A, et al. A pilot study of protracted topotecan dosing using a pharmacokinetically guided dosing approach in children with solid tumors. Clinical Cancer Research 2003;9(2):633-40. [: 1078-0432]
Santana 2005 {published data only}
  • Santana VM, Furman WL, Billups CA, Hoffer F, Davidoff AM, Houghton PJ, et al. Improved response in high-risk neuroblastoma with protracted topotecan administration using a pharmacokinetically guided dosing approach. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005; Vol. 23, issue 18:4039-47. [: 0732-183X]
Schneider 2005 {published data only}
  • Schneider BL, Gulseth MP, Cusick MA, Sisson DC, Tomsche JJ. Computer program to assist pharmacy management of an inpatient warfarin dosing service. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2005;62(22):2393-6. [: 1079-2082]
Schrezenmeir 2002 {published data only}
  • Schrezenmeir J, Dirting K, Papazov P. Controlled multicenter study on the effect of computer assistance in intensive insulin therapy of type 1 diabetics. Computer Methods & Programs in Biomedicine 2002;69(2):97-114. [: 0169-2607]
Shiach 2002 {published data only}
  • Shiach CR, Campbell B, Poller L, Keown M, Chauhan N. Randomised cross-over study of near patient testing versus hospital laboratory testing with computer assisted dosing in a community anticoagulant clinic. British Journal of Haematology 2002;117(Suppl 1):33.
Shieh 2006 {published data only}
  • Shieh J-S, Fu M, Huang S-J, Kao M-C. Comparison of the applicability of rule-based and self-organizing fuzzy logic controllers for sedation control of intracranial pressure pattern in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2006;53(8):1700-5. [: 0018-9294]
Soper 2006 {published data only}
  • Soper J, Chan GTC, Skinner JR, Spinetto HD, Gentles TL. Management of oral anticoagulation in a population of children with cardiac disease using a computerised system to support decision-making. Cardiology in the Young 2006;16(3):256-60. [: 1047-9511]
Sparano 2006 {published data only}
Strack 1985 {published data only}
  • Strack T, Bergeler J, Beyer J, Hutten H. Computer assisted conventional insulin therapy. Life Support Systems 1985;3 Suppl 1:568-72.
Tamblyn 2003 {published data only}
  • Tamblyn R, Huang A, Perreault R, Jacques A, Roy D, Hanley J, et al. The medical office of the 21st century (MOXXI): effectiveness of computerized decision-making support in reducing inappropriate prescribing in primary care. CMAJ 2003;169(6):549-56.
Tamblyn 2008 {published data only}
  • Tamblyn R, Huang A, Taylor L, Kawasumi Y, Bartlett G, Grad R, et al. A randomized trial of the effectiveness of on-demand versus computer-triggered drug decision support in primary care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2008;15(4):430-8. [: 1067-5027]
Tamblyn 2010 {published data only}
  • Tamblyn R, Reidel K, Huang A, Taylor L, Winslade N, Bartlett G, et al. Increasing the detection and response to adherence problems with cardiovascular medication in primary care through computerized drug management systems: a randomized controlled trial. Medical Decision Making 2010;30(2):176-88.
Terrell 2009 {published data only}
Thomson 2011 {published data only}
  • Thomson BKA, MacRae JM, Barnieh L, Zhang J, MacKay E, Manning MA, et al. Evaluation of an electronic warfarin nomogram for anticoagulation of hemodialysis patients. BMC Nephrology 2011;12:46.
Tierney 2005 {published data only}
Tomek 2011 {published data only}
  • Tomek A, Mat'oka V, Kumstov T, Rmek M, Arbochov I, T'ovkov K, et al. Warfarin loading dose guided by pharmacogenetics is effective and safe in cardioembolic stroke patients. Proceedings of the 20th European Stroke Conference; 2011 May 24-27; Hamburg, Germany. 2011.
Traugott 2011 {published data only}
  • Traugott KA, Maxwell PR, Green K, Frei C, Lewis JS, 2nd. Effects of therapeutic drug monitoring criteria in a computerized prescriber-order-entry system on the appropriateness of vancomycin level orders. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2011;68(4):347-52.
