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Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

  1. Melainie Cameron1,*,
  2. Sigrun Chrubasik2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group

Published Online: 22 MAY 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 29 AUG 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002947.pub2

How to Cite

Cameron M, Chrubasik S. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD002947. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002947.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of the Sunshine Coast, School of Health and Sport Sciences, Cluster for Health Improvement, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, Australia

  2. 2

    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

*Melainie Cameron, School of Health and Sport Sciences, Cluster for Health Improvement, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs campus, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558, Australia.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 22 MAY 2014



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Adegbehingbe 2008 {published data only}
  • Adegbehingbe OO, Adesanya SA, Idowu TO, Okimi OC, Oyelami OA, Iwalewa EO, et al. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2008;3:34.
Altman 2001 {published data only}
Appelboom 2001 {published data only}
  • Appelboom T, Schuermans J, Verbruggen G, Henrotin Y, Reginster JY. Symptoms modifying effect of avocado/soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) in knee osteoarthritis: A double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 2001;30(4):242-7.
Badria 2002 {published data only}
  • Badria FA, El-Farahaty T, Shabana AA, Hawas SA, El-Batoty MF. Boswellia-curcumin preparation for treating knee osteoarthritis: A clinical evaluation. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2002;8(6):341-8.
Belcaro 2008 {published data only}
Bernhardt 1991 {unpublished data only}
  • Bernhardt M, Keimel A, Belucci G, et al. Double-blind, randomised, comparative study of Phytodolor N and placebo as well as an open comparison with Felden 20 Tabs involving convalescent inpatients with arthrotic joint alterations. Unpublished Pharma Report 1991. [: Steigrwald Pharmaceuticals, Germany]
Biegert 2004 {published data only}
  • Biegert C, Wagner I, Ludtke R, Kotter I, Lohmuller C, Gunaydin I, et al. Efficacy and safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: Results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials. The Journal of Rheumatology 2004;31(11):2121-30.
Biller 2002 {published data only}
  • Biller A. Results of two randomized controlled studies and of a post-marketing surveillance study investigating a Devil's claw extract [Ergebnisse zweier randomisierter kontrollierter Studien und einer Anwendungsbeobachtung mit Teufelskrallenextrakt]. In: Schulz V, Rietbrock N, Roots I, Loew D editor(s). In: Phylopharmaka VII. Darmstadt: Steinkopf-Verlag, 2002:81-92.
Bliddal 2000 {published data only}
  • Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, Weidner MS, Andersen LA, Ibfelt HH, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2000;8:9-12.
Blotman 1997 {published data only}
  • Blotman F, Maheu E, Wulwik A, Caspard H, Lopez A. Efficacy and safety of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee and hip [Efficacite et tolerance des insaponifiables d'avocat/soja dans le traitement de la gonarthrose et de la coxarthrose symptomatiques]. Revue du Rhumatisme [Éd Fr Joint Bone Spine] 1997;64(12):825-34.
Cao 2005 {published data only}
  • Cao Y, Shi Y, Zheng Y, Shi M, Lo SK. Blood-nourishing and hard-softening capsule costs less in the management of osteoarthritis knee pain: A randomized controlled trial. eCAM 2005;2(3):363-8.
Cheras 2010 {published data only}
  • Cheras PA, Myers SP, Paul-Brent P, Outerbridge KH, Nielsen GVL. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the potential modes of action of SheaFlex70 in osteoarthritis. Phytotherapy Research 2010;24:1126-31. [DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3075]
Chopra 2004 {published data only}
  • Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 2004;10(5):236-45.
Chopra 2011 {published data only}
  • Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Sarmukaddam S, Raut AK, et al. A randomized controlled exploratory evaluation of standardized Ayurvedic formulations in symptomatic osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI project. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011;8:1-12. [DOI: 10.1155/2011/724291]
Chopra 2013 {published data only}
  • Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, et al. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence trial. Rheumatology 2013;52(8):1408-17. [DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes414]
Cisar 2008 {published data only}
Farid 2007 {published data only}
Ferraz 1991 {published data only}
  • Ferraz MB, Pereira RB, Iwata NM, Atra E. Tipi. A popular analgesic tea: A double-blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis (letter). Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 1991;9:205-12.
Frerick 2001 {published data only}
  • Frerick H, Biller A, Schmidt U. A treatment schedule for coxarthrosis: A double-blind study with Devil's claw [Stufenschema bei coxarthrose: Doppelblindstudie mit Teufelskralle]. Der Kassenarzt 2001;5:34-41.
