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Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease

  1. Deirdre A Lane,
  2. Gregory YH Lip*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Vascular Group

Published Online: 4 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003075.pub3


How to Cite

Lane DA, Lip GYH. Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003075. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003075.pub3.

Author Information

  1. University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK

*Gregory YH Lip, University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Dudley Road, Birmingham, B18 7QH, UK. g.y.h.lip@bham.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 4 DEC 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
DAPHNE 2002 {published data only}
  • Hoogerbrugge N, de Groot E, de Heide LH, de Ridder MA, Birkenhageri JC, Stijnen T, et al. Doxazosin and hydrochlorothiazide equally affect arterial wall thickness in hypertensive males with hypercholesterolaemia (the DAPHNE study). Doxazosin Atherosclerosis Progression Study in Hypertensives in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 2002;60(9):354-61.
Diehm 2011 {published data only}
  • Diehm C, Pittrow D, Lawall H, for the study group. Effect of nebivolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide on the walking capacity in hypertensive patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Hypertension 2011;29(7):1448-56.
HOPE 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ostergren J, Sleight P, Dagenais G, Danisa K, Bosch J, Qilong Y, et al. for the HOPE study investigators. Impact of ramipril in patients with evidence of clinical or subclinical peripheral arterial disease. European Heart Journal 2004;25(1):17-24.
  • The HOPE Study Investigators. The HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) Study: the design of a large simple randomised trial of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril) and vitamin E in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 1996;12(2):127-37.
  • Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(3):154-60.
  • Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(3):145-53.
INVEST 2003 {published data only}
  • Bavry AA, Anderson D, Gong Y, Denardo SJ, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Handberg EM, et al. Outcomes among hypertensive patients with concomitant peripheral and coronary artery disease: Findings from the INternational VErapamil-SR/Trandolapril STudy. Hypertension 2010;55(1):48-53.
  • Pepine CJ, Handberg EM, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Marks RG, Kowey P, Messerli FH, et al. INVEST Investigators. A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolspril Study (INVEST): A randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(21):2805-16.
  • Pepine CJ, Handberg-Thurmond E, Marks RG, Conlon M, Cooper-DeHoof R, Volkers P, et al. Rationale and design of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study (INVEST): An internet-based randomised trial in coronary artery disease patients with hypertension. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1998;32(5):1228-37.
NORMA 2011 {published data only}
  • Espinola-Klein C, Weisser G, Jagodzinski A, Savvidis S, Warnholtz A, Ostad MA, et al. β-blockers in patients with intermittent claudication and arterial hypertension: Results from the nebivolol or metoprolol in arterial occlusive disease trial. Hypertension 2011;58(2):148-54.
Overlack 1994 {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Adamczak M, Bachmann W, Bonner G, Bretzel RG, Derichs R, et al. ACE-inhibition with perindopril in essential hypertensive patients with concomitant diseases. The Perindopril Therapeutic Safety Collaborative Research Group. American Journal of Medicine 1994;97(2):126-34.
Schweizer 1998 {published data only}
  • Schweizer J, Kirch W, Koch R, Hellner G, Uhlmann K. Effect of high dose verapamil on restenosis after peripheral angioplasty. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1998;31(6):1299-305.
Zankl 2010 {published data only}
  • Zankl AR, Ivandic B, Andrassy M, Volz HC, Krumsdorf U, Blessing E, et al. Telmisartan improves absolute walking distance and endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease. Clinical Research in Cardiology 2010;99(12):787-94.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ABCD 2003 {published data only}
  • Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR, Biggerstaff SL, Gifford N, Schrier RW. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(10):645-52.
  • Estacio RO, Savage S, Nagel NJ, Schrier RW. Baseline characteristics of participants in the Appropriate Blood Pressure Control in Diabetes trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 1996;17(3):242-57.
  • Mehler PS, Coll JR, Estacio R, Esler A, Schrier RW, Hiatt WR. Intensive blood pressure control reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. Circulation 2003;107(5):753-6.