Trivedi 2007 {published data only}
  • Trivedi MH, Daly EJ. Measurement-based care for refractory depression: a clinical decision support model for clinical research and practice. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2007;88 Suppl 2:S61-71. [: 0376-8716]
Trivedi 2007a {published data only}
  • Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Gaynes BN, Stewart JW, Wisniewski SR, Warden D, et al. Maximizing the adequacy of medication treatment in controlled trials and clinical practice: STAR(*)D measurement-based care. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007;32(12):2479-89. [: 0893-133X]
van der Bol 2010 {published data only}
  • van der Bol JM, Mathijssen RHJ, Creemers G-JM, Planting AST, Loos WJ, Wiemer EAC, et al. A CYP3A4 phenotype-based dosing algorithm for individualized treatment of irinotecan. Clinical Cancer Research 2010;16(2):736-42. [: 1078-0432]
van Leeuwen 2005 {published data only}
  • van Leeuwen Y, Rombouts EK, Kruithof CJ, Van Der Meer FJM, Rosendaal FR. Comparison between two computer algorithms in oral anticoagulant dosage: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis 2005; Vol. 3:1.
van Leeuwen 2007 {published data only}
van Lent-Evers 1999 {published data only}
  • van Lent-Evers NA, Mathot RA, Geus WP, van Hout BA, Vinks AA. Impact of goal-oriented and model-based clinical pharmacokinetic dosing of aminoglycosides on clinical outcome: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 1999;21(1):63-73. [: 0163-4356]
Van Wyk 2008 {published data only}
  • Van Wyk JT, Van Wijk MAM, Sturkenboom MCJM, Mosseveld M, Moorman PW, van der Lei J. Electronic alerts versus on-demand decision support to improve dyslipidemia treatment: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2008; Vol. 117, issue 3:371-8. [: 0009-7322]
Verstappen 2007 {published data only}
  • Verstappen SMM, Jacobs JWG, van der Veen MJ, Heurkens AHM, Schenk Y, ter Borg EJ, et al. Intensive treatment with methotrexate in early rheumatoid arthritis: aiming for remission. Computer Assisted Management in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CAMERA, an open-label strategy trial). Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2007;66(11):1443-9. [: 0003-4967]
Verstappen 2010 {published data only}
  • Verstappen SMM, Bakker MF, Heurkens AHM, van der Veen MJ, Kruize AA, Geurts MAW, et al. Adverse events and factors associated with toxicity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate tight control therapy: the CAMERA study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2010; Vol. 69, issue 6:1044-8.
Wasmuth 2007 {published data only}
  • Wasmuth JC, Lambertz I, Voigt E, Vogel M, Hoffmann C, Burger D, et al. Maintenance of indinavir by dose adjustment in HIV-1-infected patients with indinavir-related toxicity. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2007;63(10):901-8.
Wasmuth 2007a {published data only}
  • Wasmuth JC, Rodermann E, Voigt E, Vogel M, Lauenroth-Mai E, Jessen A, et al. Comparison of indinavir + ritonavir 600 + 100 mg vs. 400 + 100 mg BID combinations in HIV1-infected patients guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. European Journal of Medical Research 2007;12(7):289-94. [: 0949-2321]
Whipple 1991 {published data only}
White 1984 {published data only}
  • White KS, Lindsay A, Pryor TA, Brown WF, Walsh K. Application of a computerized medical decision-making process to the problem of digoxin intoxication. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1984;4(3):571-6.
Willcourt 1994 {published data only}
  • Willcourt RJ, Pager D, Wendel J, Hale RW. Induction of labor with pulsatile oxytocin by a computer-controlled pump. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170(2):603-8.
Wilson 2002 {published data only}
  • Wilson WH, Grossbard ML, Pittaluga S, Cole D, Pearson D, Drbohlav N, et al. Dose-adjusted EPOCH chemotherapy for untreated large B-cell lymphomas: a pharmacodynamic approach with high efficacy. Blood 2002;99(8):2685-93. [: 0006-4971]
Yamamoto 2005 {published data only}
  • Yamamoto N, Tamura T, Murakami H, Shimoyama T, Nokihara H, Ueda Y, et al. Randomized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of docetaxel: dosing based on body-surface area compared with individualized dosing based on cytochrome P450 activity estimated using a urinary metabolite of exogenous cortisol. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23(6):1061-9. [: 0732-183X]

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 2011 {published data only}
  • Anderson JL, Horne BD, Stevens SM, Woller SC, Samuelson KM, Mansfield JW, et al. A randomized and clinical effectiveness trial comparing two pharmacogenetic algorithms and standard care for individualizing warfarin dosing: CoumaGen-II. Proceedings of the American Heart Association; 2011 Nov 12-16; Orlando, FL. 2011.
