Intervention Review

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Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea

  1. Stephen J Allen1,*,
  2. Elizabeth G Martinez2,
  3. Germana V Gregorio2,
  4. Leonila F Dans3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 10 NOV 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 10 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003048.pub3


How to Cite

Allen SJ, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD003048. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003048.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Swansea University, School of Medicine, Swansea, West Glamorgan, UK

  2. 2

    University of the Philippines College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines

  3. 3

    University of the Philippines College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines

*Stephen J Allen, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Room 314, The Grove Building, Singleton Park, Swansea, West Glamorgan, SA2 8PP, UK. S.J.Allen@swansea.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 10 NOV 2010

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Basu 2007 {published data only}
Basu 2009 {published data only}
  • Basu S, Paul DK, Ganguly S, Chatterjee M, Chandra PK. Efficacy of high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in controlling acute watery diarrhea in Indian children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2009;43(3):208-13.
Bhatnagar 1998 {published data only}
  • Bhatnagar S, Singh KD, Sazawal S, Saxena SK, Bhan MK. Efficacy of milk versus yogurt offered as part of a mixed diet in acute noncholera diarrhea among malnourished children. Journal of Pediatrics 1998;132(6):999-1004.
Billoo 2006 {published data only}
  • Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, Murtaza G, Iqbal K, Shekhani MS, et al. Role of a probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) in management and prevention of diarrhoea. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2006;12(28):4557-60.
Boudraa 2001 {published data only}
  • Boudraa G, Benbouabdellah M, Hachelaf W, Boisset M, Desjeux JF, Touhami M. Effect of feeding yogurt versus milk in children with acute diarrhea and carbohydrate malabsorption. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001;33(3):307-13.
Boulloche 1994 {published data only}
  • Boulloche J, Mouterde O, Mallet E. Management of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children. Controlled study of the anti-diarrheal efficacy of killed L. acidophilus (LB strain) versus a placebo and a reference drug (loperamide). Annales de Pediatrie 1994;41(7):457-63.
Bruno 1981 {published data only}
  • Bruno F, Frigerio G. A new therapeutic alternative for the treatment of enteritis -- controlled double-blind tests with the strain SF 68 [Eine neuartige möglichkeit zur behandlung der enteritis - kontrollierte doppel-blindversuche mit dem Stamm SF 68]. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 1981;70(39):1717-20.
Bruno 1983 {published data only}
  • Bruno F, Nastasi A, Bruno M. Double-blind controlled study of the effect of the lactogenic enterococcus SF68 strain on various enterocolitis associated manifestations and on salmonella infections [Studio controllato dopio-cieco sull'effecto dell'enterococco lattoproduttore ceppo SF 68 su manifestazione associate a forme enterocolitiche variee a salmonellosi]. La Clinica Terapeutica 1983;105(3):203-7.
Buydens 1996 {published data only}
Canani 2007 {published data only}
  • Canani RB, Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, Vincenzo A, et al. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations. BMJ 2007;335(7615):340.
Carague-Orendain {unpublished data only}
  • Carrague-Orendain A. Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of lactobacillus (Infloran Berna capsules) in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhoea in children two to five years of age.
Cetina-Sauri 1994 {published data only}
  • Cetina-Sauri G, Sierra Basto G. Evaluation of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhea [Evaluation therapeutique de Saccharomyces boulardii chez des enfants souffrant de diarrhee aigue]. Annales de Pediatrie 1994;41(6):397-400.
Chapoy 1985 {published data only}
  • Chapoy P. Treatment of acute infantile diarrhea: controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii [Traitement des diarrhées aiguës infantiles]. Annales de Pediatrie 1985;32(6):561-3.
Chen 2010 {published data only}
  • Chen CC, Kong MS, Lai MW, Chao HC, Chang KW, Chen SY, et al. Probiotics have clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic efficacy in acute infectious diarrhea. The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2010;29(2):135-8.