Ahimastos 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ahimastos AA, Dart AM, Lawler A, Blombery PA, Kingwell BA. Reduced arterial stiffness may contribute to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor induced improvements in walking time in peripheral arterial disease patients. Journal of Hypertension 2008;26(5):1037-42.
  • Ahimastos AA, Lawler A, Reid CM, Blombery PA, Kingwell BA. Brief communication: ramipril markedly improves walking ability in patients with peripheral arterial disease: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;144(9):660-4.
  • Ahimastos AA, Natoli AK, Lawler A, Blombery PA, Kingwell BA. Ramipril reduces large-artery stiffness in peripheral arterial disease and promotes elastogenic remodeling in cell culture. Hypertension 2005;45(6):1194-9.
ASCOT 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR, Wedel H, Beevers DG, Caulfield M, et al. ASCOT Investigators. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366(9489):895-906.
  • Sever PS, Dahlöf B, Poulter NR, Wedel H, Beevers G, Caulfield M, et al. Rationale, design, methods and baseline demography of participants of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. ASCOT investigators. Journal of Hypertension 2001;19(6):1139-47.
Bernardi 1988 {published data only}
  • Bernardi D, Bartoli P, Ferreri A, Geri AB, Ieri A. Assessment of captopril and nicardipine effects on chronic occlusive arterial disease of the lower extremity using Doppler ultrasound. Angiology 1988;39(11):942-52.
Bogaert 1983 {published data only}
  • Bogaert MG, Clement DL. Lack of influence of propranolol and metoprolol on walking distance in patients with chronic intermittent claudication. European Heart Journal 1983;4(3):203-4.
Bostrom 1986 {published data only}
Branchereau 1995 {published data only}
  • Branchereau A, Rouffy J. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of ifenprodil tartrate versus placebo in chronic arterial occlusive disease of the legs at stage II of the Leriche and Fontaine classification. Journal des Maladies Vasculaires 1995;20(1):21-7.
Brown 1998 {published data only}
  • Brown MJ, Castaigne A, de Leeuw PW, Mancia G, Rosenthal T, Ruilope LM. Study population and treatment titration in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). Journal of Hypertension 1998;16(12 Pt 2):2113-6.
Casiglia 1997 {published data only}
  • Casiglia E, Petucco S, Pessina AC. Antihypertensive efficacy of amlodipine and enalapril and effects on peripheral blood flow in patients with essential hypertension and intermittent claudication. Clinical Drug Investigation 1997;13 Suppl 1:97-101.
Coto 1989 {published data only}
Coto 1991 {published data only}
  • Coto V, Oliviero U, Cocozza M, Lucariello A, Picano T, Coto F. A comparative trial of ketanserin and nifedipine in hypertension and obstructive peripheral arteriopathy. Advances in Therapy 1991;8(3):133-40.
Diehm 1993 {published data only}
Domschky 1977 {published data only}
  • Domschky K, Nelson M, Dammhayn B, Terjung E. Multicentre double blind study concerning flunarizine versus placebo in patients with cerebral and peripheral circulatory disorders. Medizinische Welt 1977;28(23):1062-4.
Gastmann 1987 {published data only}
  • Gastmann U, Lehmann M, Staiger J, Keul J. Influence of the calcium antagonist nisoldipin on the sympathetic activity and the energy metabolism at rest and during walking stress in patients with peripheral arterial of the legs and healthy control subjects [Abstract only]. Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie 1987;76 Suppl 2:13.
Hiatt 1985 {published data only}
Ingram 1982 {published data only}
  • Ingram DM, House AK, Thompson GH, Stacey MC, Castleden WM, Lovegrove FT. Beta-adrenergic blockade and peripheral vascular disease. Medical Journal of Australia 1982;1(12):509-11.