Gupta 2011 {published data only}
  • Gupta AK, Acharya K, Sancheti PS, Joshi RS. A double-blind, randomized, multicentric, placebo-controlled clinical trial of Antarth, a phytomedicine, in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2011;43:69-72. [DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.75674]
Huber 1991 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Huber B. Therapy of degenerative rheumatic diseases: Use of analgesic medication with Phytodolor N [Therapie degenerativer rheumatischer erkrankungen: Bedarf an zusatzlicher analgetischer medikation unter Phytodolor N]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1991;109:248-50.
Jung 2001 {published data only}
  • Jung YB, Roh KJ, Jung JA, Jung K, Yoo H, Cho YB, et al. Effect of SKI306X, a new herbal anti-arthritic agent, in patients with osteoarthritis if the knee: A double-blind placebo controlled study. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2001;29(3-4):485-91.
Jung 2004 {published data only}
  • Jung YB, Seong SC, Lee MC, Shin YU, Kim DH, Kim JM, et al. A four-week randomized, double-blind trial of the efficacy and safety of SKI306X: A herbal anti-arthritic agent versus diclofenac in osteoarthritis of the knee. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2004;32(2):291-301.
Kimmatkar 2003 {published data only}
  • Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee - A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2003;10:3-7.
Kuptniratsaikul 2009 {published data only}
Kuptniratsaikul 2011 {published data only}
  • Kuptniratsaikul V, Pinthong T, Bunjob M, Thanakhumtorn S, Chinswangwatanakul P, Thamlikitkul V. Efficacy and safety of Derris scandens benth extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2011;17:147-53. [DOI: 10.1089/acm.2010.0213]
Leblan 2000 {published data only}
  • Leblan D, Chantre P, Fournié B. Harpogophytum procumbens in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis: Four-month results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial versus diacerhein [L'harpagophyton dans le traitement de la gonarthrose et de la coxarthrose. Résultats à quatre mois d'une étude prospective multicentrique, contrôlée en double aveugle, versus diacerhéine]. Revue du Rhumatisme [Éd Fr Joint Bone Spine] 2000;67(5):462-7.
Lequesne 2002 {published data only}
Maheu 1998 {published data only}
Maheu 2013 {published data only}
  • Maheu E, Cadet C, Marty M, Moyse D, Kerloch I, Coste P, Dougados M, Mazières B, Spector TD, Halhol H, Grouin JM, Lequesne M. Randomised, controlled trial of avocado-soybean unsaponifiable (Piascledine) effect on structure modification in hip osteoarthritis: the ERADIAS study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2013;Jan 23:[Epub ahead of print]. [DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202485]
Majima 2012 {published data only}
  • Majima T, Inoue M, Kasahara Y, Onodera T, Takahashi D, Minami A. Effect of the Japanese herbal medicine, Boiogito,on the osteoarthritis of the knee with jointeffusion. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012;4:3. [DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-4-3]
Medhi 2009 {published data only}
Mehta 2007 {published data only}
  • Mehta K, Gala J, Bhasale S, Naik S, Modak M, Thakur H, et al. Comparison of glucosamine sulfate and a polyherbal supplement for the relief of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN25438351]. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2007;7:34. [DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-7-34]
Mills 1996 {published data only}
  • Mills SY, Jacoby RK, Chacksfield M, Willoughby M. Effect of a proprietary herbal medicine on the relief of chronic arthritic pain: A double-blind study. British Journal of Rheumatology 1996;35:874-8.
Oben 2009 {published data only}
Pavelka 2010 {published data only}
Piscoya 2001 {published data only}
  • Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, Okuhama NN, Miller MJS, Sandoval M. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: Mechanism of action of the species Uncaria guianensis. Inflammation Research 2001;50:442-8.
Rein 2004a {published data only}
  • Rein E, Kharazami A, Winther K. A herbal remedy, Hyben Vital (stand. powder of a subspecies of Rosa canina fruits), reduces pain and improves general wellbeing in patients with osteoarthritis - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Phytomedicine 2004;11:383-91.
Schadler 1988 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Schadler W. Phytodolor for the treatment of activated arthrosis. Rheuma 1988;8:288-90.
Schmelz 1997 {published data only}
  • Schmelz H, Hammerle HD, Springorum HW. Analgesic effect of a Devil's claw extract in various chronic degenerative joint diseases [Analgetische Wirkung eines Teufelskrallenwurzel-Extraktes bei verschiedenen chronisch-degenerativen Gelenkerkrankungen]. In: Chrubasik S, Wink M editor(s). Rheumatherapie mit Phytopharmaka. Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verlag, 1997:86-9.