Costa-Ribeiro 2003 {published data only}
  • Costa-Ribeiro H, Ribeiro TC, Mattos AP, Valois SS, Neri DA, Almeida P, et al. Limitations of probiotic therapy in acute, severe dehydrating diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroentology and Nutrition 2003;36(1):112-5.
Czerwionka 2009 {published data only}
  • Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Murawska S, Swincow G. Evaluation of influence of oral treatment with probiotic and/or oral rehydration solution on course of acute diarrhoea in children. Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny 2009;4(3):166-72.
D'Apuzzo 1982 {published data only}
  • D'Apuzzo V, Salzberg R. The treatment of acute diarrhoea in paediatrics using Streptococcus faecium: results of a double blind trial [Die Behandlung der akuten Diarrho in der Padiatrie mit Streptococcus faecium: Resultae einer doppleblindstudie]. Therapeutische Umschau 1982;39(12):1033-5.
Dubey 2008 {published data only}
  • Dubey AP, Rajeshwari K, Chakravarty A, Famularo G. Use of VSL#3 in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children: preliminary results. Journal of Clinincal Gastroenterology 2008;42 Suppl 3 Pt 1:S126-9.
Frigerio 1986 {published data only}
  • Frigerio G. A lactic acid producer enterococcus in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disorders: a double-blind multicentre placebo-controlled clinical trial (Abstract). Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1986;31 Suppl:496.
Grandi 2009 {published data only}
  • Grandi G, Medina M, Soria R, Teran C, Araya M. Probiotics in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Bolivian children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of two different preparations. Pediatric Research. 2010; Vol. 67:447 (abstract 10).
Guandalini 2000 {published data only}
  • Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, Dias JA, Casali LB, Hoekstra H, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhoea: a multicenter European trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;30(1):54-60.
Guarino 1997 {published data only}
  • Canani RB, Albano F, Spagnuolo MI, Di Benedetto L, Stabile A, Guarino A. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on the duration of diarrhea and on rotavirus excretion in ambulatory children (Abstract). Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1997;24(4):469.
  • Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, Albano F, Di Benedetto L. Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and viral excretion in children with mild diarrhoea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1997;25(5):516-9.
Hafeez 2002 {published data only}
  • Hafeez A, Tariq P, Ali S, Kundi ZU, Khan A, Hassan M. The efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children: a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2002;12(7):432-4.
Henker 2007a {published data only}
  • Henker J, Laass M, Blokhin BM, Bolbot YK, Maydannik VG, Elze M, et al. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) stops acute diarrhoea in infants and toddlers. European Journal of Paediatrics 2007;166(4):311-318.
Henker 2008 {published data only}
  • Henker J, Laass MW, Blokhin BM, Maydannik VG, Bolbot YK, Elze M, et al. Probiotic E.Coli Nissle 1917 versus placebo for treating diarrhea of greater than 4 days duration in infants and toddlers. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2008;27(6):494-99.
Hernandez 1998 {published data only}
  • Hernandez CL, Pineda EE, Jimenez MIR, Lucena MS. Clinical therapeutic affect of Saccharomyces boulardii on children with acute diarrhea. Revista de Enfermedades Infecciosas en Pediatria March 1998;11(43):87-9.
Hochter 1990 {published data only}
  • Höchter W, Chase D, Hagenhoff G. Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute adult diarrhoea. [Saccharomyces boulardii bei acuter Erwachsenendiarrhoea]. Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift 1990;132(12):188-92.
Htwe 2008 {published data only}
  • Htwe K, Yee K.S, Tin M, Vandenplas Y. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in Myanmar children: a randomized control study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2008;78(2):214-16.
Isolauri 1994 {published data only}
Jasinski 2002 {published data only}
  • Jasinski C, Tanzi MN, Schelotto F, Varela G, Zanetta E, Acuna AM, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in oral rehydration solution [Efectop del Lactobacillus casei administrado en el suero de rehidratacion oral, en el tratamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda]. Pediatrika 2002;22(7):231-43.
Khanna 2005 {published data only}
  • Khanna V, Seema A, Ashraf M, Abida M. Efficacy of tyndalized lactobacillus acidophilus in acute diarrhoea. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2005;72(11):935-8.
