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Haloperidol versus placebo for schizophrenia

  1. Clive E Adams1,*,
  2. Hanna Bergman2,
  3. Claire B Irving1,
  4. Stephen Lawrie3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 15 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 15 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003082.pub3


How to Cite

Adams CE, Bergman H, Irving CB, Lawrie S. Haloperidol versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD003082. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003082.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Nottingham, Cochrane Schizophrenia Group, Nottingham, UK

  2. 2

    Enhance Reviews Ltd, Wantage, UK

  3. 3

    University of Edinburgh, Department of Psychiatry, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

*Clive E Adams, Cochrane Schizophrenia Group, The University of Nottingham, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham Innovation Park, Triumph Road,, Nottingham, NG7 2TU, UK. clive.adams@nottingham.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 15 NOV 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Arvanitis 1997 {published data only}
  • Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. (ICI 204,636): An atypical antipsychotic: Results from a multiple fixed dose, placebo-controlled study. Proceedings of XXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum. June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
  • Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic - results from a multiple fixed dose, placebo-controlled study. Proceedings of 149th Annual Meeting American Psychiatric Association. May 4-9th. 1996.
  • Arvanitis LA, Miller BG, Kowalcyk BB. Efficacy of 'Seroquel' (Quetiapine Fumarate) in affective symptoms of schizophrenia). Proceedings of 36th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. December 8-12th; Waikoloa, Hawai, USA. 1997.
  • Arvanitis LA, Miller BG, Seroquel Trial 13 Study Group. Multiple fixed doses of "Seroquel" (Quetiapine) in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: A comparison with haloperidol and placebo. Biological Psychiatry 1997;42:233-46.
  • Borison RL, Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. A comparison of five fixed doese of 'Seroquel' (ICI 204,636) with haloperidol and placebo in patients with schizophrenia. Proceedings of 8th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia. March 16-22nd; Crans Montana, Switzerland. 1996.
  • Borison RL, Arvantis LA, Miller BG. A multiple fixed-dose, placebo-controlled trial with 'Seroquel' - An atypical antipsychotic. Biological Psychiatry 1996;39:333.
  • Cantillon M. [Quetiapine fumarate reduces aggression]. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geriatric Psychiatry; San Diego, California, USA. 1997.
  • Cantillon M, Arvanitis LA, Miller BG, Kowalcyk. 'Seroquel' (Quetiapine Fumarate) reduces hostility and aggression in patients with acute schizophrenia. Proceedings of 36th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. December 8-12th; Waikoloa, Hawai, USA. 1997.
  • Cantillon M, Goldstein JM. Efficacy of Quetiapine fumarate in affective symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. May 30th-June 4th; Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 1998.
  • Hellewell JSE, Cameron-Hands D, Cantillon M. Seroquel: Evidence for efficacy in the treatment of hostility and aggression. 9th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia. February 7-13th; Davos, Switzerland. 1998.
  • Hong W, Arvanitis L. Reduction of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by (ICI 204,636): Results from phase II and III clinical trials. Proceedings of 9th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. September 21-25th; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996.
  • Hong WW, Arvanitis L. The atypical profile of (ICI 204,636) is supported by the lack of sustained elevation of plasma prolactin in schizophrenic patients. Proceedings of the 9th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. September 21-25th; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996.
  • Hong WW, Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. (ICI 204,636) does not differ from placebo in the incidence of EPS or effect on plasma prolactin. Proceedings of the XXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum. June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
  • Hong WW, Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. Quetiapine does not differ from placebo in the incidence of extrapyramidal syndrome of effect on plasma prolactin. Proceedings of the 149th Annual Meeting American Psychiatric Association. May 4-9th. 1996.
Beasley 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Ascher-Svanum H, Stensland MD, Kinon BJ, Tollefson GD. Weight gain as a prognostic indicator of therapeutic improvement during acute treatment of schizophrenia with placebo or active antipsychotic. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2005;19(6 Suppl):110-7. [MEDLINE: 16280344]
  • Beasley C, Tollefson GD, Beuzen JN, Dellva MA, Sanger TM, Paul S. Acute and long-term results of the North American double-blind olanzapine trial. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference. October 6-9th; Vancouver BC, Canada. 1996.
  • Beasley CM, Tollefson G, Tran P, Satterlee W, Sanger T, Hamilton S, Olanzapine HGAD study group. Olanzapine versus placebo and haloperidol; Acute phase results of the North American double-blind olanzapine trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996;14:111-23.
  • Beasley CM, Tollefson GD, Tran PV. Efficacy of Olanzapine: An overview of pivotal clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1997;58:7-12.
  • Crawford AMK, Beasley CM, Tollefson GD. The acute and long-term effect of olanzapine compared with placebo and haloperidol on serum prolactin concentrations. Schizophrenia Research 1997;26:41-54.
  • Hamilton SH, Revicki DA, Genduso LA, Beasley CM. Olanzapine versus placebo and haloperidol: Quality of life and efficacy results of the North American double-blind trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998;18:41-9.
  • Perry PJ, Lund BC, Sanger T, Beasley C. Olanzapine plasma concentrations and clinical response: Acute phase results of the North American Olanzapine trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2001;21:14-20.
  • Revicki D, Genduso L. Effect of Olanzapine on deficit syndrome symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Proceedings of 8th ECNP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress; September 30th - October 4th; Venice, Italy. 1997.
  • Sanger T, Tollefson GD. A controlled study on the course of primary and secondary negative symptoms. Proceedings of 150th American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. San Diego, USA. 1997.
  • Satterlee W, Beasley C, Sanger T, Tran P, Tollefson G. Olanzapine, a new atypical antipsychotic. Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research. April 6-12th; Wormsprings, USA. 1996.