Jageneau 1977 {published data only}
  • Jageneau A, Haag F. Flunarizine versus placebo in patients with circulatory disorders of the lower extremities: double blind study. Medizinische Welt 1977;28(23):1050-5.
Kalus 1995 {published data only}
  • Kalus U, Jung F, Scheurer K, Koscielny J, Radtke H, Kiesewetter H, et al. The alpha and beta blocker carvediol in the treatment of hypertensive patients with POAD. Clinical Hemorheology 1995;15(5):570.
Klieber 1986 {published data only}
  • Klieber M, Resch F. Comparative studies of the effect of a cardioselective and a noncardioselective beta-blocker on peripheral circulation in patients with arterial occlusive disease [Vergleichende Untersuchengen uber die Werkung eines Kardioselektiven und eines Nichtkardioselektiven Betablockers auf die Periphere Durchblutung von Patienten mit Arterieller Verschlusskrankheit]. Weiner Klinische Wochenschrift 1986;98(3):70-3.
Larsen 1969 {published data only}
  • Larsen OA, Lassen NA. Medical treatment of occlusive arterial disease of the legs. Walking exercise and medically induced hypertension. Angiologica 1969;6(5):288-301.
Laurent 1994 {published data only}
  • Laurent S, Becquemont L, Laloux B, Asmar R, Hugue C, Vayssairat M, et al. Haemodynamic effects of chronic treatment by cilazapril in normotensive patients with obliterative arterial disease of the lower limbs [Effets hemodynamiques d'un traitement chronique par le cilazapril chez les malades normotendus atteints d'arteriopathie obliiterante des membres inferieurs]. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1994;87(8):987-90.
Leeman 1995 {published data only}
  • Leeman M, Degaute JP. Invasive haemodynamic evaluation of sublingual captopril and nifedipine in patients with arterial hypertension after abdominal aortic surgery. Critical Care Medicine 1995;23(5):843-7.
Lepantalo 1983 {published data only}
Lepantalo 1984 {published data only}
Lepantalo 1985a {published data only}
  • Lepantalo M. Beta blockade and intermittent claudication. Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementum 1985;700:1-48.
  • Lepantalo M. Chronic effects of labetolol, pindolol and propranolol on calf blood flow in intermittent claudication. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1985;37(1):7-12.
  • Lepantalo M, Lindstrom BL, Totterman KJ. Adrenoreceptor blocking drugs and cold feet in intermittent claudication. Vasa 1986;15(2):135-7.
Lepantalo 1985b {published data only}
Liakishev 2008 {published data only}
  • Liakishev AA. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. Results of the ONTARGET trial [Russian]. Kardiologiia 2008;48(5):72.
Lievre 1996 {published data only}
LIFE 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dahlöf B, Devereux R, de Faire U, Fyhrquist F, Hedner T, Ibsen H, et al. The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) in Hypertension study: rationale, design, and methods. The LIFE Study Group. American Journal of Hypertension 1997;10(7 Part 1):705-13.
  • Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Beevers G, de Faire U, et al. LIFE Study Group. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359(9311):995-1003.
Liu 1997 {published data only}
  • Liu Y, Opitz-Gress A, Rott A, Liewald F, Sunder-Plassmann L, Lehmann M, et al. Effect of felodipine on regional blood supply and collateral vascular resistance in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Vascular Medicine 1997;2(1):13-8.
Mann 1998 {published data only}
  • Mann J, Julius S. The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial of cardiovascular events in hypertension. Rationale and design. Blood Pressure 1998;7(3):176-83.
Natali 1989 {published data only}
  • Natali J, Kieny R, Le Bas P, Benhamou M, Molkhou JM. Ifenprodil tartrate in the treatment of occlusive arteriopathies of the lower limbs. Results of a prospective double-blind controlled multi-centre trial [Le tartrate d'ifenprodil dans le traitement des arteriopathies obliterantes des membres inferieures]. Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angeiologie 1989;38(6):339-42.