Kianifar 2009 {published data only}
  • Kianifar HR, Farid R, Ahanchian H, Jabbari F, Moghiman T, Sistanian A. Probiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 2009;34(3):204-7.
Kowalska-Duplaga 1999 {published data only}
  • Kowalska-Duplaga K, Strus M, Heczko P, Krobicka B, Kurowska-Baran D, Mrukowicz JZ. Lactobif, a marketed probiotic product containing Bifidobacterium ruminantium, was not effective in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. Gut 1999;44:17-25.
Kowalska-Duplaga 2004 {published data only}
  • Kowalska-Duplaga K, Krzysztof F, Szajewska H, Janiak R. Efficacy of Trilac® in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children - a multicentre, randomised, double blind placebo-controlled study. Pediatria Wspolczesna, Gastroenterologia, Hepatologia i Zywienie Dziecka 2004;6(3):295-9.
Kurugol 2005 {published data only}
Lee 2001 {published data only}
  • Lee M-C, Lin L-H, Hung K-L, Wu H-Y. Oral bacterial therapy promotes recovery from acute diarrhoea in children. Acta Paediatrica Taiwan 2001;42(5):301-5.
Lievin Le-Maol 2007 {published data only}
  • Lievin-Le Maol V, Sarrazin-Davilla L.E, Servin A.L. An experimental study and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the antisecretory activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB against non-rotavirus diarrhea. Pediatrics 2007;120(4):795-803.
Mao 2008 {published data only}
  • Mao M, Yu T, Xiong Y, Wang Z, Liu H, Gotteland M, et al. Effect of a lactose-free milk formula supplemented with bifidobacteria and streptococci on the recovery from acute diarrhoea. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;17(1):30-4.
Misra 2009 {published data only}
Narayanappa 2008 {published data only}
  • Narayanappa D. Randomized double blinded controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bifilac in patients with acute viral diarrhea. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2008;75(7):709-13.
Oandasan 1999 {unpublished data only}
  • Oandasan M, Gatcheco F, Kapahmgan S. Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of Infloran berna capsules in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in infants.
Ozkan 2007 {published data only}
  • Ozkan TB, Sahin E, Erdemir G, Budak F. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute gastroenteritis and its relationship to the immune response. The Journal of International Medical Research 2007;35(2):201-12.
Pant 1996 {published data only}
  • Pant AR, Graham SM, Allen SJ, Harikul S, Sabchareon A, Cuevas L, et al. Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1996;42(3):162-5.
Pashapour 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Pashapour N, Iou SG. Evaluation of yogurt effect on acute diarrhea in 6-24-month-old hospitalized infants. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2006;48(2):115-18.
Rafeey 2008a {published data only}
  • Rafeey M, Ostadrahimi A, Boniadi M, Ghorashi Z, Alizadeh MM, Hadafey V. Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt and supplement in children with acute diarrhea: a clinical trial. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2008;2(1):13-18.
Raza 1995 {published data only}
  • Raza S, Graham SM, Allen SJ, Sultana S, Cuevas L, Hart CA. Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute nonbloody diarrhoea in Pakistan. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1995;14(2):107-11.
Ritchie 2010 {published data only}
  • Ritchie BK, Brewster DR, Tran CD, Davidson GP, McNeil Y, Butler RN. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in Aboriginal children with acute diarrhoeal disease: a randomised clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2010;50(6):619-24.
Rosenfeldt 2002a {published data only}
  • Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, Larsen CN, Moller PL, Pedersen P. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2002;21(5):411-6.
Rosenfeldt 2002b {published data only}
  • Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, Larsen CN, Moller PL, Tvede M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2002;21(5):417-9.
Sarkar 2005 {published data only}
  • Sarker SA, Sultana S, Fuchs GJ, Alam NH, Azim T, Brűssow H, et al. Lactobacillus paracasei strain ST11 has no effect on rotavirus but ameliorates the outcome of nonrotavirus diarrhea in children from Bangladesh. Pediatrics 2005;116(2):e221-8.