Schmid 2000 {published data only}
  • Schmid B, Ludtke R, Selbmann HK, Kotter I, Tschirdewahn B, Schaffner W, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: Randomized placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial [Wirksamkeit und vertraglichkeit eines standardisierten weidenrindenextraktes bei arthose-patienten: Randomisierte, placebo-kontrollierte doppelblindstudie]. Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 2000;59:1-7.
Sengupta 2008 {published data only}
  • Sengupta K, Alluri KV, Satish AR, Mishra S, Golakoti T, Sarma KVS, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008;10:R85. [DOI: 10.1186/ar2461]
Sengupta 2010 {published data only}
  • Sengupta K, Krishnaraju AV, Vishal AA, Mishra A, Trimurtulu G, Sarma KVS, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 5-Loxin® and Aflapin® against osteoarthritis of the knee: A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2010;7(6):366-77.
Sontakke 2007 {published data only}
  • Sontakke S, Thawani V, Pimpalkhute S, Kambra P, Babhulkar S, Hingorani L. Open, randomized, controlled trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2007;39:27-9.
Teekachunhatean 2004 {published data only}
  • Teekachunhatean S, Kunanusom P, Rojanasthien N, Sananpanich K, Pojchamarnwitputh S, Lheiochaiphunt S, Pruksakorn S. Chinese herbal recipe versus diclofenac in symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Comlementary and Alternative Medicine 2004;4:19. [DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-4-19]
Vishal 2011 {published data only}
  • Vishal AA, Mishra A, Raychaudhuri SP. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study evaluates the early efficacy of Aflapin® in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2011;8(7):615-22.
Warholm 2003 {published data only}
  • Warholm O, Skaar S, Hedman E, Molmen HM, Eik L. The effects of a standardized herbal remedy made from a subtype of Rosa canina in patients with osteoarthritis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Current Therapeutic Research 2003;64(1):21-31.
Wigler 2003 {published data only}
Winther 2005 {published data only}
  • Winther K, Apel K, Thamsborg G. A powder made from seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 2005;34:302-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Anonymous 1993 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. The garlic treatment: detoxifying with garlic. [Die knoblauchkur: entschlackung durch knoblauch]. Natur & Heilen 1993;70(10):520-1.
Belcaro 2010 {published data only}
  • Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Alternative Medicine Review 2010;15(4):337-44.
Biswas 1997 {published data only}
  • Biswas NR, Biswas A, Pandey RM. EASE - a herbal preparation for rheumatoid arthritis, non specific arthritis and osteoarthritis. FACT: Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. Proceedings of 4th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care. Exeter (UK), 1997; Vol. 2, issue 4:186-7.
Biswas 1998 {published data only}
  • Biswas NR, Biswas K, Pandey M, Pandy RM. Treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and non-specific arthritis with a herbal drug: a double-blind, active drug controlled parallel study. JK Practitioner 1998;5(2):129-32.
Brien 2006 {published data only}
  • Brien S, Lewith GT, McGregor G. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) as a treatment for osteoarthritis: A review of safety and efficacy. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006;12:981-93.
Chantre 2000 {published data only}
  • Chantre P, Cappelaere A, Leblan D, Guedon D, Vandermander J, Fournie B. Efficacy and tolerance of Harpagophytum procumbens versus diacerhein in treatment of osteoarthritis. Phytomedicine 2000;7(3):177-83.
Chrubasik 1998 {published data only}
  • Chrubasik S, Wink M. Traditional herbal therapy for the treatment of rheumatic pain: Preparations from Devil's claw and stinging nettle. Pain Digest 1998;8:94-101.
Dharmananda 1985 {published data only}
  • Dharmananda S. Chinese herbal therapies for chronic joint pain. The American Chiropractor 1985;January:38-42.
Du 2006 {published data only}
  • Du T-X, Han X-F, Gao S-T. Effect of hanshibi granule on rheumatism due to blockage of cold and damp. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2006;10:148-50.
Falch 1997 {published data only}
  • Falch VB. Ginger - not only a spice. Review of its effect and efficacy profile [Ingwer - nicht nur ein Gewurz. Untersuchungen zu Wirkungen und Wirksamkeit]. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung 1997;137:47-52, 55-60.
Fang 2008 {published data only}
  • Fang R, Meng Q-C, Deng Y-J, Song G, Bai Y-P. Effects of Bu Shen Tong Luo decoction on matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 and interleukin-1beta content in the synovial fluid and serum of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research 2008;12:5581-5.