Nelson 1978 {published data only}
Novo 1985 {published data only}
  • Novo S, Pinto A, Galati D, Giannola A, Forte G, Strano A. Effects of chronic administration of selective betablockers on peripheral circulation of the lower limbs in patients with essential hypertension. International Angiology 1985;4(2):229-34.
Novo 1986 {published data only}
  • Novo S, Alaimo G, Abrignani MG, Giordano U, Avellone G, Pinto A, et al. Effects of ketanserin on blood pressure, peripheral circulation and haemocoagulative parameters in essential hypertensives with or without arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower limbs. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 1986;6(3):199-211.
Novo 1996 {published data only}
  • Novo S, Abrignani MG, Pavone G, Zamueli M, Pernice C, Geraci AM, et al. Effects of captopril and ticlopidine, alone or in combination, in hypertensive patients with intermittent claudication. International Angiology 1996;15(2):169-74.
ONTARGET 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bohm M, Baumhakel M, Teo K, Sleight P, Probstfield J, Gao P, et al. ONTARGET/TRANSCEND Erectile Dysfunction Substudy Investigators. Erectile dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events in high-risk patients receiving telmisartan, ramipril, or both: The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) Trials. Circulation 2010;121(12):1439-46.
  • Cowan BR, Young AA, Anderson C, Doughty RN, Krittayaphong R, Lonn E, et al. ONTARGET Investigators. Left ventricular mass and volume with telmisartan, ramipril, or combination in patients with previous atherosclerotic events or with diabetes mellitus (from the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET). American Journal of Cardiology 2009;104(11):1484-9.
  • Teo K, Yusuf S, Sleight P, Anderson C, Mookadam F, Ramos B, et al. ONTARGET/TRANSCEND Investigators. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of 2 large, simple, randomized trials evaluating telmisartan, ramipril, and their combination in high-risk patients: the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) trials. American Heart Journal 2004;148(1):52-61.
  • The ONTARGET Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, Dyal L, Copland I, Schumacher H, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(15):1547-59.
  • Yu LT, Zhu J, Tan HQ, Wang GG, Teo KK, Liu S, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in high-risk Chinese patients: analysis of ONTARGET China data. Chinese Medical Journal 2011;124(12):1763-8.
OPERA 2002 {published data only}
  • Kostis JB, Cobbe S, Johnston C, Ford I, Murphy M, Weber M, et al. OPERA Study Group. Omapatrilat in Persons with Enhanced Risk of Atherosclerotic events. Design of the Omapatrilat in Persons with Enhanced Risk of Atherosclerotic events (OPERA) trial. American Journal of Hypertension 2002;15(2 Pt 1):193-8.
Panzner 1992 {published data only}
  • Panzner B, Haringer E. Efficacy and tolerability of celiprolol and enalapril in patients with essential hypertension. Journal of Drug Development 1992;5(2):83-7.
POISE 2008 {published data only}
Reichert 1975 {published data only}
  • Reichert N, Shibolet S, Adar R, Gafni J. Controlled trial of propranolol in intermittent claudication. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1975;17(5):612-5.
Roberts 1987 {published data only}
  • Roberts DH, Tsao Y, McLoughlin GA, Breckenridge A. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, atenolol, labetalol and pindolol in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Lancet 1987;2(8560):650-3.
Roberts 1992 {published data only}
  • Roberts DH, Tsao Y, Linge K, Chatlani PT, McLoughlin GA, Breckenridge AM. Double-blind comparison of captopril or nifedipine in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1988;25(5):631P-2P.
  • Roberts DH, Tsao Y, Linge K, McLoughlin GA, Breckenridge A. Double-blind comparison of captopril with nifedipine in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Angiology 1992;43(9):748-56.
Rouffy 1989 {published data only}
  • Rouffy J, Djian F, Barret A, Branchereau A, Chevalier JM, Cristol R, et al. Ifenprodil tartrate for the treatment of chronic obliterating arteriosclerosis of the lower limbs with intermittent claudication. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind trial versus placebo [Le tartrate d'ifenprodil dans le traitement de l'arteriopathie chronique obliterante des membres inferieurs. Au stade de la claudication intermittente]. Semaines des Hopitaux 1989;65(33):2071-6.