Sepp 1995 {published data only}
  • Sepp E, Tamm E, Torm S, Lutsar I, Mikelsaar M, Salminen S. Impact of a Lactobacillus probiotic on the faecal microflora in children with shigellosis. Microecology and Therapy 1995;23(1):74-80.
Shornikova 1997a {published data only}
Shornikova 1997b {published data only}
Shornikova 1997c {published data only}
  • Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, Mykkanen H, Vesikari T. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1997;24(4):399-404.
Simakachorn 2000 {published data only}
  • Simakachorn N, Pichaipat V, Rithipornpaisarn P, Kongkaew C, Tongpradit P, Varavithya W. Clinical evaluation of the addition of lyophilized, heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;30(1):68-72.
  • Simakachorn N, Pichaipat V, Rithipornpaisarn P, Kongkaew C, Tongpradit P, Varavithya W. Erratum. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology 2000;30(2):228.
Sugita 1994 {published data only}
  • Sugita T, Togawa M. Efficacy of Lactobacillus preparation bioloactis powder in children with rotavirus enteritis. Japan Journal of Pediatrics 1994;47:2755-62.
Szymanski 2006 {published data only}
  • Szymanski H, Pejcz J, Jawien M, Chmielarczyk A, Strus M, Heczko PB. Treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains -- a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2006;23(2):247-53.
Teran 2009 {published data only}
  • Teran CG, Teran-Escalera CN, Villarroel P. Nitazoxanide vs. probiotics for the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in Bolivian children. International Journal of Infectiouos Diseases 2009;13(4):518—23.
Táborská 1997 {published data only}
  • Táborská J, Pazdiora P. Smecta and Lactobacillus acidophilus ND in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children [Smecta a Lactobacillus acidophilus ND v lécbe akutních detských prujmu]. Ceskoslovenská pediatrie 1997;52(1):29-33.
Urganci 2001 {published data only}
  • Urganci N, Polat T, Uysalol M, Cetinkaya F. Evaluation of the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhoea. Archives of Gastroenterohepatology 2001;20(3-4):81-3.
Villarruel 2007 {published data only}
Vivatvakin 2006 {published data only}
  • Vivatvakin B, Kowitdamrong E. Randomized control trial of live Lactobacillus acidophilus plus Bifidobacterium infantis in treatment of infantile acute watery diarrhea. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2006;89:Suppl 3:S126-33.
Wunderlich 1989 {published data only}
  • Wunderlich PF, Braun L, Fumagalli I, D'Apuzzo V, Heim F, Karly M, et al. Double-blind report of the efficacy of lactic acid-producing Enterococcus SF68 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. The Journal of International Medical Research 1989;17(4):333-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Agarwal 2001 {published data only}
  • Agarwal KN, Bhasin SK, Faridi MMA, Mathur M, Gupta S. Lactobacillus casei in the control of acute diarrhoea - a pilot study. Indian Pediatrics 2001;38(8):905-10.
Agarwal 2002 {published data only}
  • Agarwal KN, Bhasin SK. Feasibility studies to control acute diarrhoea in children by feeding fermented milk preparations Actimel and Indian Dahi. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(Suppl. 4):S56-9.
Alexander 1971 {published data only}
  • Alexander JG. Lactobacillus casei tablets in the treatment of intestinal infection. The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1971;21(111):623-4.
Alvisi 1982 {published data only}
  • Alvisi V, Tralli M, Loponte A, Pavani F, Massari M. Double-blind study of treatment with SF 68 or with antibiotics in acute enteritis in adults [Studio in doppio cieco sul trattamento con SF68 o con antibiotici nelle enteritis acute dell'adulto]. La Clinica Terapeutica 1982;101(6):581-6.
Barone 2000 {published data only}
  • Barone C, Pettinato R, Avola E, Alberti A, Greco D, Failla P, et al. Comparison of three probiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea in mentally retarded children. Minerva Pediatrica 2000;52(3):161-5.