  • Tollefson G. Update on new atypical antipsychotics. Proceedings of 8th ENCP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress. September 30th - October 4th; Venice, Italy. 1995.
  • Tollefson G, Beasley C, Tran P, Sanger T. Olanzapine: An exciting atypical antipsychotic. The clinical experience. Proceedings of 8th ENCP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress. September 30th - October 4th; Venice, Italy. 1995.
  • Tollefson G, Sanger T, Beasley C. The course of primary and secondary negative symptoms in a placebo-and comparator-controlled trial of the typical antipsychotic olanzapine. Proceedings of 9th ECNP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress. September 21-25th; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996.
  • Tollefson GD. Olanzapine: A novel antipsychotic with a broad spectrum profile. Proceedings of XIXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum Congress. June 27th - July 1st; Washington DC, USA. 1994.
  • Tollefson GD. The value of atypical antipsychotic medications. Proceedings of 150th American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. San Diego, USA. 1997.
  • Tollefson GD, Beasley CM, Tran PV, Sanger T. [The next generation of antipsychotics]. Proceedings of 148th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 20-5th; Miami, USA. 1995.
  • Tollefson GD, Beasley CM, Tran PV, Sanger T. Olanzapine: A novel antipsychotic with a broad spectrum. Proceedings of 49th Annual Convention and Scientific Program of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. May 18-22nd; Philadelphia, USA. 1994.
  • Tollefson GD, Sanger T, Beasley CM. The course of primary and secondary negative symptoms in a controlled trial with olanzapine. Proceedings of 149th American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. May 4-9th. 1996.
  • Tollefson GD, Sanger TM. Negative symptoms: A path analytic approach to a double-blind, placebo and haloperidol controlled clinical trial with olanzapine. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154:466-74.
  • Tollefson GD, Sanger TM, Beasley CM. The course of primary and secondary negative symptoms in a controlled trial with olanzapine. Proceedings of XXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum. June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
  • Tollefson GD, Sanger TM, Beasley CM, Tran PV. A double-blind, controlled comparison of the novel antipsychotic olanzapine versus haloperidol or placebo on anxious and depressive symptoms accompanying schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 1998;43:803-10.
  • Tollefson GD, Sanger TM, Beasley CM, Tran PV. Is there a relationship between EPSE and efficacy: faction or fiction. Proceedings of Campaign on Schizophrenia. March 10-12th; Florence, Italy. 1995.
  • Tran P, Beasley C, Tollefson G, Beuzen J, Dellva M, Sanger T, er al. Acute and long-term results of the North American double-blind Olanzapine trial. Proceedings of 8th ECNP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress. September 30th - October 4th; Venice, Italy. 1995.
  • Tran P, Beasley C, Tollefson G, Dellva M, Hamilton S, Van Ostrand R, et al. Acute and long term results of the North American double-blind olanzapine trial. Proceedings of 20th Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum Congress. June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
  • Tran P, Dellva M, Rampey V, Tollefson G, Beasley C. Long-term continuation therapy with the novel antipsychotic olanzapine: A review of the clinical experience. Proceedings of 9th ECNP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress. September 21-25th; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996.
  • Tran PV, Beasley CM, Tollefson GD, Sanger T, Satterlee WG. Clinical efficacy and safety of olanzapine, a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Proceedings of XIXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum Congress. June 27th - July 1st; Washington DC, USA. 1994.
  • Wood AJ, Beasley CM, Tollefson GD, Tran PV. [Efficacy of olanzapine in the post ive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia]. Proceedings of 7th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. October 16-21st; Jerusalem, Israel. 1994.
Bechelli 1983 {published data only}
  • Bechelli LPC, Ruffino-Netto A, Hetem G. A double-blind controlled trial of pipotiazine, haloperidol and placebo in recently hospitalised acute schizophrenic patients. Brazilian Journal of Biological Research 1983;16:305-11.
Borison 1989 {published data only}
  • Borison RL, Sinah D, Haverstock S, McLarnon MC, Diamond B. Efficacy and safety of tiospirone vs haloperidol and thioridazine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1989;25:190-3.
Borison 1992a {published data only}
  • Borison R, Pathiraga A, Diamond B, Meibach R. Risperidone and Schizophrenia. Proceedings of 5th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry. June 9-14th; Florence, Italy. 1991.
  • Borison RL, Diamond BI, Augusta GA. Serotonin modulation of dopaminergic-medicated extrapyramidal side effects. Proceedings of 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology. April 21-27th; Boston, USA. 1991.
  • Borison RL, Diamond BI, Pathiraja A, Meibach RC. Clinical profile of risperidone in chronic schizophrenia. Proceedings of 17th Congress of Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum. 1993.
  • Borison RL, Pathiraja AP, Diamond B, Meibach RC. Risperidone: Clinical safety and efficacy in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28:213-8.
Chouinard 1993 {published data only}
  • Chouinard G. Effects of risperidone in tardive dyskinesia: An analysis of the Canadian multicentre risperidone study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1995;15:S36-44.
  • Chouinard G, Albright P. Economic and health state utility determinations for schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone or haloperidol. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1997;17:298-307.
  • Chouinard G, Arnott W. The effect of risperidone on extrapyramidal symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients. Proceedings 47th Annual Convention and Scientific Program of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. April 29th - May 3rd; Washington DC, USA. 1992.
  • Chouinard G, Jones B, Remington G, Bloom D, Addington D, MacEwan GW, et al. A Canadian Multicentre placebo-controlled study of fixed doses of risperidone and haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1993;13:25-40.
