Intervention Review

Oral oestrogen and combined oestrogen/progestogen therapy versus placebo for hot flushes

  1. Alastair H MacLennan1,*,
  2. Jessica L Broadbent2,
  3. Sue Lester3,
  4. Vivienne Moore4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group

Published Online: 18 OCT 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 16 AUG 2004

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002978.pub2

How to Cite

MacLennan AH, Broadbent JL, Lester S, Moore V. Oral oestrogen and combined oestrogen/progestogen therapy versus placebo for hot flushes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002978. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002978.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, Discipline of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  3. 3

    Hanson Institute, Arthritis Research Lab, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Adelaide, Department of Public Health, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Alastair H MacLennan, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Australia.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 OCT 2004




  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary


Hot flushes and night sweats are common symptoms experienced by menopausal women. Hormone therapy (HT), containing oestrogens alone or oestrogens together with progestogens in a cyclic or continuous regimen, is often recommended for their alleviation.


To examine the effect of oral HT compared to placebo on these vasomotor symptoms and the risk of early onset side-effects.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders Group and Subfertility Group trials register (searched May 2002). This register is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, the handsearching of 20 relevant journals and conference proceedings, and searches of several key grey literature sources. We also contacted all relevant pharmaceutical companies, The Journal of the International Menopause Society and Climacteric.

Selection criteria

Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of oral HT for at least three months duration.

Data collection and analysis

Study quality and outcome data were assessed independently. Random effects models were considered appropriate due to the variety of trial methodologies. The meta-analyses were explored for sensitivity to trial quality and therapy duration. Symptom frequency and severity were assessed separately, together with withdrawals and side-effects. Frequency data were analysed using the Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) between treatment and placebo outcomes. For severity data, odds ratios were estimated from the proportional odds model. From 115 references originally identified, 24 trials meeting the selection criteria were included in the review. Study participants totaled 3,329. Trial duration ranged from three months to three years.

Main results

There was a significant reduction in the weekly hot flush frequency for HT compared to placebo (WMD -17.92, 95% CI -22.86 to -12.99). This was equivalent to a 75% reduction in frequency (95% CI 64.3 to 82.3) for HT relative to placebo. Symptom severity was also significantly reduced compared to placebo (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.23). Withdrawal for lack of efficacy occurred significantly more often on placebo therapy (OR 10.51, 95% CI 5.00 to 22.09). Withdrawal for adverse events, commonly breast tenderness, oedema, joint pain and psychological symptoms, was not significantly increased (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.90), although the occurrence of any adverse events was significantly increased for HT (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.99). In women who were randomised to placebo treatment, a 57.7% (95% CI 45.1 to 67.7) reduction in hot flushes was observed between baseline and end of study.

Authors' conclusions

Oral HT is highly effective in alleviating hot flushes and night sweats. Therapies purported to reduce such symptoms must be assessed in blinded trials against a placebo or a validated therapy because of the large placebo effect seen in well conducted randomised controlled trials, and also because during menopause symptoms may fluctuate and after menopause symptoms often decline. Withdrawals due to side-effects were only marginally increased in the HT groups despite the inability to tailor HT in these fixed dose trials. Comparisons of hormonal doses, product types or regimens require analysis of trials with these specific "within study" comparisons.


Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary

Oral hormone therapies help reduce the frequency and severity of hot flushes and night sweats caused by menopause.

Hot flushes and night sweats are common symptoms around the menopause (the end of menstrual periods in a woman's life). During menopause there is a major reduction in sex hormones produced by the ovaries that cause these symptoms. The review of scientifically well conducted trials found that taking oral oestrogen or combined oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy greatly reduces the frequency and severity of these symptoms. This effect was significantly greater than the reduction of symptoms seen with placebo (dummy tablets) over time. No adverse effects were found but as the trials were only short term, more research is needed.