Beck 1961 {published data only}
  • Beck C, Necheles H. Beneficial effects of administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus in diarrheal and other intestinal disorders. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1961;35:522-30.
Bellomo 1979 {published data only}
  • Bellomo G, Finocchiaro C, Frigerio G. A new approach for the treatment of enteritides in paediatrics [Une novelle approche pour le traitement des entérites en pédiatrie]. Médecine et Hygiène 1979;37:3781-4.
Bellomo 1980 {published data only}
  • Bellomo G, Mangiagle A, Nicastro L, Frigeria G. A controlled double-blind study of SF68 strain as a new biological preparation for the treatment of diarrhoea in pediatrics. Current Therapeutic Research: Clinical and Experimental 1980;28(6):927-35.
Bellomo 1982 {published data only}
  • Bellomo G, Finocchiaro C, Frigerio G, Mangiagli A, Nicastro L. Controlled study of Enterococcus LAB strain SF68 in acute enteritis in children with concomitant respiratory infection [Studio controllato sull'enterococco L.A.B. ceppo SF 68 nelle enteriti acute del bambino concomitanti ad infezioni delle vie respiratorie]. Clinica Pediatrica 1982;64:219-27.
Bin Li Xie 1995 {published data only}
  • Bin Li Xie. Controlled clinical trial of Lacteol Fort Sachet versus furazolidone or berberine in treatment of acute diarrhoea in children [Étude contrôlée du Lactéol Fort sachets versus furazolidone ou berbérine dans le traitement des diarrhées aiguës de l'enfant]. Annales de Pediatrie 1995;42(6):396-401.
Brewster 2004 {published data only}
  • Brewster DR, Ritchie B, McNeil Y, Davidson G, Butler R. Efficacy of probiotic therapy in Aboriginal children with acute diarrheal disease. Poster presentation 2004.
Camarri 1981 {published data only}
Cetina Sauri 1990 {published data only}
  • Cetina-Sauri G, Basto GS. Therapeutic evaluation of children with acute diarrhea. Tribuna Medica 1990;81(3):141-4.
Chandra 2002 {published data only}
  • Chandra RK. Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutrition Research 2002;22(1):65-9.
Chicoine 1973 {published data only}
  • Chicoine L, Joncas JH. Use of lactic enzymes in non-bacterial gastroenteritis [Emploi des ferments lactiques dans la gastro-entérite non bactérienne]. L'Union Médicale du Canada 1973;102(5):1114-5.
Costa-Ribeiro 2000a {published data only}
  • Costa-Ribeiro H, Ribeiro TCM, Mattos AP, Almeida PS, Valois SS, Vanderhoof JA. Use of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of severe, acute diarrhoea in adverse environmental conditions.. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31 Suppl 2:251-2.
Costa-Ribeiro 2000b {published data only}
  • Costa-Ribeiro H, Ribeiro TCM, Mattos AP, Lins EV, Neri DA, Valois SS, Vanderhoof JA. Prophylactic administration of Lactobacillus GG to children in a daycare center. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31 Suppl 2:252.
Cui 2004 {published data only}
  • Cui Y-L, Wan F-C, Tang D-L, Wu S-H. Efficacy of Bacillus coagulans tablets in the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhoea. International Journal of Immunotherapy 2004;20(1):17-22.
de dios Pozo-O 1978 {published data only}
  • de dios Pozo-Olano J, Warram JH Jr, Gomez RG, Cavazos MG. Effect of a lactobacilli preparation on traveler's diarrhoea. A randomised, double blind clinical trial. Gastroenterology 1978;74(5 Pt 1):829-30.
Eren 2010 {published data only}
  • Eren M, Dinleyici EC, Vandenplas Y. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study. American Journal of Tropical Hygiene 2010;82(3):488-91.
Fang 2009 {published data only}
  • Fang S B, Lee H-C, Hu J-J, Hou S-Y, Liu H-L, Fang H-W. Dose-dependent effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on quantitative reduction of faecal rotavirus shedding in children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2009;55(5):297-301.