  • Chouinard G, Vainer JL, Beauclair L. Dose regimens of neuroleptics in negative symptoms. Proceedings of 19th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress. June 27th - July 1st; Washington DC, USA. 1994.
  • Chouindard G, Arnott W. Antidyskinetic effect of risperidone in chronic schizophrenic patients. Proceedings of 18th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress. June 28th - July 2nd; Nice, France. 1992.
  • NCT00249132. Risperidone versus haloperidol versus placebo in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2005.
Durost 1964 {published data only}
  • Durost H, Lee H, Arthurs D. An early evaluation of Haloperidol. The Butyrophenones in Psychiatry. Edited by HE Lehmann and TA Ban. Channel Press Inc, 1964:70-3.
Garcia 2009 {published data only}
  • Garcia E, Robert M, Peris F, Nakamura H, Sato N, Terazawa Y. The efficacy and safety of blonanserin compared with haloperidol in acute-phase schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. CNS Drugs 2009;23(7):615-25. [MEDLINE: 19552488]
Garry 1962 {published data only}
  • Garry JW, Leonard TJ. Haloperidol: A controlled trial in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 1962;108:105-7.
Howard 1974 {published data only}
  • Howard J. Haloperidol for chronically hospitalised psychotics: A double-blind comparison with thiothixene and placebo; a follow-up open evaluation. Diseases of the Nervous System 1974;35:458-63.
Jann 1997 {published data only}
Kane 2002 {published data only}
  • Anutosh S, Ali MW, Ingenito G, Carson WH. Controlled study of aripiprazole and haloperidol in schizophrenia. 11th Association of European Psychiatrists Congress. May 4-8, Stockholm, Sweden. 2002.
  • Carson WH, Kane JM, Ali M, Dunbar GC, Ingenito G. Efficacy of aripiprazole in psychotic disorders: comparison with haloperidol and placebo. 13th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology [CD-ROM]: Conifer Excerpta Medica Medical Communications BV. P2075. 2000.
  • Daniel D, Stock E, Wilber C, Marcus R, Carson WH Jr, Manos G, et al. Intramuscular Aripiprazole in acutely agitated psychotic patients. 157th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 1-6; New York, USA. 2004.
  • Kane JM, Carson WH, Saha AR, McQuade RD, Ingenito GG, Zimbroff DL, et al. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and haloperidol versus placebo in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002;63(9):763-71.
  • Kane JM, Ingenito G, Ali M. Efficacy of aripiprazole in psychoitc disorders: comparison with haloperidol and placebo. 153rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 13-8; Chicago, USA. 2000.
  • Kane JM, Ingenito G, Ali M. Efficacy of aripiprazole in psychotic disorders: comparison with haloperidol and placebo. 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
  • Kane JM, Ingenito G, Ali M. Efficacy of aripiprazole in psychotic disorders: comparison with haloperidol and placebo. Abstracts of the XII CINP Congress, Brussels, Belgium, July 9-13. 2000.
Kane 2010 {published data only}
  • Kane J, Zhao J, Cohen M, Panagides J. Efficacy and safety of asenapine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2008;98:14.
  • Kane JM, Cohen M, Zhao J, Alphs L, Panagides J. Efficacy and safety of asenapine in a placebo- and haloperidol-controlled trial in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2010;30(2):106-15.
Klieser 1989 {published data only}
  • Klieser E, Lehmann E. Experimental examination of trazodone. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1989;12:S18-24.
Marder 1994 {published data only}
Meltzer 2004 {published data only}
  • Meltzer HY. Testing multiple novel mechanisms for treating schizophrenia in a single trial. In: Cummings JL editor(s). Progress in Neurotherapeutics and Neuropsychopharmacology. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2006:115-20.
  • Meltzer, HY, Arvanitis L, Bauer D, Rein W and Meta-trial Study Group. Placebo-controlled evaluation of four novel compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 2004;161(6):975-84.
NCT00044044 2002 {published data only}
  • NCT00044044. A 6-week, double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose, parallel-group study of the efficacy and safety of three dose levels of SM-13496 compared to placebo and haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia who are experiencing an acute exacerbation of symptoms. www.ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed on 30 Oct 2012). 2002.
Nishikawa 1982 {published data only}
Nishikawa 1984 {published data only}
  • Nishikawa T, Tsuda A, Tanaka M, Hoaki Y, Koga I, Uchida Y. Prophylactic effect of neuroleptics in symptom-free schizophrenics: A comparative dose-response study of haloperidol and propericiazine. Psychopharmacology 1984;82:153-6.
Potkin 2008 {published data only}
  • Potkin SG, Litman RE, Torres R, Wolfgang CD. Efficacy of iloperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia: initial phase 3 studies. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2008;28(2 Suppl 1):S4-S11.
Selman 1976 {published data only}
  • Selman FB, McClure RF, Helwig H. Loxapine succinate: A double-blind comparison with haloperidol and placebo in acute schizophrenics. Current Therapeutic Research 1976;19:645-52.
  • Selman FB, McClure RF, Helwig H. Loxapine succinate: essai comparatif en double aveugle avec l'haloperidol et un placebo dans les psychoses aigues. Psychololgie Medicale 1979;11:1533-40.
Serafetinides 1972 {published data only}
  • Sefafetinides EA, Willis D, Clark ML. Haloperidol, Clopenthixol and Chlorpromazine in chronic schizophrenia: II The electroencephalographic effects of chemically unrelated antipsychotics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1972;155:366-9.
  • Serafentinides EA. Consistency and similarity of drug EEG responses in chronic schizophrenic patients. International Pharmacopsychiatry 1973;8:214-6.
  • Serafetinides EA. Voltage laterality in the EEG of psychiatric patients. Diseases of the Nervous System 1973;34:190-1.