Schweizer 1996 {published data only}
  • Schweizer J, Kaulen R, Altman E, Nierade A, Nanning T. Are beta-blockers generally contraindicated in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease? [Sind Betablocker bei Patienten mit Peripherer Arterieller Verschlusskrankheit Generell Kontraindiziert?]. Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie 1996;85(3):193-7.
  • Schweizer J, Kaulen R, Nierade A, Altman E. Beta blockers and nitrates in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease: long term findings. Vasa 1997;26(1):43-6.
Siniscalchi 1993 {published data only}
  • Siniscalchi N, De Nicola A, Misso L, Cerciello T, Carbone L, Molisso A. Treatment and monitoring of obstructive peripheral arterial disease in elderly with systolic hypertension. International Angiology 1993;12:76.
Smith 1982 {published data only}
Solomon 1991 {published data only}
  • Solomon SA, Ramsay LE, Yeo WW, Parnell L, Morris-Jones W. Beta blockade and intermittent claudication: placebo controlled trial of atenolol and nifedipine and their combination. BMJ 1991;303(6810):1100-4.
Spence 1993 {published data only}
  • Spence JD, Arnold MO, Munoz CE, Vishwanatha A, Huff M, Derose G, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with cilazapril does not improve blood flow, walking time, or plasma lipids in patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Medicine and Biology 1993;4(1):23-8.
Staessen 1978 {published data only}
  • Staessen AJ. Flunarizine and cinnarizine in pharmacotherapy of circulatory disturbances. Ars Medici Internationaal Tijdschrift voor Praktische Therapie 1978;7(5):433-45.
Stumpe 1993 {published data only}
  • Stumpe KO, Overlack A. A new trial of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in mild systemic hypertension with concomitant diseases and therapies. Perindopril Therapeutic Safety Study Group (PUTS). American Journal of Cardiology 1993;71(17):32E-7E.
Stumpe 1995 {published data only}
  • Stumpe KO, Ludwig M, Heagerty AM, Kolloch RE, Mancia G, Safar M, et al. Vascular wall thickness in hypertension: the Perindopril Regression of Vascular Thickening European Community Trial: PROTECT. American Journal of Cardiology 1995;76(15):50E-4E.
Sutton-Tyrell 1995 {published data only}
  • Sutton-Tyrell K, Alcorn HG, Herzog H, Kelsey SF, Kuller LH. Morbidity, mortality, and antihypertensive treatment effects by extent of atherosclerosis in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. Stroke 1995;26(8):1319-24.
Svendsen 1986 {published data only}
Takeda 2010 {published data only}
  • Takeda K, Ohshima M, Matsumoto S, Yagi T, Morigchi J, Takanashi Y. Effects of one-year treatment with calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II receptor blocker on function and stiffness of left ventricle, central and peripheral arteries in patients with essential hypertension. Therapeutic Research 2010;31(3):351-62.
VALUE 2006 {published data only}
  • Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, et al. VALUE trial group. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet 2004;363(9426):2022-31.
  • Mann J, Julius S. The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial of cardiovascular events in hypertension. Rationale and design. Blood Pressure 1998;7(3):176-83.
  • Zanchetti A, Julius S, Kjeldsen S, McInnes GT, Hua T, Weber M, et al. Outcomes in subgroups of hypertensive patients treated with regimens based on valsartan and amlodipine: An analysis of findings from the VALUE trial. Journal of Hypertension 2006;24(11):2163-8.
Van de Ven 1994 {published data only}
  • Van de Ven LL, Van Leeuwen JT, Smit AJ. The influence of chronic treatment with beta-blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the peripheral blood flow in hypertensive patients with and without concomitant intermittent claudication. A comparative cross-over trial. Vasa 1994;23(4):357-62.
