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Drug therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults

  1. Martina Mason1,
  2. Emma J Welsh2,
  3. Ian Smith1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 5 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003002.pub3


How to Cite

Mason M, Welsh EJ, Smith I. Drug therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD003002. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003002.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Papworth Hospital, Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre, Cambridge, UK

  2. 2

    St George's University of London, Population Health Sciences and Education, London, UK

*Ian Smith, Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. ian.smith@papworth.nhs.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Brownell 1982 {published data only}
Bruckert 2010 {published data only}
  • Bruckert E, Duchene E, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Hansel B, Ansquer JC, Dubois A, et al. Proof of concept study: does fenofibrate have a role in sleep apnoea syndrome?. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2010; Vol. 26, issue 5:1185-92.
Carley 2007 {published data only}
  • Carley D, Olopade C, Seink S, Radulovacki M. Serotonin antagonist improves obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep Medicine 2003;4 Suppl 1:6.
  • Carley DW, Olopade C, Ruigt GS, Radulovacki M. Efficacy of mirtazapine in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 2007; Vol. 30, issue 1:35-41.
Clarenbach 2008 {published data only}
Cook 1989 {published data only}
Diamond 1982 {published data only}
  • Diamond E, Druz W, D'Souza V, Sharp JT. Effect of Naloxone in obstructive sleep apnoea. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1982;125 Suppl 4:235.
Eckert 2011 {published data only}
  • Eckert DJ, Owens RL, Kehlman GB, Wellman A, Rahangdale S, Yim-Yeh S, et al. Eszopiclone increases the respiratory arousal threshold and lowers the apnoea/hypopnoea index in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with a low arousal threshold. Clinical Science 2011;120:505-14.
Espinoza 1987 {published data only}
  • Espinoza H, Antic R, Thornton A, McEvoy D. The effects of aminophylline on sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 1987;136:80-4.
Ferber 1993 {published data only}
Hedner 1996 {published data only}
  • Hedner J, Grunstein R, Eriksson B, Ejnell H. A double blind, randomized trial of sabeluzole - a putative glutamate antagonist - in obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep 1996;19(4):287-9.
Hedner 2003 {published data only}
  • Hedner J, Kraiczi H, Peker Y, Murphy P. Reduction of sleep-disordered breathing after physostigmine. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2003;168(10):1246-51.
Hein 2000 {published data only}
  • Hein H, Behnke G, Jörres RA, Magnussen H. The therapeutic effect of theophylline in mild obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: results of repeated measurements with portable recording devices at home. European Journal of Medical Research 2000;5:391-9.
Heitmann 1998 {published data only}
  • Heitmann J, Grote L, Knaack L, Kohler U, Hinder M, Peter JH. Cardiovascular effects of mibefradil in hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1998;54(9-10):691-6.
Issa 1992 {published data only}
Jokic 1998 {published data only}
  • Jokic R, Klimaszewski A, Mink J, Fitzpatrick MF. Surface tension forces in sleep apnea: the role of a soft tissue lubricant: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157(5):1522-5.
Kiely 2004 {published data only}
  • Kiely JL, Nolan P, McNicholas WT. Effects of intranasal fluticasone propionate on snoring and sleep apnea. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157 Suppl 3:A283.
  • Kiely JL, Nolan P, McNicholas WT. Intranasal corticosteroid therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with co-existing rhinitis. Thorax 2004;59(1):50-5.
Kraiczi 1999 {published data only}
  • Kraiczi H, Hedner J, Dahlöf, Ejnell H, Carlson. Effect of serotonin uptake inhibition on breathing during sleep and daytime symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 1999;22(1):61-7.
Mangin 1983 {published data only}
  • Krieger J, Mangin P, Kurtz D. Effects of a ventilatory stimulant, almitrine bismesylate, in the sleep apnea syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1982;32(5):697-705.
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Marshall 2008 {published data only}
  • Marshall NS, Yee BJ, Desai AV, Buchanan PR, Wong KKH, Crompton R, et al. Two randomized placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 2008; Vol. 31, issue 6:824-31.