  • Serafetinides EA, Clark ML. Psychological effects of single dose antipsychotic medication. Biological Psychiatry 1973;7:263-7.
  • Serafetinides EA, Collins S, Clark ML. Haloperidol, Clopenthixol and Chlorpromazine in chronic schizophrenia: Chemically unrelated antipsychotics as therapeutic alternatives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1972;154:31-42.
Simpson 1967 {published data only}
Spencer 1992 {published data only}
  • Spencer E, Alpert M, Pouget E. Scales for the assessment of neuroleptic response in schizophrenic children: Specific measures derived from the CPRS. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1994;30:199-202.
  • Spencer EK, Alpert M, Pouget ER. [Two sensitive and specific scales derived from the CPRS for assessing haloperidol response in hospitalised schizophrenic children]. Proceedings of 33rd Annual Meeting of the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit. June 1-4th; Boca Raton, USA. 1993.
  • Spencer EK, Kafantaris V, Padron-Gayol MV, Rosenberg CR, Campbell M. Haloperidol in schizophrenic children: Early findings from a study in progress. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28:183-6.
Vichaiya 1971 {published data only}
  • Vichaiya V. Clinical trial of haloperidol in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Association of Thailand 1971;16(1):31-43.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Akhondzadeh 2005 {published data only}
  • Akhondzadeh S, Safarcherati A, Amini H. Beneficial antipsychotic effects of allopurinol as add-on therapy for schizophrenia: a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2005;29(2):253-9. [MEDLINE: 15694232]
Allison 2007 {published data only}
  • Allison D, Loebel A, Lombardo I, Siu C. Effect of regression to the mean on drug-induced weight change. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):418.
Alpert 1995 {published data only}
  • Alpert M, Pouget ER, Sison C, Yahia M, Allan E. Clinical and Acoustic Measures of the Negative Syndrome. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1995;31:312-26.
Alphs 1993 {published data only}
  • Alphs LD. [Response of negative symptom subtypes to remoxipride]. Proceedings of 146th American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. May 22-27th; San Francisco, USA. 1993.
Andrezina 2006 {published data only}
  • Andrezina R, Josiassen RC, Marcus RN, Oren DA, Manos G, Stock E, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with intramuscular haloperidol. Psychopharmacology 2006;188(3):281-92. [MEDLINE: 16953381]
  • Andrezina R, Marcus RN, Oren DA, Manos G, Stock E, Carson WH, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole or haloperidol and transition to oral therapy in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia: sub-analysis of a double-blind study. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2006;22(11):2209-19. [MEDLINE: 17076982]
  • Bristol-Myers S. A randomized, double-blind comparison of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole intramuscular formula, haloperidol, or placebo in the treatment of acutely agitated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/ 2004.
  • Citrome LL, Vester-Blokland E, Archibald D, McQuade R, Kostic D, Pikalov A, et al. Benefits of a second dose of intramuscular (IM) aripiprazole to control agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Proceedings of the 159th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2006 May 20-25; Toronto, Canada. 2006.
  • Daniel DG, Currier GW, Zimbroff DL, Allen MH, Oren D, Manos G, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral aripiprazole compared with haloperidol in patients transitioning from acute treatment with intramuscular formulations. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2007;13(3):170-7. [MEDLINE: 17522560]
  • Dillenschneider A, Oren D, Marcus R, Kostic D, McQuade R, Iwamoto T, et al. Comparison of intramuscular aripiprazole and haloperidol with placebo in acutely agitated schizophrenia patients. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;15(Suppl 3):S509.
  • Dillenschneider A, Oren D, Marcus R, Kostic D, McQuade R, Iwamoto T, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole in acute schizophrenia: a pivotal phase III study. Proceedings of the 18th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress; 2005 Oct 22-26; Amsterdam, Netherlands 2005.
  • McQuade R, Auby P, Oren D, Marcus R, Kostic D, Iwamoto T, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole in acute schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with IM haloperidol. Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia Research; 2006 Feb 4-10; Davos, Switzerland. 2006.
  • Oren D, Marcus R, Kostic D, McQuade R, Iwamoto T, Archibald D. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular aripiprazole, haloperidol or placebo in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Proceedings of the 158th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2005 May 21-26; Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2005.
  • Oren D, Marcus R, Kostic D, McQuade R, Iwamoto T, Archibald D. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular aripiprazole, haloperidol or placebo in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31:499.
  • Oren DA, Marcus RN, Manos G, Carson WH, McQuade D. Non-inferiority of intramuscular aripiprazole versus intramuscular haloperidol for the treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):451.
  • Yocca F, Marcus R, Oren D, Manos G, Carson W, Iwamoto T, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole in acute schizophrenia: a pivotal phase III study. Proceedings of the 158th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2005 May 21-26; Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2005.
Arvanitis 2002 {published data only}
  • Arvanitis L, Bauer D, Rein W. Results of the metatrial project: efficacy and tolerability of four novel compounds in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology (Abstracts of the 23rd Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum) 2002;5:S188.
  • Rein W, Arvanitis L. Antipsychotic effect of four different compounds - results of the metatrial. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2003;13:S95.
AstraZeneca 2001 {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A multicentre, double-blind, ranedomised trial to compare the effects of quetiapine and haloperidol treatment strategies on treatment outcomes (5077IL/0050 ESTO ). http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/ 2001.