Anderson 2012 {published data only}
  • Anderson JL, Horne BD, Stevens SM, Woller SC, Samuelson KM, Mansfield JW, et al. A randomized and clinical effectiveness trial comparing two pharmacogenetic algorithms and standard care for individualizing warfarin dosing (CoumaGen-II). Circulation 2012;125(16):1997-2005. [PUBMED: 22431865]
Caduff 2013 {published data only}
  • Caduff Good A, Nobel D, Krahenbuhl S, Geisen C, Henz S. Randomised trial of a clinical dosing algorithm to start anticoagulation with phenprocoumon. Swiss Medical Weekly 2013;143:w13709. [PUBMED: 23299853]
Dumont 2012 {published data only}
  • Dumont C, Bourguignon C. Effect of a computerized insulin dose calculator on the process of glycemic control. American Journal of Critical Care 2012;21(2):106-15. [PUBMED: 22381987]
Horibe 2012 {published data only}
  • Horibe M, Nair BG, Yurina G, Neradilek MB, Rozet I. A novel computerized fading memory algorithm for glycemic control in postoperative surgical patients. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2012;115(3):580-7. [PUBMED: 22669346]
Jeanne 2012 {published data only}
  • Jeanne M, Clement C, De Jonckheere J, Logier R, Tavernier B. Variations of the analgesia nociception index during general anaesthesia for laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2012;26(4):289-94. [PUBMED: 22454275]
Joerger 2012 {published data only}
  • Joerger M, Kraff S, Huitema AD, Feiss G, Moritz B, Schellens JH, et al. Evaluation of a pharmacology-driven dosing algorithm of 3-weekly paclitaxel using therapeutic drug monitoring: a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulation study. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2012;51(9):607-17. [PUBMED: 22804749]
Kelly 2012 {published data only}
  • Kelly PJ, Kay-Lambkin FJ, Baker AL, Deane FP, Brooks AC, Mitchell A, et al. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment. BMC Public Health 2012;12:113. [PUBMED: 22325594]
Kim 2012 {published data only}
  • Kim S, Lee HW, Lee W, Um TH, Cho CR, Chun S, et al. New allele-specific real-time PCR system for warfarin dose genotyping equipped with an automatic interpretative function that allows rapid, accurate, and user-friendly reporting in clinical laboratories. Thrombosis Research 2012;130(1):104-9. [PUBMED: 21911247]
Magee 2012 {published data only}
  • Magee MC. Improving IV insulin administration in a community hospital. Journal of Visualized Experiments 2012;64:e3705. [PUBMED: 22710978]
Nieuwlaat 2011 {published data only}
  • Nieuwlaat R, Spyropoulos AC, Hubers L, Stehouwer A, Van Spall HG, Eikelboom JW, et al. Randomized comparison of the DAWN AC computer program and a simple manual nomogram for quality of warfarin dosing. 23rd Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2011; Vol. Proceedings of the 57th Annual SSC Meeting; 2011 Jul 23-28; Kyoto Japan;:302.
Nieuwlaat 2012 {published data only}
  • Nieuwlaat R, Hubers LM, Spyropoulos AC, Eikelboom JW, Connolly BJ, Van Spall HG, et al. Randomised comparison of a simple warfarin dosing algorithm versus a computerised anticoagulation management system for control of warfarin maintenance therapy. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2012;108(6):1228-35. [PUBMED: 23015161]
Overgaard 2010 {published data only}
  • Overgaard K, Corell P, Madsen P, Rasmussen RS. Computer-aid improves oral anticoagulant therapy. Proceedings of the 19th European Stroke Conference; 2010 May 25-28; Barcelona, Spain. 2010.
Pielmeier 2012 {published data only}
  • Pielmeier U, Rousing ML, Andreassen S, Nielsen BS, Haure P. Decision support for optimized blood glucose control and nutrition in a neurotrauma intensive care unit: preliminary results of clinical advice and prediction accuracy of the Glucosafe system. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2012;26(4):319-28. [PUBMED: 22581038]
Radhakrishnan 2012 {published data only}
  • Radhakrishnan A, Vido D, Tayur S, Akan M, Murali S. Genotype guided therapeutic dosing of warfarin in geriatric patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2012;59(13 Suppl 1):E1696.
Rasmussen 2012 {published data only}
  • Rasmussen RS, Corell P, Madsen P, Overgaard K. Effects of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy. Thrombosis Journal 2012;10(1):17. [PUBMED: 22935243]
Spaniel 2012 {published data only}
  • Spaniel F, Hrdlicka J, Novak T, Kozeny J, Hoschl C, Mohr P, et al. Effectiveness of the information technology-aided program of relapse prevention in schizophrenia (ITAREPS): a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18(4):269-80. [PUBMED: 22805901]
Tamblyn 2012 {published data only}
  • Tamblyn R, Eguale T, Buckeridge DL, Huang A, Hanley J, Reidel K, et al. The effectiveness of a new generation of computerized drug alerts in reducing the risk of injury from drug side effects: a cluster randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2012;19(4):635-43. [PUBMED: 22246963]
Whitehead 2012 {published data only}
Wiltshire 2012 {published data only}
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Durieux 2008
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