Fourrier 1968 {published data only}
  • Fourrier A, Lequien P. The treatment of infantile gastroenteritis by the use solely of a combination of colibacillus and lactobacillus. Apropos of 56 cases. Annales de Pediatrie 1968;15:491-5.
Girola 1995 {published data only}
  • Girola M, Ventura P. Efficacy of probiotic preparation with living, freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria and yeast on child diarrhoea [Efficacia di un prodotto probiotico a base di fermenti lattici e lievito vitali liofilizzati nel trattamento della diarrea del bambino]. Archivio di Medicina Interna 1995;47(2-3):61-72.
Gracheva 1996 {published data only}
  • Gracheva NM, Gavrilov AF, Solov'eva AI, Smirnov VV, Sorokulova IB, Reznik SR, et al. The efficacy of the new bacterial preparation biosporin in treating acute intestinal infections. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1996;1(1):75-7.
Henker 2007b {published data only}
  • Henker J, Blokhin BM, Bolbot YK, Maydannik VG. Acute diarrhoea in infants and small children. Successful adjuvant therapy with the probiotic Mutaflor [Akute diarrhő bei säuglingen und kleinkindern. Erfolgreiche adjuvante therapie mit dem probiotikum Mutaflor]. Pädiat. Prax 2007;71:605-10.
Heydarian 2010 {published data only}
  • Heydarian F, Kianifar HR, Ahanchian H, Khakshure A, Seyedi J, Moshirian D. A comparison between traditional yogurt and probiotic yogurt in non-inflammatory acute gastroenteritis. Saudi Med J 2010;31(3):280-3.
Isolauri 1991 {published data only}
  • Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, Sillanaukee P, Koivula T. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991;88(1):90-7.
Kaila 1992 {published data only}
  • Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen E, Laine S, Arvilommi H. Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatric Research 1992;32(2):141-4.
Kaila 1995 {published data only}
Korviakova 2000 {published data only}
  • Korviakova EP. Use of loading doses of Bifidumbacterin forte for the treatment of patients with acute enteric infections. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 2000;6:58-61.
Le Leyur 2010 {published data only}
  • Le Luyer B, Makhoul G, Duhamel JF. A multicentric study of a lactose free formula supplemented with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhea. Archives de Pédiatrie 2010;17(5):459-65.
Lei 2006 {published data only}
  • Lei V, Friis H, Michaelsen KF. Spontaneously fermented millet product as a natural probiotic treatment for diarrhea in young children: an intervention study Northern Ghana. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2006;110(3):246-53.
Lin 2009 {published data only}
  • Lin JS, Chiu YH, Lin NT, Chu CH, Huang KC, Liao KW, et al. Different effects of probiotic species/strains on infections in preschool children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Vaccine 2009;27(7):1073-9.
Magreiter 2006 {published data only}
  • Margreiter M, Ludl K, Phleps W, Kaehler ST. Therapeutic value of a Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifdobacterium longum fixed bacterium combination in acute diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics May 2006;44(5):207-15.
Majamaa 1995 {published data only}
Mazo 2006 {published data only}
  • Mazo SA, Arias SA. Efficacy and safety of milk fermented by lactobacillus (kumis) in nutritional recovery of undernourished children and control of their diarrhoea episodes. Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública 2006;24(2):83-97.
Michielutti 1995 {published data only}
  • Michielutti F, Bertini M, Presciuttini B, Andreotti G. Clinical assessment of a new oral bacterial treatment for children with acute diarrhea [Valutazione clinica di un nuovo batterioterapico orale in pazienti di eta pediatrica con diarrea acuta]. Minerva Medica 1996;87(11):545-50.
Mitra 1990 {published data only}
  • Mitra AK, Rabbini GH. A double-blind, controlled trial of bioflorin (Streptococcus faecium SF68) in adults with acute diarrhea due to Vibrio chlolerae and entertoxigenic Escherichia coli. Gastroenterology 1990;99(4):1149-52.