Augustin 1996 {published data only}
  • Augustin BG, Jann MW, Crabtree BL, Pitts WM, Carter JG. Plasma alpha-one acid glycoprotein (AAG) and haloperidol (H) concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Proceedings of XXth Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum. June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
Azima 1960 {published data only}
Ban 1969 {published data only}
Barbee 1992 {published data only}
  • Barbee JG, Mancuso DM, Freed CR, Todorov AA. "Alprazolam as a neuroleptic adjunct in the emergency treatment of schizophrenia": correction. American Journal of Psychiatry 1992;149(8):1129.
Bateman 1979 {published data only}
Baymiller 2002 {published data only}
Ben-dor 1998 {published data only}
  • Ben-dor A, Gelkoph M. Vitamin E: An alternative to anticholinergic drugs?. Proceedings of 9th Congress of the Association of European Psychiatrists. September 20-24th; Copenhagen, Denmark. 1998.
Bersudsky 2006 {published data only}
Beuzen 1996 {published data only}
  • Beuzen JN, Taylor N, Wesnes K, Wood A. Olanzapine - cognitive and motor effects in healthy elderly. Proceedings of Xth World Congress of Psychiatry. August 23-28th; Madrid, Spain. 1996.
Blum 1969 {published data only}
Bogeum 2008 {published data only}
  • Bogeum KK, Shim J-C, Lee S-K. The effect of cyp2d6/3a5 genotypes on plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and haloperidol. Proceedings of the 161st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2008 May 3-8; Washington DC, USA. 2008.
Brandrup 1961 {published data only}
  • Brandrup E, Kristjansen P. A controlled clinical test of a new psycholeptic drug (Haloperidol). British Journal of Psychiatry 1961;107:778-82.
Browne 1988 {published data only}
  • Browne FWA, Cooper SJ, Wilson R, King DJ. Serum haloperidol levels and clinical response in chronic, treatment resistant schizophrenic patients. Journal of Psychopharmacology 1988;2:94-103.
Buchsbaum 1992 {published data only}
  • Buchsbaum MS, Potkin SG, Siegel BV Jr, Lohr J, Katz M, Gottschalk LA, et al. Striatal metabolic rate and clinical response to neuroleptics in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1992;49:966-74.
Cai 2009 {published data only}
  • Cai H. Bezoar xiexin tang for schizophrenia. Stanley Foundation Research Programs 2009.
Cao 2006 {published data only}
  • Cao K-S, Yao J, Li L-H. Safety and efficacy of ziprasidone and haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia [齐哌西酮与氟哌啶醇治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性比较]. Chinese Journal of New Drugs and Clinical Remedies [中国新药与临床杂志] 2006;25(6):431-4.
Caroli 1975 {published data only}
  • Caroli F, Littre-Poirier MF, Ginestet D, Deniker P. Essai d'interruption des antiparkinsoniens dans les traitements neruoleptiques au long cours. L'Encephale 1975;1:69-74.
Cho-Boon 1989 {published data only}
  • Cho-Boon S, Ying-Chiao L, Jeng-Ping H. [Haloperidol for schizophrenic inpatients with dosage regimens]. Proceedings of 8th World Congress of Psychiatry. October 12-19th; Athens, Greece. 1989.
Contreas 1988 {published data only}
  • Contreas SA, Maas JW, Seleshi E, Bowden CL. Urine and plasma levels of dopamine metabolites in response to apomorphine and neuroleptics in schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 1988;24:815-8.
Craft 1965 {published data only}
  • Craft M. A trial of haloperidol in schizophrenia. Clinical Trials Journal 1965;3:140-2.
Crow 1986 {published data only}
Czobor 1992 {published data only}
Deberdt 1971 {published data only}
  • Deberdt R, Luyssaert W. Le traitement de psychoses dellrantes chroniques par la pipothiazine (19.366 RP) et l'ester palmitique de pipothiazine (19.55 RP). Proceedings of Vth World Congress of Psychiatry. November 28th - December 4th; Cuidad de Mexico, Mexico. 1971.
Diamond 1991 {published data only}
  • Diamond BI, O'Neal E, Wang J, Borison RL. [Plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia]. Proceedings of 5th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry. June 9-14th; Florence, Italy. 1991.
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Eklund 1990 {published data only}
  • Eklund K. Low dose of haloperidol decanoate is effective against relapses in schizophrenia patients. A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Proceedings of the 17th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; 1990 Sep 10-14; Kyoto, Japan. 1990:287.
Eli Lilly 2005 {published data only}
  • Eli LandC. A double-blind dose-response study comparing short acting intramuscular olanzapine, short acting intramuscular haloperidol, and intramuscular placebo in patients with schizophrenia. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/ 2005.
Gelders 1986 {published data only}
  • Gelders Y, Ceulemans D, Hoppenbrouwers ML, Reyntjens A, Mesotten F. [Ritanserin, a selective serotonin antagonist in chronic schizophrenia]. Proceedings of IVth World Congress of Biological Psychiatry. September 8-13th; Philadelphia, USA. 1985.
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GlaxoSmithKline 2005 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover evaluation of the effects of GR68755C on plasma levels of haloperidol in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/ 2005.
Glovinsky 1992 {published data only}
Herrera 2005 {published data only}
  • Herrera M. Double-blind study with risperidone vs haloperidol in schizophrenic patients with agitation and/or aggression. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of Psychiatry; 2005 Sep 10-15; Cairo, Egypt. 2005.
Huygens 1973 {published data only}
  • Huygens H, Vereecken JLTM, Tanghe A. Dexetimide (R 16 470) in the control of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects: Its prophylactic value and duration of action. Psychiatria Neurologia Neurochirurgia 1973;76:251-9.
IRCT138809201457N6 {published data only}
  • IRCT138809201457N6. Celecoxib add-on therapy compared to haloperidol alone in schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. http://www.irct.ir/ 2004.