Mendleson 1991 {published data only}
Moraes 2008 {published data only}
  • Moraes W, Poyares D, Sukys-Claudino L, Guilleminault C, Tufik S. Donepezil improves obstructive sleep apnea in Alzheimer disease: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Chest 2008; Vol. 133, issue 3:677-83.
Mulloy 1992 {published data only}
Prasad 2010 {published data only}
  • Prasad B, Radulovacki M, Olopade C, Herdegen JJ, Logan T, Carley DW. Prospective trial of efficacy and safety of ondansetron and fluoxetine in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 2010; Vol. 33, issue 7:982-9. [: 0161-8105]
Rasche 1999 {published data only}
  • Rasche K, Duchna HW, Lauer J, Orth M, Kotterba S, Bauer TT, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea efficacy and safety of a long-acting beta2-agonist. Sleep and Breathing 1999;3(4):125-30.
  • Rasche K, Duchna HW, Orth M, Bauer TT, Lauer J, Podbregar D, et al. Effect of salmeterol in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pneumologie 1998;52(1):11-3.
Stepanski 1988 {published data only}
  • Stepanski E, Conway W, Young D, Zorick F, Wittig R, Roth T. A double-blind trial of protriptyline in the treatment of sleep apnoea syndrome. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal 1988;36(1):5-8.
Stradling 2003 {published data only}
  • Stradling J, Smith D, Radulovoacki M, Carley D. Effect of ondansetron on moderate obstructive sleep apnoea, a single night placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Sleep Research 2003;12:167-70.
  • Stradling JR, Smith D, Radulovacki M, Carley DW. Effect of ondansetron on moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), single night, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. American Thoracic Society International Conference; May 17-22; Atlanta, Georgia. 2002.
Sukys-Claudino 2012 {published data only}
  • Sukys-Claudino L, Moraes W, Guilleminault C, Tufik S, Poyares D. Beneficial effect of donepezil on obstructive sleep apnea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep Medicine 2012;13(3):290-6. [DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2011.09.014]
  • Sukys-Claudino L, Moraes W, Poyares D, Tufik S. Donepezil improves obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness. Sleep 2011;34:A144 [0416].
  • Sukys-Claudino L, Moraes W, Poyares D, Tufik S. Donepezil treatment for sleep apnea in non-demented patients. Sleep Medicine 2009; Vol. 10 Suppl 2:79.
Suratt 1986 {published data only}
  • Suratt PM, Wilhoit SC, Brown ED, Findley LJ. Effect of doxapram on obstructive sleep apnea. Bulletin Europeen de Physiopathologie Respiratoire 1986;22(2):127-31.
Whyte 1988 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ami-Hai 1986 {published data only}
Anonymous 1997 {published data only}
Atkinson 1985 {published data only}
Bartel 1997 {published data only}
  • Bartel PR, Loock M, Becker P, Robinson E, Van der Meyden C, Rossouw S. Short-term antihypertensive medication does not exacerbate sleep- disordered breathing in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. American Journal of Hypertension 1997;10(6):640-5.
Baughman 2009 {published data only}
  • Baughman RP, Malhorta A, Surdulescu V, Lower EE. Armodafinil (r-modafinil) for fatigue in sarcoidosis: not just treating hypersomnolence. Chest 2009;136(4):128S.
Bittencourt 2008 {published data only}
  • Bittencourt LRA, Lucchesi LM, Rueda AD, Garbuio SA, Palombini LO, Guilleminault C, et al. Placebo and modafinil effect on sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2008; Vol. 32, issue 2:552-9.
Black 2010 {published data only}
  • Black JE, Hull SG, Tiller J, Yang R, Harsh JR. The long-term tolerability and efficacy of armodafinil in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea, shift work disorder, or narcolepsy: an open-label extension study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2010; Vol. 6, issue 5:458-66. [: 1550-9389]
Block 1981 {published data only}
Bortolotti 2006 {published data only}
  • Bortolotti M, Gentilini L, Morselli C, Giovannini M. Obstructive sleep apnoea is improved by a prolonged treatment of gastrooesophageal reflux with omeprazole. Digestive and Liver Disease 2006;38(2):78-81.
Buttner 2003 {published data only}
Camacho 1995 {published data only}
Catesby-Ware 1983 {published data only}
  • Catesby-Ware J. Tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of insomnia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1983;2:25-7.
