Intervention Review

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Interventions for promoting physical activity

  1. Charles Foster1,*,
  2. Melvyn Hillsdon2,
  3. Margaret Thorogood3,
  4. Asha Kaur1,
  5. Thamindu Wedatilake4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 24 JAN 2005

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003180.pub2

How to Cite

Foster C, Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, Kaur A, Wedatilake T. Interventions for promoting physical activity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003180. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003180.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Oxford, BHF Health Promotion Research Group, Department of Public Health, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    University of Exeter, School of Sport and Health Sciences, Exeter, UK

  3. 3

    Division of Health Sciences, Public Health and Epidemiology, Coventry, UK

  4. 4

    Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre NHS Trust Hospital, Oxford, UK

*Charles Foster, BHF Health Promotion Research Group, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, IHS, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Stable (no update expected for reasons given in 'What's new')
  2. Published Online: 24 JAN 2005



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Calfas 2000 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Nichols JF, Sarkin JA, Johnson MF, Caparosa S, et al. Project GRAD: two-year outcomes of a randomized controlled physical activity intervention among young adults. Graduate Ready for Activity Daily. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;18(1):28-37. [MEDLINE: 2910]
Cunningham 1987 {published data only}
Dubbert 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dubbert PM, Cooper KM, Kirchner KA, Meydrech EF, Bilbrew D. Effects of nurse counseling on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 2002;57(11):M733-40.
Elley 2003 {published data only}
  • Elley CR, Kerse N, Arroll B, Robinson E. Effectiveness of counselling patients on physical activity in general practice: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326(7393):793-800.
Goldstein 1999 {published data only}
Green 2002 {published data only}
  • Green B, McAffee T, Hindmarsh M, Madsen L, Caplow M, Buist D. Effectiveness of telephone support in increasing physical activity levels in primary care patients. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;22(3):177-83.
Harland 1999 {published data only}
  • Harland J, White M, Drinkwater C, Chinn D, Farr L, Howel D. The Newcastle exercise project: a randomised controlled trial of methods to promote physical activity in primary care. BMJ 1999;319(7213):828-32. [MEDLINE: 3343]
Hillsdon 2002 {published data only}
  • Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, White IR, Foster C. Advising people to take more exercise is ineffective: a randomised controlled trial of physical activity promotion in primary care. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(4):808-15.
Inoue 2003 {published data only}
  • Inoue S, Odagiri Y, Wakui S, Katoh R, Moriguchi T, Ohya Y, et al. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a physical activity intervention program based on behavioural medicine. Journal of Tokyo Medical University 2003;61:154-65.
Juneau 1987 {published data only}
  • Juneau M, Rogers F, De Santos V, Yee M, Evans A, Bohn A, et al. Effectiveness of self-monitored, home-based, moderate-intensity exercise training in middle-aged men and women. American Journal of Cardiology 1987;60(1):66-70.
King 1988a {published data only}
  • King AC, Taylor CB, Haskell WL, DeBusk RF. Strategies for increasing early adherence to and long-term maintenance of home-based exercise training in healthy middle-aged men and women. American Journal of Cardiology 1988;61(8):628-32. [MEDLINE: 28216]
King 1988b {published data only}
  • King AC, Taylor CB, Haskell WL, DeBusk RF. Strategies for increasing early adherence to and long-term maintenance of home-based exercise training in healthy middle-aged men and women. American Journal of Cardiology 1988;61(8):628-32. [MEDLINE: 28216]
King 1991 {published data only}
Kriska 1986 {published data only}
  • Kriska AM, Bayles C, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Sandler RB, Pambianco G. A randomized exercise trial in older women: increased activity over two years and the factors associated with compliance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1986;18(5):557-62. [MEDLINE: 28207]
Lamb 2002 {published data only}
  • Lamb SE, Bartlett HP, Ashley A, Bird W. Can lay-led walking programmes increase physical activity in middle aged adults? A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2002;56:246-52.
Lombard 1995 {published data only}
Marshall 2003a {published and unpublished data}
  • Marshall AL, Bauman AE, Owen N, Booth ML, Crawford D, Marcus BH. Population-based randomized controlled trial of a stage-targeted physical activity intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2003;25(3):194-202.
Marshall 2004 {published data only}
  • Marshall AL, Bauman AE, Owen N, Booth ML, Crawford D, Marcus BH. Reaching out to promote physical activity in Australia: a statewide randomized controlled trial of a stage-targeted intervention. American Journal of Health Promotion 2004;18:283-7.
Norris 2000 {published data only}
Petrella 2003 {published data only}
  • Petrella RJ, Koval JJ, Cunningham DA, Paterson DH. Can primary care doctors prescribe exercise to improve fitness? The step test exercise prescription (STEP) project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003;24(4):316-22.