Gendo 1997 {published data only}
  • Gendo U. Chronische Polyarthritis in view of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) [Die chronische Polyarthritis aus der Sicht der traditionellen Chinesischen Medizin (TCM)]. Naturamed 1997;12(10):37-40.
Grahame 1981 {published data only}
Guyader 1984 {published data only}
  • Guyader M. Herbal anti-rheumatic therapies: A longitudinal, pharmacological and clinical study of the treatment of 50 osteoarthritic patients with Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) following hospital intervention [Les plantes anti-rhumatismales. Etude historique et pharmacologique, et etude clinique du nebulisat d'harpagophytum procumbens D.C. chez 50 patients arthrosiques suivis en service hospitalier]. Thesis for the award of the degree Doctor of Medicine. 1984.
Hamblin 2008 {published data only}
  • Hamblin L, Laird A, Parkes E, Walker AF. Improved arthritic knee health in a pilot RCT of phytotherapy. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 2008;128(5):255-62. [CENTRAL: 00651201]
Jacquet 2009 {published data only}
  • Jacquet A, Girodet P, Pariente A, Forest K, Mallet, Moore N. Phytalgic, a food supplement, vs placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009;11:R192. [DOI: 10.1186/ar2891]
Kagore 2011 {published data only}
  • Kogure T, Tatsumi T, Shigeta T, Fujinaga H, Sato T, Niizawa A. Effect of Kampo medicine on pain and range of motion of osteoarthritis of the hip accompanied by acetabular dysplasia: Case report and literature review. Integrative Medicine Highlights 2011;6:13-7. [DOI: 10.4137/IMI.S7884]
Kielczynski 1997 {published data only}
  • Kielczynski W. Osteoarthritis - clinical outcomes after uniform, long-term herbal treatment. The European Journal of Herbal Medicine 1997;3(2):29-35.
Kulkarni 1991 {published data only}
  • Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1991;33:91-5.
Lechner 2011 {published data only}
  • Lechner M, Steirer I, Brinkhaus B, Chen Y, Krist-Dungl C, Koschier A, et al. Efficacy of individualized Chinese herbal medication in osteoarthrosis of hip and knee: a double-blind, randomized-controlled clinical study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2011;17(6):539-47.
Levy 2009 {published data only}
  • Levy RM, Saikovsky R, Shmidt E, Khokhlov A, Burnett BP. Flavocoxid is as effective as naproxen for managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in humans: a short-term randomized, double-blind pilot study. Nutrition Research 2009;29:298-304.
Linsheng 1997 {published data only}
  • Linsheng W. Treatment of bony arthritis with herbal medicine and by massotherapy - analysis of 121 cases. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1997;17(1):32-6.
Loew 1996 {published data only}
  • Loew D, Schuster O, Mollerfeld J. Stability and biopharmaceutical quality. A postulate for bioavailability and effectiveness of Harpagophytum procumbens [Stabilitat und biopharmazeutische Qualitat. Voraussetzung fur Bioverfugbarkeit und Wirksamkeit von Harpagophytum procumbens]. In: Loew D, Rietcrock N editor(s). Phytopharmaka II. Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Darmstadt: Steinkopf-Verlag, 1996:83-93.
Long 2001 {published data only}
Lung 2004 {published data only}
  • Lung YB, Seong SC, Lee MC, Shin YU, Kim DH, Kim JM, et al. A four-week, randomized, double-blind trial of the efficacy and safety of SKI306X: a herbal anti-arthritic agent versus diclofenac in osteoarthritis of the knee. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2004;32:291-301.
Mishra and Singh 2003 {published data only}
  • Mishra LC, Singh BB, Vinjamury SP. The effectiveness of Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study. Althernative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2003;9:74-9.
Myers 2010 {published data only}
  • Myers S, O'Connor J, Fitton JH, Brooks L, Rolfe M, Connellan P, et al. A combined phase I and phase II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics: Targets & Therapy 2010;4:33-44.
Park 2009 {published data only}
  • Park SH, Kim SK, et al. Effects of AIF on knee osteoarthritis patients: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2009;13:33-7.
Rein 2004b {published data only}
  • Rein E, Kharazmi A, Thamsborg G, Winther K. A herbal remedy, made from a subspecies of rose-hip Rosa canina, reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2004;12 Suppl 2:S80.
Reuss 1981 {published data only}
  • Ruess D. Echinacin in the treatment of primary chronic polyarthritis [Echinacin in der Therapie der primar-chronischen Polyarthritis]. ZFA - Stuttgart 1981;57(11):865.
Rosen 2013 {published data only}
  • Rosen PD, Liakeas GP, Sadigim E, Bied AM. A pilot study assessing the short term use of Tanacetum parthenium for treatment of osteoarthritis. Integrative Medicine 2013;12(3):31-6.