Cistulli 1994 {published data only}
Clark 1979 {published data only}
Collop 1994 {published data only}
Conway 1982 {published data only}
Darwish 2010 {published data only}
  • Darwish M, Kirby M, D'Andrea DM, Yang R, Hellriegel ET, Robertson P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of armodafinil and modafinil after single and multiple doses in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, open-label, crossover study. Clinical Therapeutics 2010; Vol. 32, issue 12:2074-87.
Davila 1994 {published data only}
  • Davila DG, Hurt RD, Offord KP, Harris CD, Shepard JW Jr. Acute effects of transdermal nicotine on sleep architecture, snoring, and sleep-disordered breathing in nonsmokers. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 1994;150(2):469-74.
Demirhan 2010 {published data only}
  • Demirhan H, Aksoy F, Ozturan O, Yildirim YS, Veyseller B. Medical treatment of adenoid hypertrophy with "fluticasone propionate nasal drops". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2010; Vol. 74, issue 7:773-6.
Di Martino 1999 {published data only}
  • Di Martino E, Saadi R, Emmerling O, Werner E. Drug treatment of sleep apnoea: results of a short term course of theophylline [Medikamentöse Therapie des Schlafapnoesyndoms: Ergebnisse der Kurzzeittheophyllinbehandlung]. Rhinologie 1999;78:120-4.
Dinges 2003 {published data only}
  • Dinges DF, Weaver TE. Effects of modafinil on sustained attention performance and quality of life in OSA patients with residual sleepiness while being treated with nCPAP. Sleep Medicine 2003;4(5):393-402.
Dinges 2007 {published data only}
  • Dinges D, Hirshkowitz M, Sangal R, Bogan R. Modafinil improves behavioral alertness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea who remain sleepy on nasal continuous positive airway pressure [Abstract]. Sleep 2007; Vol. 30 Suppl:A179.
Dontenwill 1997 {published data only}
  • Dontenwill M, Molines A, Bricca G, Krieger J, Bousquet P. Hypertension and sleep apnoea syndrome: detection of a circulating immunoreactive substance with anti-clonidine antibodies. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 1997;11 Suppl:101-2.
Dorow 1991 {published data only}
  • Dorow P, Kaufmann U, Thalhofer S, Schörder J. Treatment of sleep apnoea with theophylline [Therapie der Schlafapnoe mit abendlicher Applikation von Theophyllin (Uniphyllin)]. Pneumologie 1991;45:287-9.
El 2006 {published data only}
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El Solh 2006 {published data only}
  • El Solh AA, Saliba R, Bosinski T, Grant BJ, Berbary E, Miller N. Allopurinol improves endothelial function in sleep apnoea: a randomised controlled study. European Respiratory Journal 2006;27(5):997-1002.
Empson 1999 {published data only}
Epstein 1998 {published data only}
  • Epstein L. Non-surgical alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure. Respiratory Care 1998;43(5):370-81.
Erman 2003 {published data only}
  • Erman MK. Modafinil as adjunctive therapy improves quality of life in sleep apnea. 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2003 May 17-22; San Francisco. San Francisco, 2003:No.120.
Esteitie 2011 {published data only}
  • Esteitie R, Emani J, Sharma S, Suskind DL, Baroody FM. Effect of fluticasone furoate on interleukin 6 secretion from adenoid tissues in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 2011; Vol. 137, issue 6:576-82.
Fietze 1993 {published data only}
  • Fietz I, Warmuth R, Quispe-Bravo S, Waschke K. Results of pharmacological, mechanical and surgical treatments in obstructive sleep apnoea [Therapeutische Konsequenzen des obstruktiven Schlafapnoesyndroms - Ergebnisse medikamentöser, mechanischer und chirurgischer Behandlung]. Pneumologie 1993;47:716-21.
Finnimore 1995 {published data only}
George 2010 {published data only}
  • George CFP, Feldman N, Inhaber N, Steininger TL, Grzeschik SM, Lai C, et al. A safety trial of sodium oxybate in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Acute effects on sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Medicine 2010; Vol. 11, issue 1:38-42.
