Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries
Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group
Published Online: 7 OCT 2009
Assessed as up-to-date: 31 DEC 2007
Copyright © 2009 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
How to Cite
Bunn F, Collier T, Frost C, Ker K, Steinbach R, Roberts I, Wentz R. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003110. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003110.
- Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
- Published Online: 7 OCT 2009
It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and to second in developing countries. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one strategy for preventing traffic related injuries.
To assess the effects of area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths.
We searched the the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT. We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. The searches were last updated in 2008.
Randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes.
Data collection and analysis
Two authors independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The results of each study were expressed as rate ratios.
We found no randomised controlled trials, but 22 controlled before-and-after studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted in Germany, seven in the UK, two in Australia, two in the Netherlands, two in Denmark, one in Japan, and one in Spain. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Nine trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths; pooled rate ratio 0.79 (95% CI 0.23 to 2.68). Eighteen studies reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in injuries (fatal and non-fatal); pooled rate ratio 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.96). Twelve studies reported the total number of road traffic crashes; pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.05). Fourteen trials reported the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions; pooled rate ratio 1.01 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.16). There was evidence of significant heterogeneity for the total number of crashes and road user injuries outcomes.
The results from this review suggest that area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities may be a promising intervention for reducing the number of road traffic injuries and deaths. However, further rigorous evaluations of such interventions are needed.
Plain language summary
Area-wide traffic calming (such as introducing road/speed humps) may reduce death and injury from road traffic crashes but more research is needed
Road traffic crashes are a major problem worldwide. In high-income countries, traffic calming schemes aim to make the roads safer (particularly for vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists) in areas that are particular 'hot spots'. Strategies include slowing down traffic (eg road/speed humps, mini-roundabouts, reduced speed limit zones), visual changes (road surface treatment, changes to road lighting), redistributing traffic (blocking roads, creating one-way streets), and/or changes to road environments (such as trees). This review found that area-wide traffic calming may have the potential to reduce death and injuries, but more research is needed particularly in low and middle income countries.
世界疾病負擔排名中，以失能調整人年(disability adjusted life years)測量，估計在2020年前，道路交通碰撞將從第九名躍升至第三名，且在發展中國家為第二名。找出有效的策略以預防交通相關的傷害在全球都有健康上的重要性。在居住區的道路上有阻卻交通的區域性交通安撫措施便是一種這樣的策略。
我們搜尋了以下的電子資料庫:Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC)。我們搜尋了交通安全組織的網頁、徒手搜尋會議記錄、確認相關報告的參考文獻清單、聯絡相關領域的專家。搜尋方式不侷限語言或發表狀態。
兩位檢閱者分別擷取資料，包括研究類型、介入措施之特性與對照區域、資料蒐集期間的長短。前後測的資料蒐集則為道路交通碰撞總數、所有的道路使用者死亡與受傷總數、行人與機車碰撞總數與道路使用者死亡總數。用統計套裝軟體STATA計算每篇研究的rate ratios，之後採用random effects model將其加總得到一個整體的估計值。
我們並未找到隨機對照試驗，但是有16篇前後對照試驗符合我們的納入條件。其中7篇在德國完成，6篇在英國，2篇在澳洲，1篇在荷蘭。本研究中沒有中間收入或低收入的國家。有8篇試驗指出了道路碰撞造成死亡的數量，其pooled rate ratio為0.63(95% CI 0.14, 2.59)。有16篇研究指出了道路碰撞造成受傷(致死或非致死)的數量，其pooled rate ratio為0.89 (0.80, 1.00 95% CI)。有九篇研究報告了道路交通碰撞的總數，其pooled rate ratio為0.95(95% CI 0.81, 1.11)。有13篇試驗報告了行人與機車碰撞的數量，其pooled rate ratio為1.00(95% CI 0.84, 1.18)。碰撞、死亡和受傷總數皆具有顯著的異質性。
此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。