Sagar 1988 {published data only}
  • Sagar VMV. A clinical study of Amavata with special reference to some indigenous drugs. Rheumatism 1988-89;24(3):3-7.
Saley 1987 {published data only}
  • Saley SR, Tilak MN, Deshmukh SS. Amavata - a clinical study of 41 cases. Rheumatism 1987;22(2):46-50.
Schaffner 1997 {published data only}
  • Schaffner W. Willow bark - an antirheumatic in modern phytotherapy? [Weidenrinde - Ein Antirheumatikum der modernen Phytotherapie?]. In: Chrubasik S, Wink M editor(s). Rheumatherapie mit Phytopharmaka. Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verglag, 1997:125-7.
Schmid 1998a {published data only}
  • Schmid B, Tschirdewahn B, Kotter I, Gunaydin I, Ludtke R, Selbmann HK, et al. Analgesic effects of willow bark extract in osteoarthritis: results of a clinical double-blind trial. FACT:Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 1998;3(4):186.
Schmid 2001 {published data only}
Srivastava 1989 {published data only}
Wang 1985 {published data only}
  • Wang ZM, Chang JY, et al. A report on 310 cases of articular rheumatism treated with Feng Shi Han Tong tablet. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1985;5(5):284-5, 260.
Wegener 2003 {published data only}
Winther 2004 {published data only}
  • Winther K, Kharazmi A, Rein E. A powder made from a subspecies of rosehip (Rosa canina) reduces WOMAC symptoms scores as well as cholesterol levels in patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2004;13 Suppl A:S93.
Xu 2005 {published data only}
  • Xu J-W, Ding J-X. An analysis on the clinical therapeutic effect of the manipulation matched with Chinese medical herb washing for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Beijing Teachers College of Physical Education 2005;1:9.
Yuelong 2011 {published data only}
  • Yuelong C, Hongsheng Z, Jian P, Feiyue L, Shaojian X, Jinghua G, et al. Individually integrated traditional Chinese medicine approach in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2011;12:160. [DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-160]
Zell 1993 {published data only}
  • Zell J, Ecker R, Batz H, Vestweber AM. Mistletoe for hip and knee arthrosis: Segment - or immunotherapy? [Misteltherapie bei Gon- und Coxarthrose: Segment - oder Immuntherapie? Eine Pilotstudie]. Heilkunst 1993;106(9):23-6.
Zeng 2008 {published data only}
  • Zeng Y-R, Fan Y-G, Wu F, Li X-P, Fan H-J. Effects of compound herb of invigorating kidney and promoting blood flow on serum matrix metalloproteinases-3, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, hyaluronic acid, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research 2008;12:5436-9.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Gao 2012 {published data only}
  • Gao G, Wu H, Tian J, Du J, Xie X, Gao J. Clinical efficacy of bushen huoxue qubi decoction on treatment of knee-osteoarthritis and its effect on hemarheology, anti-inflammation and antioxidation. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2012;37(3):390-6.
Hochberg 2012 {published data only}
  • Hochberg MC, Lao LX, Langenberg P, Fong HHS, Lee DYW, Berman B. Efficacy and Safety of the Chinese Herbal Compound Hou-Lou-Xiao-Ling Dan in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Results of a Phase II International Study [Abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2012;64(10):S112. [DOI: 10.1002/art.37993]
Kang 2011 {published data only}
  • Kang XZ, Wu QF, Jie HY. Clinical study on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis by wangbi tablet. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of integrated Traditional and Western Medicine] 2011;31(9):1205-8.
Liu 2006 {published data only}
  • Liu H-B, Zhang J-F, Zhong L-W, Yang H. Manipulation plus pyrola compound traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of senile osteoarthritis of knee. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2006;10(23):30-2. [CENTRAL: 00613036]
Pinsornsak 2012 {published data only}
  • Pinsornsak P, Niempoog S. The efficacy of Curcuma longa L. extract as an adjuvant therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2012;95 Suppl 1:S51-8.
Tao 2009 {published data only}
  • Tao QW, Xu Y, Jin DE, Yan XP. Clinical efficacy and safety of Gubitong Recipe () in treating osteoarthritis of knee joint. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 2009;15(6):458-61.
Zhong 2006 {published data only}
  • Zhong Q-S, Ye G-H, Wang H-Z, Lin S-H. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis by invigorating the kidney, dispelling the cold and activating the collaterals: A randomized controlled study. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2006;10:177-9.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Altman 1986
Altman 1990
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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