George 2011 {published data only}
  • George CFP, Feldman N, Zheng Y, Steininger TL, Grzeschik SM, Lai C, et al. A 2-week, polysomnographic, safety study of sodium oxybate in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep and Breathing 2011; Vol. 15, issue 1:13-20.
Gooneratne 2010 {published data only}
  • Gooneratne NS, Gehrman P, Gurubhagavatula I, Al-Shehabi E, Marie E, Schwab R. Effectiveness of ramelteon for insomnia symptoms in older adults with obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2010; Vol. 6, issue 6:572-80.
Greenberg 1991 {published data only}
  • Greenberg HE, Rapoport DM, Rothenberg SA, Kanengiser LA, Norman RG, Goldring RM. Endogenous opiates modulate the postapnea ventilatory response in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1991;143(6):1282-7.
Grote 1994 {published data only}
  • Grote L, Heitmann J, Schneider H, Ploch T, Penzel T, Peter JH, et al. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure control: Effect of cilazapril on continuous arterial blood pressure during sleep, and physical and mental load in patients with arterial hypertension and sleep apnea. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 1994;24 Suppl 3:78-82.
  • Grote L, Mayer J, Weichler U, Penzel T, Cassel W, Peter JH. Effect of cilazapril during the day and the night in patients with sleep apnea and arterial hypertension. Nieren und Hochdruckkrankheiten 1992;21(10):500-3.
Grote 1995 {published data only}
  • Grote L, Heitmann J, Kohler U, Ploch T, Penzel T, Peter JH. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition [Cilazapril] on blood pressure recording in hypertensive obstructive sleep apneic patients. Blood Pressure 1997;6(4):235-41.
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Grote 1995a {published data only}
  • Grote L, Radeck A, HeitmannJ, Althaus W, Ploch T, Peter JH, et al. Nocturnal hypertension and sleep apnea: effect of the ACE inhibitor cilazapril on apnea-induced blood pressure increases during sleep [Nächtliche Hypertonie und Sclafapnoe: Effekt des ACE-Hemmers Cilazapril auf apnoe-induzierte Blutdruckanstiege im Schlaf]. Pneumologie 1995;49:170-4.
Guillemineault 1983 {published data only}
  • Guilleminault C, Hayes B. Naloxone, theophylline, bromocriptine and obstructive sleep apnoea. Negative results. Bulletin Europeen de Physiopathologie Respiratoire 1983;19:632-4.
Hackett 1986 {published data only}
  • Hackett P, Roach R, Harrison G, Schoene R, Mills W. Respiratory stimulants and sleep periodic breathing at high altitude. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 1987;135:896-8.
Hanzel 1991 {published data only}
Hein 1995 {published data only}
  • Hein H, Kirsten D, Jugert C, Magnussen H. Nicotine for therapy of obstructive sleep apnea? [Nikotin zur Therapie der obstruktiven Schlafapnoe?]. Pneumologie 1995;49 Suppl 1:185-6.
Heitmann 2010 {published data only}
  • Heitmann J, Greulich T, Reinke C, Koehler U, Vogelmeier C, Becker HF, et al. Comparison of the effects of nebivolol and valsartan on BP reduction and sleep apnoea activity in patients with essential hypertension and OSA. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2010; Vol. 26, issue 8:1925-32.
Hirshkowitz 2007 {published data only}
  • Hirshkowitz M, Black JE, Wesnes K, Niebler G, Arora S, Roth T. Adjunct armodafinil improves wakefulness and memory in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Respiratory Medicine 2007; Vol. 101, issue 3:616-27.
Hirshkowitz 2007a {published data only}
  • Hirshkowitz M, Chervin RD, Sangal RB, Bogan R, Dinges DF. Modafinil improves behavioral alertness in patients with residual excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco. 2007:Poster #F75.
Hoijer 1994 {published data only}
  • Hoijer U, Hedner J, Ejnell H, Grunstein R, Odelberg E, Elam M. Nitrazepam in patients with sleep apnoea: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. European Respiratory Journal 1994;7(11):2011-5.
Hudgel 1996 {published data only}
Hudgel 1998 {published data only}
Ing 2000 {published data only}
  • Ing AJ, Ngu MC, Breslin AB. Obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux. American Journal of Medicine 2000;108 Suppl 4a:120s-5s.