IRCT138809201457N7 {published data only}
  • IRCT138809201457N7. Beneficial antipsychotic effects of ascorbic acid add-on therapy compared to halloperidol alone in schizophrenia, (a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial). http://www.irct.ir/ 2003.
Itil 1981 {published data only}
Jolley 1990 {published data only}
  • Jolley AG, Hirsch SR, Morrison E, McRink A, Wilson L. Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenic outpatients: clinical and social outcome at two years. BMJ 1990;301:837-42.
Jung 2007 {published data only}
  • Jung D, Shin J, Kelly DL, Seo Y, Liu K, Sohn J, et al. Drug interactions between aripiprazole and haloperidol: double-blind, placebo controlled study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):434-5.
Kapur 2004 {published data only}
  • Kapur S. Linking the biology, phenomenology and pharmacology of psychosis - a feasible project or just a delusion. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;14(Suppl 3):S155.
Kasper 1996 {published data only}
  • Kapser S. Negative symptoms and Sertindole. 9th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Sep21-25; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996.
  • Wehnert A, Stilwell C, Mack R, Sloth-Nielsen M. Extrapyramidal symptoms and sertindole - analysis of three double-blind, haloperidol-referenced, phase III clinical trials. 10th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. Sep 13-17; Vienna, Austria. 1997.
Kim 2005 {published data only}
  • Kim Y, Shim JC, Suh YS, Lee BJ. A 12 week, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of donepezil adjunctive to haloperidol for the cognitive impairments in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31:490.
  • Kim YH, Lee BJ. A 12 week, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of donepezil adjunctive to haloperidol for the cognitive impairments in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of Psychiatry; 2005 Sep 10-15; Cairo, Egypt. 2005.
Kinon 2012 {published data only}
  • Kinon BJ, Kollack-Walker S, Stauffer V, Liu-Seifert H. Reduction in tardive dyskinesia symptoms during treatment with olanzapine or haloperidol. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2012;32:420-2.
Ko 1989 {published data only}
  • Ko GN, Korpi ER, Kirch DG. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol concentrations in plasma and red blood cells from chronic schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1989;9:186-90.
Kostic 2005 {published data only}
  • Archibald DG, Kostic D, Manos G, Stock EG, Jody DN, Tourkodimitris S, et al. Effects of long-term aripiprazole therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia; 2004 Feb 7-13; Davos, Switzerland. 2004.
  • Crandall D, Pikalov A, Kostic D, Kaplita S, Berman R, McQuade R, et al. Is sedation needed for effective reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms?. Proceedings of the 158th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2005 May 21-26; Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 2005.
  • Kane JM, Swyzen W, Wu X, McQuade R, Gutierrez-Esteinou R, Van Tran Q, et al. Long-term symptomatic remission in schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole or haloperidol. Proceedings of the 159th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2006 May 20-25; Toronto, Canada. 2006.
  • Kostic D, Marcus RN, Stock EG, Carson WH, Tourkodimitris S, Archibald DG. Maintenance of response in chronic schizophrenia: effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on affective symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31:492.
  • Marder SR, Archibald DG, Manos G, Stock EG, Jody DN, Tourkodimitris S, et al. Long-term effects of aripiprazole therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 24th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; 2004 June 20–24; Paris, France 2004.
  • Stock EG, Archibald DG, Tourkodimitris S, Kujawa MJ, Marcus R, Carson WH. Long-term effects of aripiprazole on affective symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2003 May 17–22; San Francisco, California, USA 2003.
Kramer 1989 {published data only}
  • Kramer MS, Vogel WH, DiJohnson C, Dewey DA, Sheves P, Cavicchia S, et al. Antidepressants in 'depressed' schizophrenic inpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry 1989;46:922-7.
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Kurland 1981 {published data only}
  • Kurland AA, Nagaraju A. Viloxazine and the depressed schizophrenic - Methodological issues. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21:37-41.
Labarca 1993 {published data only}
  • Labarca R, Silva H, Jerez S, Ruiz, A, Forray MI, Gysling K, et al. Differential effects of haloperidol on negative symptoms in drug naive schizophrenic patients: effects on plasma homovanillic acid. Schizophrenia Research 1993;9:29-34.
Lee 1968 {published data only}
  • Lee H. Use of haloperidol in a "hard-core" chronic schizophrenic population. Psychosomatics 1968;9:267-71.
Lee 2007 {published data only}
  • Lee B-J, Lee J-G, Kim Y-H. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil as an adjunct to haloperidol for treating cognitive impairments in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2007;21(4):421-7. [MEDLINE: 17092979]
Lehmann 1967 {published data only}
  • Lehmann HE, Ban TA, Lee H. The effectiveness of combined phenothiazine and butyrophenone treatment in chronic schizophrenic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1967;9:36-7.
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Li 2007 {published data only}
  • Li C, Zhu S, Wang H, Chen H, Yu Y, Liu D, et al. Safety and efficacy of clonazepam, haloperidol and haloperidol combined with clonazepam in the [氯硝西泮、氟哌啶醇及其联合治疗对精神分裂症激越症状疗效的比较]. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry [上海精神医学] [上海精神醫學] 2007;19(3):150-2.
Liang 1987 {published data only}
  • Liang S. Comparison of therapeutic effects between haloperidol and insulin coma for schizophrenia and the optimal blood level of haloperidol. Chinese Journalof Neurology and Psychiatry 1987;20(1):43-8.
Lindborg 2003 {published data only}
  • Lindborg SR, Beasley CM, Alaka K, Taylor CC. Effects of intramuscular olanzapine vs haloperidol and placebo on QTc intervals in acutely agitated patients. Psychiatry Research 2003;119:113-23.