Moraes 2001 {published data only}
  • Moraes E, Chinzon D, Coelho LG, Fernandes TF, Haddad MT, et al. A multicentric, randomised, investigator-blind, parallel group study to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Racecadotril versus Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in adults [Estudo multicêntrico de grupos paralelos, randomizado, cego para o investigador, para avaliar a eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade do racecadotril versus Saccharomyces boulardii no tratamento da diarréia aguda em adultos]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina 2001;58(1-2):65-74.
Niv 1963 {published data only}
Ortlieb 1974 {published data only}
Pearce 1974 {published data only}
Pedone 1999 {published data only}
  • Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, Bouley CF, Reinert P. The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. International Journal of Clinical Practice 1999;53(3):179-84.
Pedone 2000 {published data only}
  • Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, Bouley CF, Reinert P. Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2000;54(9):568-71.
Pene 1966 {published data only}
  • Pene P, Linhard J, Bernou JC. The colibacillus-lactobacillus combination in the treatment of diarrhea in adults, children and infants [L'association colibacilles-lactobacilles dans le traitement des diarrhées de l'adulte, de l'enfant et du nourrisson]. La Semaine Des Hopitaux 1966;42(4):241-4.
Rafeey 2008b {published data only}
  • Rafeey M, Ghojazadeh M, Hadari V. Probiotics in children with acute diarrhea. WCPGHAN 3: World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition 2008:129-35.
Rautanen 1998 {published data only}
  • Rautanen T, Isolauri E, Salo E, Vesikari T. Management of acute diarrhoea with low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions and Lactobacillus strain GG. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1998;79(2):157-60.
Saint-Marc 1991 {published data only}
  • Saint-Marc T, Rossello-Prats L, Touraine JL. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of diarrhea in AIDS [Efficacite de Saccharomyces boulardii dans le traitement des diarrhees du SIDA]. Annales de Médecine Interne 1991;142(1):64-5.
Salazar-Lindo 2004 {published data only}
  • Salazar-Lindo E, Miranda-Langschwager P, Campos-Sanchez M, Chea-Woo E, Bradley Sack R. Lactobacillus casei strain GG in the treatment of infants with acute watery diarrhoea: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. BMC Pediatrics 2004; Vol. 4, issue 18. [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/4/18]
Salazar-Lindo 2007 {published data only}
  • Salazar-Lindo E, Figueroa-Quintanilla D, Caciano MI, Reto-Valiente V, Chauviere G, Colin P, et al. Effectiveness and safety of Lactobacillus LB in the treatment of mild acute darrhea in children. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2006;44(5):571-6.
Satoh 1984 {published data only}
  • Satoh Y, Iwata S, Iwata Y, Yamashita N, Oikawa T, Osano M, et al. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve administration on clinical course and intestinal flora in children with acute diarrhea [Abstract]. Nippon Shonikagakkai Zasshi 1984;88:2178-9.
Savas-Erdeve 2009 {published data only}
  • Savas-Erdeve S, Gökay S, Dallar Y. Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in amebiasis-associated diarrhea in children. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2009;51(3):220-4.
Schrezenmeir 2004 {published data only}
Singh 1987 {published data only}
  • Singh T. Yoghurt feeding during acute diarrhea. Indian Pediatrics 1987;24(6):530.
Sudarmo 2003 {published data only}
  • Sudarmo SM, Ranuh RG, Rochim A, Soeparto P. Management of infant diarrhea with high-lactose probiotic-containing formula. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2003;34(4):845-8.
Szymanski 2005 {published data only}
  • Szymanski H, Pejcz J, Jawien M, Kucharska A, Strus M, Heczko PB. Treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children with a mixture of three new Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (573L/1,573L/2, 573L/3). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2005;40(5):652.
Tojo 1987 {published data only}
  • Tojo M, Oikawa T, Morikawa Y, Yamashita N, Iwata S, Satoh Y, et al. The effects of Bifidobacterium breve administration on campylobacter enteritis. Acta Paediatrica Japonica 1987;29(1):160-7.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Contreras 1983 {published data only}
  • Contreras G. Compend Invest Clin Latinoam 1983;3:114-6.