Kantola 1999 {published data only}
  • Kantola I, Rauhala E, Polo O, Partinen M, Kataja M. Subjective sleep quality during treatment with two different antihypertensive medications: isradipine versus metoprolol. Clinical Drug Investigation 1999;17(May):339-45. [: 1173-2563]
Kauffmann 1991 {published data only}
  • Kauffmann P, Dorow P, Thalhofer S. Pharmacological therapy for sleep disordered breathing [Die medikamentöse Therapie schlafbezogener Atemregulationsstörungen]. Pneumologie 1991;45:276-8.
Kempf 1991 {published data only}
  • Kempf P, Mössinger B, Müller B, Kirchheiner T, Rühle K-H. Comparsion of nCPAP, theophylline and O2 therapy in patients with sleep apnoea [Vergleichsuntersuchungen zur Wirkung von nCPAP, Theophyllin und Sauerstoftherapie bei Patienten mit Schlafapnoesyndrom]. Pneumologie 1991;45:279-89.
Khalil 2008 {published data only}
  • Khalil SN, Maposa D, Ghelber O, Rabb MF, Matuszczak M, Ganesan BA, et al. Caffeine in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology 2008; Vol. 19, issue 4:885-99. [: P]
Kheirandish-Gozal 2008 {published data only}
  • Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D. Intranasal budesonide treatment for children with mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2008; Vol. 122, issue 1:e149-55.
Killick {published data only}
  • Killick R, Wang D, Hoyos CM, Yee BJ, Wong KK, Grunstein RR, et al. The effects of testosterone on ventilatory responses in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-a randomised, placebo controlled trial. Sleep and Biological Rhythms 2011;9(4):305.
Kingshott 2001 {published data only}
  • Kingshott R, Venelle M, Coleman E, Engleman H, MacKay T, Douglas N. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of modafinil in the treatment of residual excessive daytime sleepiness in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. American Journal of Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(4):918-23.
Kopelman 1992 {published data only}
  • Kopelman PG, Elliott MW, Simonds A, Cramer D, Ward S, Wedzicha JA. Short-term use of fluoxetine in asymptomatic obese subjects with sleep-related hypoventilation. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 1992;16:825-30.
Krieger 1998 {published data only}
  • Krieger J. New frontiers in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 1998;53(5):515-9.
Kryger 2007 {published data only}
Krystal 2010 {published data only}
  • Krystal AD, Harsh JR, Yang RR, Rippon GA, Lankford DA. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of armodafinil for excessive sleepiness in patients with treated obstructive sleep apnea and comorbid depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2010; Vol. 71, issue 1:32-40.
Lee 2009 {published data only}
  • Lee DS, Badr M, Mateika JH. Progressive augmentation and ventilatory long-term facilitation are enhanced in sleep apnoea patients and are mitigated by antioxidant administration. The Journal of Physiology 2009; Vol. 587, issue 22:5451-67.
Lévy 1996 {published data only}
  • Lévy P, Pépin JL, Mayer P, Wuyam B, Veale D. Management of simple snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome and moderate sleep apnoea syndrome. Sleep 1996;19 Suppl 9:101-10.
Lloyd 1983 {published data only}
Lombard 1985 {published data only}
Loube 1999 {published data only}
Martinez 2005 {published data only}
Mayer 1990 {published data only}
  • Mayer J, Weichler U, Herres-Mayer B, Schneider H, Marx U, Peter JH. Influence of metoprolol and cilazapril on blood pressure and on sleep apnea activity. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 1990;16(6):952-61.
Mayer 1991 {published data only}
  • Mayer J, Peter JH. First experience with cilazapril in the treatment of sleep apnoea-related hypertension. Drugs 1991;41 Suppl 1:37-47.
Montserrat 1998 {published data only}
  • Montserrat JM, Ballester E, Hernanadez L. Overview of management options for snoring and sleep apnoea. European Respiratory Monograph 1998;10:144-78.
Nikolaou 2008 {published data only}
  • Nikolaou A, Schiza SE, Giakoumaki SG, Roussos P, Siafakas N, Bitsios P. The 5-min pupillary alertness test is sensitive to modafinil: A placebo controlled study in patients with sleep apnea. Psychopharmacology 2008; Vol. 196, issue 2:167-75.