Magelund 1979 {published data only}
Malaspina 1997 {published data only}
  • Malaspina D, Johnson J, Bruder G, Gorman J, Kaufmann C, Amador X, et al. [Brain laterality and haloperidol response in schizophrenia]. Proceedings of 52nd Annual Convention and Scientific Program of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. May 14-18th; San Diego, USA. 1997.
Maoz 2000 {published data only}
  • Maoz G, Stein D, Meged S, Kurzman L, Levine J, Valevski A, et al. The antiaggressive action of combined haloperidol-propranolol treatment in schizophrenia. European Psychologist 2000;5(4):312-25.
Meltzer 2008 {published data only}
  • Meltzer H, Peters P, Elkis H, Ruschel S, Rosenthal M, Mills R. Co-therapy with pimavanserin and risperidone 2 mg provides an improved clinical profile. Schizophrenia Research 2008;98:16.
Mossaheb 2006 {published data only}
  • Mossaheb N, Sacher J, Wiesegger G, Klein N, Spindelegger CJ, Asenbaum S, et al. Haloperidol in combination with clozapine in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;16:S416.
Nagaraja 1977 {published data only}
NCT00018850 {published data only}
  • NCT00018850. 5HT3 antagonism and auditory gating in schizophrenia. www.ClinicalTrials.gov. 2001. (accessed on 30 Oct 2012).
NCT00156104 {published data only}
  • NCT00156065. A multicenter, double-blind, flexible dose, long-term extension trial of the safety and maintenance of effect of asenapine using a haloperidol positive control in subjects who complete protocol 041023. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2005.
  • NCT00156104. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, 6-week trial of the efficacy and safety of asenapine compared with placebo using haloperidol positive control in subjects with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov 2008.
NCT00189995 {published data only}
  • NCT00189995. Intramuscular clozapine in the management of aggression in schizophrenic patients. www.ClinicalTrials.gov. 2005. (accessed on 30 Oct 2012).
NCT00947375 {published data only}
  • NCT00947375. Lamictal TM, haloperidol decanoate in schizophrenia. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2009.
NCT01161277 {published data only}
  • NCT01161277. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on mesolimbic system functioning (Arip_200901). http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01161277 2010.
Necomer 1992 {published data only}
  • Newcomer JW, Riney SJ, Vinogradov S, Csernansky JG. Plasma prolactin and homovanillic acid as markers for psychopathology and abnormal movements after neuroleptic dose decrease. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28:101-7.
Nguyen 1984 {published data only}
  • Nguyen J, Tamminga C, Alphs L, Stolk J, Heinrichs D, Carpenter WT. Acute and steady state kinetics of haloperidol in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1984;24:339.
North America 1997 {published data only}
  • Anderson C, True J, Ereshefsky L, Miller A. [Risperidone. Clinical efficacy: role of the metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone]. Proceedings of 33rd Annual Meeting of the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit. June 1-4th; Boca Raton, USA. 1993.
  • Anderson CB, True J, Miller AL, Peters B, Velligan DI. [Risperidone dose, plasma levels and response]. Proceedings of 146th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 22-27th; San Fransico, USA. 1993.
  • Lindenmayer JP. [Incidence of EPS with risperidone compared with haloperidol and placebo in patients with chronic schizophrenia]. Proceedings of 146th Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 22-27th; San Fransico, USA. 1993.
  • Marder S. Risperidone versus haloperidol versus placebo in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. Clinical Research Report RIS-INT-3 1991.
  • Marder SR. [Risperidone: Clinical development: North American Results]. Proceedings of 18th Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum Congress; June 28th - July 2nd; Nice, France. 1992.
  • Marder SR. [Risperidone: efficacy on positive and negative symptoms]. Proceedings of 1st International Risperidone Investigators Meeting; March 9-10th; Paris, France. 1992.
  • Marder SR. [Risperidone: Efficacy]. Proceedings of a roundtable meeting: Update on Serotonin/Dopamine Antagonists in Psychiatry; January 7th; New Orleans, USA. 1994.
  • Marder SR. Risperidone: Clinical development: North American Results. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1992;15(1):S92-3.
  • Marder SR, Chouinard G, Davis JM. [The clinical actions of risperidone]. Proceedings of 10th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology; September 13-17th; Vienna, Austria. 1997.
  • Marder SR, Chouinard G, Davis JM. [The clinical actions of risperidone]. Proceedings of 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology; December 9-13th; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1996.
  • Marder SR, Chouinard G, Davis JM. [The clinical actions of risperidone]. Proceedings of 6th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry; June 22-27th; Nice, France. 1997.
  • Marder SR, Davis JM, Chouinard G. The effects of risperidone on the five dimensions of schizophrenia derived by factor analysis: combined results of the North American trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1997;58:538-46.
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  • Simpson GM, Lindenmayer JP. Extrapyramidal Symptoms in patients treated with risperidone. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1997;17:194-201.
Octavio 2004 {published data only}
  • Octavio I, Stock EG, Archibald DG, Tourkodimitris S, Kujawa MJ, Marcus R, et al. Long-term effects of aripiprazole on affective symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 24th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; 2004 June 20–24; Paris, France 2004.
Okasha 1964 {published data only}
Ortega-Soto 1994 {published data only}
  • Ortega-Soto HA, Brunner E, Apiquian R, de la Torre P. [Therapeutic minimum dose of haloperidol (HLP) in schizophrenia]. Proceedings of XIXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; June 27th - July 1st; Washington DC, USA. 1994.
Ota 1973 {published data only}
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Pathiraja 1995 {published data only}
  • Pathiraja AP, Diamond BI, Borison RL, Meibach RC, Anand R. [Relationship between creatine phosphokinase, psychotic symptoms and novel antipsychotic drugs]. Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; April 6-12th; Wormsprings, USA. 1995.