Weibull 1992 {published data only}
  • Weibull H, Bergentz S, Bergqvist D, Hulthen L, Manhem P, Jonsson K, et al. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty vs reconstructive renovascular surgery in atherosclerotic unilateral renal artery stenosis - a prospective randomised study. Journal of Vascular Surgery 1992;15(6):1058.
Winterfeld 1984 {published data only}
  • Winterfeld HJ, Strangfeld D, Siewert H, Schmidt HH, Mederacke W. Behavior of blood pressure and peripheral hemodynamics in interval therapy in untreated and propranolol-treated patients with arterial circulatory disorders of the lower extremities]. [German]. Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1984;39(18):447-50.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ahimastos 2013 {published data only}
  • Ahimastos AA, Walker PJ, Askew C, Leicht A, Pappas E, Blombery P, et al. Effect of ramipril on walking times and quality of life among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2013;309(5):453-60.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Bauwens 1989
  • Bauwens F, Duprez D, Van Wassenhove A, Brusselmans F, Clement DL. Localisation and risk factors of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the female. International Angiology 1989;8(1):32-5.
Bavry 2010a
  • Bavry AA, Anderson RD, Gong Y, Denardo SJ, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Handberg EM, et al. Outcomes among hypertensive patients with concomitant peripheral and coronary artery disease: Findings from the INternational VErapamil-SR/Trandolapril STudy. Hypertension 2010;55(1):48-53.
Binaghi 1994
  • Binaghi F, Fronteddu PF, Cannas F, Caredda E, Uras A, Garau P, et al. Prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and associated risk factors in a sample of southern Sardinian population. International Angiology 1994;13(3):233-45.
Bowlin 1997
Breckenridge 1992
Cheng 1999
Clement 2007
Criqui 1992
  • Criqui MH, Langer RD, Fronek A, Feigelson HS, Klauber MR, McCann TJ, et al. Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;326:381-6.
Dormandy 2000
  • Dormandy JA, Rutherford RB. Management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). TASC Working Group. TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC). Journal of Vascular Surgery 2000;31:S1-S296.
ESH 2013
  • Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redón J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Journal of Hypertension 2013;31:1281-357.
Feringa 2006
  • Feringa HH, van Waning VH, Bax JJ, Elhendy A, Boersma E, Schouten O, et al. Cardioprotective medication is associated with improved survival in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006;47:1182-7.
Fontaine 1954
  • Fontaine R, Kim M, Kieny R. Surgical treatment for peripheral vascular disease [Die chirurgische Behandlung der peripheren Durchblutungsstörungen]. Helvetica Chirurgica Acta 1954;5/6:499-533.
Fowkes 1992
  • Fowkes FG, Housley E, Riemersma RA, Macintyre CC, Cawood EH, Prescott RJ, et al. Smoking, lipids, glucose intolerance, and blood pressure as risk factors for peripheral atherosclerosis compared with ischemic heart disease in the Edinburgh Artery Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1992;135(4):331-40.
Fowkes 2013
  • Fowkes FG, Rudan D, Rudan I, Aboyans V, Denenberg JO, McDermott MM, et al. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet 2013;382(9901):1329-40. [DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61249-0]
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hirsch 2001
Hjalmarson 1997
HOPE 1996
  • The HOPE Study Investigators. The HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) Study: the design of a large, simple randomised trial of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril) and vitamin E in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 1996;12(2):127-37.
INVEST 2006
  • Pepine CJ, Kowey PR, Kupfer S, Kolloch RE, Benetos A, Mancia G, et al. Predictors of adverse outcome among patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006;47:547-51.
Johnston 1988
  • Johnston KW, Rae M, Steiner G, Kalman PG, Schwartz L, Hill ME, et al. An atherosclerosis risk factor assessment program for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Annals of Vascular Surgery 1988;2(2):101-7.
Kannel 1974
Kannel 1996
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Makin 2001
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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