Nussbaumer-Ochsner 2012 {published data only}
  • Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y, Latshang TD, Ulrich S, Kohler M, Thurnheer R, Bloch KE. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome benefit from acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Chest 2012; Vol. 141, issue 1:131-8.
O'Malley 2003 {published data only}
  • O'Malley MB. Modafinil improves quality of life as adjunct treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2003 May 17-22; San Francisco. 2003:No.121.
Pack 2001 {published data only}
  • Pack AI, Black JE, Schwartz JR, Matheson JK. Modafinil as adjunct therapy for daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;164(9):1675-81.
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Pelttari 1994 {published data only}
  • Pelttari L, Rauhala E, Kantola I. Effects of antihypertensive medication on hypertension in patients with sleep apnoea. Blood Pressure 1994;3(2):88-91.
Pelttari 1998 {published data only}
  • Pelttari LH, Hietanen EK, Salo TT, Kataja MJ, Kantola IM. Little effect of ordinary antihypertensive therapy on nocturnal high blood pressure in patients with sleep disordered breathing. American Journal of Hypertension 1998;11(3):272-9.
Peter 1987 {published data only}
  • Peter JH, Amend G, Stephan S, Jung W, Ockenga A, Himmelmann H, et al. Treatment of sleep apnoea with sustained release theophylline administered at night [Therapie der Schlafapnoe mit abendlich eingenommenem retardierten Theophyllin]. Praxis und Klinik der Pneumologie 1987;41:433-7.
Planes 1999 {published data only}
  • Planes C, Foucher A, Leroy M, Dartois N, Juste K, Baillart O, et al. Effect of celiprolol treatment in hypertensive patients with sleep apnea. Sleep 1999;22(4):507-13.
Roest 2012 {published data only}
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Rosenberg 2007a {published data only}
  • Rosenberg R, Roach JM, Scharf M, Amato DA. A pilot study evaluating acute use of eszopiclone in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Medicine 2007; Vol. 8, issue 5:464-70.
Sadasivam 2011 {published data only}
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Scharf 1994 {published data only}
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Schiza 2007 {published data only}
  • Schiza S, Nikolaou A, Roussos P, Giakoumaki S, Siafakas N, Bitsios P. The 5-min pupillary alertness test is sensitive to modafinil: a placebo controlled study in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2007;30 Suppl 51:470 [E2764].
Schmidt 1983 {published data only}
  • Schmidt H. L-tryptophan in the treatment of impaired respiration in sleep. Bulletin Europeen de Physiopathologie Respiratoire 1983;19:625-9.
Schwartz 2007 {published data only}
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Stewart 1992 {published data only}
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Strohl 1986 {published data only}
Suurna 2008 {published data only}
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Tirosh 1995 {published data only}
Trakada 1999 {published data only}
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Vgontzas 2004 {published data only}
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Watanabe 2009 {published data only}
  • Watanabe H, Nakagawa K, Kakihana M. Effects of telmisartan on endothelial function and aortic stiffness in morning hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therapeutic Research 2009; Vol. 30, issue 10:1597-604.
Weichler 1991 {published data only}
Wirth 1995 {published data only}
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Zevin 2003 {published data only}
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Zou 2009 {published data only}
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Zou 2010 {published data only}
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Zou 2010a {published data only}
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References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Hoyos 2010 {published data only}
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Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Barbe 2010
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Bennett 1998
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Berthon-Jones 1987
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Doherty 2005
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Engleman 1998
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Gagnadoux 2009
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Giles 2006
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Gilman 2003
He 1988
Higgins 2011
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Hudgel 1995
Jadad 1996
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Lam 2007
Lim 2006
Marin 2005
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Patel 2003
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Pepin 1999
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Randearth 2011
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Review Manager (RevMan)
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Shneerson 2001
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SIGN 2003
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network. Management of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults (guideline no. 73). www.sign.ac.uk.
Stradling 1999
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Sullivan 1981
Veasey 2008
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Weaver 2008
  • Weaver TE, Grunstein RR. Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy: the challenge to effective treatment. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2008;5(2):173-8.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Smith 2006