Paykel 2000 {published data only}
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Pool 1976 {published data only}
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  • Potkin SG, Shen YC, Pardes H, Zhou DF, Phelps B, Shu L, et al. [Failure of insulin coma and presence of a therapeutic window for haloperidol in chinese schizophrenics]. Proceedings of 14th (CINP) Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; June 19-23rd; Florence, Italy. 1984.
Potkin 1995 {published data only}
  • Potkin S, Wu J, Anand R, Bear R, Carreon D, Hartman R, et al. Neuroimaging to evaluate atypical antipsychotic compounds: An FDG PET study of SDZ MAR 327. Proceedings of XXth Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum; June 23-27th; Melbourne, Australia. 1996.
  • Potkin S, Wu J, Fallon F, Anand R, Hartman R, Bear R, et al. Functional Neuroimaging to evaluate atypical antipsychotic compounds: An FDG PET study of SDZ MAR 327. Proceedings of 8th ENCP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress; September 30th - October 4th; Venice, Italy. 1995.
Potkin 2000 {published data only}
  • Potkin SG, Basile VS, Badri F, Keator D, Wu JC, Alva G, Doo M, Bunney Jr WE, Kennedy JL. D1 receptor alleles predict PET metabolic correlates of clinical response to clozapine. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;3:S6.
Price 1985 {published data only}
  • Price W, Giannini AJ, Loiselle R. [Antischizophrenia effects of verapamil]. Proceedings of IVth World Congress of Biological Psychiatry; September 8-13th; Philadelphia, USA. 1985.
Price 1987 {published data only}
  • Price WA. Antipsychotic effects of Verapamil in schizophrenia. Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1987;9:225-30.
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Reschke 1974 {published data only}
Roitman 1989 {published data only}
Romeo 2009 {published data only}
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Samuels 1961 {published data only}
Shim 2007 {published data only}
  • Shim JC, Jae YM, Shin JG, Jung DW, Seo YS, Liu KH, et al. Drug interactions between aripiprazole and haloperidol: double blind placebo controlled study. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2007;17(Suppl 4):S438.
Singh 1972 {published data only}
  • Singh MM, Discipo WJ. Changes in staff anxiety and attitudes during a double blind study of haloperidol in acute schizophrenics within a structured milieu. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1972;155(4):245-56.
Soloff 1986 {published data only}
  • Soloff PH, George A, Swami NR, Schulz P, Ulrich RF, Perel JM. Progress in pharmacotherapy of borderline disorders: a double-blind study of amitriptyline, haloperidol, and placebo. Pharmacotherapy 1986;43:691-7.
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  • Stankovska GN. The effects of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. XIIth World Congress of Psychiatry; Aug 24-9; Yokohama, Japan. 2002.
Taverna 1972 {published data only}
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  • Kungel M, Daniel D, Stock E, Wilber R, Marcus R, Carson W, et al. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular aripiprazole in acutely agitated patients with psychosis. Proceedings of the Thematic Conference of the World Psychiatric Association on "Treatments in Psychiatry: An Update"; 2004 Nov 10-13; Florence, Italy. 2004.
  • Modell S, Daniel D, Stock E, Wilber R, Marcus R, Carson W, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole treatment for acute agitation in patients with psychosis. Proceedings of the 24th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress; 2004 June 20–24; Paris, France 2004.
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Van Lommel 1974 {published data only}
  • Van Lommel R, Baro F, Dom R. The influence of haloperidol and penfluridol on the learning capacity of the schizophrenic. Arzneimittelforschung 1974;24:1072-4.
Veser 2006 {published data only}
  • Veser FH, Veser BD, McMullan JT, Zealberg J, Currier GW. Risperidone versus haloperidol, in combination with lorazepam, in the treatment of acute agitation and psychosis: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2006;12(2):103-8. [MEDLINE: 16728906]
Volavka 1992 {published data only}
  • Chou JC, Douyon R, Czobor P, Volavka J, Cooper TB. Change in plasma prolactin and clinical response to haloperidol in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatry Research 1998;81(1):51-5. [MEDLINE: 1999045115]
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Wang 2009 {published data only}
  • Wang L, Zhang B, Xu L, et al. A clinical study on aripiprzole in the treatment of female hyperprolactinemia by haloperidol [阿立哌唑治疗氟哌啶醇所致女性高催乳素血症的临床研究]. Chinese Journal of Health Psychology [中国健康心理学杂志] 2009;17(2):194-5.
Wilson 1994 {published data only}
  • Wilson WH. Open clozapine treatment following a controlled clinical trial of lithium augmentation of haloperidol for refractory schizophrenia. Lithium 1994;5(2):113-4.
Wright 2001 {published data only}
  • Battaglia J, Houston JP, Ahl J, Meyers AL, Kaiser CJ. A post hoc analysis of transitioning to oral treatment with olanzapine or haloperidol after 24-hour intramuscular treatment in acutely agitated adult patients with schizophrenia. Clinical Therapeutics 2005;27(10):1612-8. [MEDLINE: 16330297]
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Zhan 2000 {published data only}
  • Zhan Y, Xu X, Guo Y. The relationship between the schizophrenia and the immune index [精神分裂症左施咪唑涂布剂治疗后免疫指标与精神症状的关系]. 中国民政医学杂志 2000;12(2):69-71.
Zhang 2001 {published data only}
  • Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Zhang PY. Extract of ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol was effective for positive symptoms in refractory schizophrenia. Evidence-Based Mental Health 2002;5(3):90.
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Zhang 2006 {published data only}
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References to other published versions of this review

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
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