Salgado {published data only}
  • Salgado AJ, Garcia Jara JA. Use of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacteol strain in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Open trial. Revista del Hospital de la Muyer 2.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Freedman 2010 {published data only}
  • Ongoing study Starting date of trial not provided. Contact author for more information.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Allen 2003
  • Allen SJ, Okoko B, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF. Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [Art. No.: CD003048. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003048.pub2]
Anonymous 1988
  • Anonymous. Persistent diarrhoea in children in developing countries: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1988;66(6):709-17.
Baqui 1991
  • Baqui AH, Black RE, Yunus M, Hoque AR, Chowdhury HR, Sack RB. Methodological issues in diarrhoeal diseases epidemiology: definition of diarrhoeal episodes. International Journal of Epidemiology 1991;20(4):1057-63.
Black 1986
  • Black RE. Pathogens that cause traveler's diarrhea in Latin America and Africa. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1986;8 Suppl 2:131-5.
Bryce 2006
Chmielewska 2008
  • Chmielewska A, Ruszczyński M, Szajewska H. Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metaanalysis 2008;10:32-6.
Clarke 2003
  • Clarke M, Oxman A, editors. Optimal search strategy. Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 4.2 [updated March 2003]; Appendix 5c. In: The Cochrane Library. The Cochrane Collaboration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2003, Issue 3.
Cunliffe 1998
  • Cunliffe NA, Kilgore PE, Bresee JS, Steele AD, Luo N, Hart CA, et al. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa: a review to assess the need for rotavirus immunization. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1998;76(5):525-37.
FAO/WHO 2001
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO). Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk and live lactic acid bacteria. ftp://ftp.fao.es/esn/food/probio_report_en.pdf 2001.
Gadewar 2005
Gismondo 1999
Goldin 1998
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Guerrant 1990
  • Guerrant RL, Hughes JM, Lima NL, Crane J. Diarrhea in developed and developing countries: magnitude, special settings, and etiologies. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1990;12 Suppl 1:41-50.
Hata 1988
Huilan 1991
  • Huilan S, Zhen LG, Mathan MM, Mathew MM, Olarte J, Espejo R, et al. Etiology of acute diarrhoea among children in developing countries: a multicentre study in five countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1991;69(5):549-55.
Juni 1999
Klein 1998
Lopez 2006
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Naidu 1999
O'Ryan 2005
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Piarroux 1999
Rijkers 2010
  • Rijkers GT, Bengmark S, Enck P, Haller D, Herz U, Kaolliomaki M, et al. Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: current status and recommendations for future research. Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(3):671S-6S.
Salminen 1998
Salminen 1999
Savarino 1993
  • Savarino SJ, Bourgeois AL. Diarrhoeal disease: current concepts and future challenges. Epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases in developed countries. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87 Suppl 3:7-11.
Saxelin 1996
Sussman 1986
  • Sussman J, Baron E, Goldberg S, Kaplan M, Pizzarello R. Clinical manifestations and therapy of Lactobacillus endocarditis: report of a case and review of the literature. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1986;8(5):771-6.
Szajewska 2001
  • Szajewska H, Mrukowicz JZ. Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute infectious diarrhoea in infants and children; a systematic review of published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001;33 Suppl 2:17-25.
Szajewska 2007a
Szajewska 2007b
Szajewska 2009
Van Niel 2002
Vanderhoof 1998
Walker-Smith 1993
  • Walker-Smith JA. Diarrhoeal disease: current concepts and future challenges. Malnutrition and infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine 1993;87 Suppl 3:13-5.
WHO 1990
  • Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control. The treatment of diarrhoea. A manual for physicians and other senior health workers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1990:20-1.
WHO 2001
  • World Health Organization. The world health report : 2001: mental health : new understanding, new hope. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.
Wolvers 2010
  • Wolvers D, Antoine JM, Myllyluoma E, Schrezenmeir J, Szajewska H, Rijkers GT. Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: prevention and management of infections by probiotics. Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(3):698S-712S.