Pinto 2002 {published data only}
  • Pinto BM, Friedman R, Marcus BH, Kelley H, Tennstedt S, Gillman MW. Effects of a computer-based, telephone counseling system on physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;23(2):113-20.
Reid 1979 {published data only}
Resnick 2002a {published data only}
  • Resnick B. Testing the effect of the WALC intervention on exercise adherence in older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2002;28(6):40-9.
Simons-Morton 2001a {published data only}
  • Simons-Morton DG, Blair SN, King AC, Morgan TM, Applegate WB, O' Toole M, et al. Effects of physical activity counseling in primary care: The Activity Counseling Trial: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286(6):677-87. [MEDLINE: 7812]
Simons-Morton 2001b {published data only}
  • Simons-Morton DG, Blair SN, King AC, Morgan TM, Applegate WB, O' Toole M, et al. Effects of physical activity counseling in primary care: The Activity Counseling Trial: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286(6):677-87.
Smith 2000 {published data only}
  • Smith BJ, Bauman AE, Bull FC, Booth ML, Harris MF. Promoting physical activity in general practice: a controlled trial of written advice and information materials. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2000;34(4):262-7. [MEDLINE: 427]
SSCT 2000 {published data only}
  • Fujita K, Nagatomi R, Hozawa A, Ohkubo T, Sato K, Anzai Y, et al. Effects of exercise training on physical activity in older people: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Epidemiology 2003;13(2):120-6.
  • Tsuji I, Tamagawa A, Nagatomi R, Irie N, Ohkubo T, Saito M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of exercise training for older people (Sendai Silver Center Trial; SSCT): study design and primary outcome. Journal of Epidemiology 2000;10(1):55-64. [MEDLINE: 2867]
Stevens 1998 {published data only}
  • Stevens W, Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, McArdle D. Cost-effectiveness of a primary care based physical activity intervention in 45-74 year old men and women: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine 1998;32(3):236-41. [MEDLINE: 3561]
Stewart 2001 {published data only}
  • Stewart AL, Verboncoeur CJ, McLellan BY, Gillis DE, Rush S, Mills KM, et al. Physical activity outcomes of CHAMPS II: a physical activity promotion program for older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 2001;56(8):M465-70. [MEDLINE: 114]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Andersen 1999 {published data only}
Andersen 2002 {published data only}
  • Andersen LB, Klausen K, Nisbeth O. One-year effect of health counseling on life style and risk factors of heart disease [Et ars effekt af sundhedsvejledning pa livsstil og risikofaktorer for hjertesygdom]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 2002;164(13):1814-8.
Aoun 2002 {published data only}
Asikainen 2002 {published data only}
  • Asikainen TM, Miilunpalo S, Oja P, Rinne M, Pasanen M, Uusi-Rasi R, et al. Randomised, controlled walking trials in postmenopausal women: the minimum dose to improve aerobic fitness?. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;36(3):189-94.
Asikainen 2003 {published data only}
Atienza 2001 {published data only}
  • Atienza AA. Home-based physical activity programs for middle-aged and older adults: Summary of empirical research. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2001;9(Suppl):S38-58.
Atlantis 2004 {published data only}
  • Atlantis E, Chow CM, Kirby A, Singh MF. An effective exercise-based intervention for improving mental health and quality of life measures: a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine 2004;39(2):424-34.
Ballantyne 1978 {published data only}
  • Ballantyne D, Clark A, Dyker GS, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM, Henry DA, et al. Prescribing exercise for the healthy assessment of compliance and effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Health Bulletin 1978;36(4):169-76. [MEDLINE: 27336]
Baranowski 1990 {published data only}
  • Baranowski T, Simons-Morton B, Hooks P, Henske J, Tiernan K, Dunn JK, et al. A center-based program for exercise change among black-American families. Health Educucation Quarterly 1990;17(2):179-96. [MEDLINE: 1463]
Baranowski 2003 {published data only}
  • Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, Thompson DI, Nicklas T, Zakeri IE, et al. The Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S30-9.
Barnett 2003 {published data only}
  • Barnett A, Smith B, Lord SR, Williams M, Baumand A. Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2003;32(4):407-14.
Bauman 2001 {published data only}
Bell 2001 {published data only}
  • Bell AC, Swinburn BA, Amosa H, Scragg RK. A nutrition and exercise intervention program for controlling weight in Samoan communities in New Zealand. International Journal of Obesity 2001;25(6):920-27. [MEDLINE: 26633]
Blair 1986 {published data only}
  • Blair SN, Piserchia PV, Wilbur CS, Crowder JH. A public health intervention model for work-site health promotion. Impact on exercise and physical fitness in a health promotion plan after 24 months. JAMA 1986;255(7):921-26. [MEDLINE: 582]
Blumenthal 2000 {published data only}
  • Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Gullette ECD, Babyak M, Waugh R, Georgiades A, et al. Exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in men and women with mild hypertension: Effects on cardiovascular, metabolic, and hemodynamic functioning. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000;160(13):1947-58. [MEDLINE: 26732]
Bonet 2003 {published data only}
Brownson 2004 {published data only}
  • Brownson RC, Baker EA, Boyd RL, Caito NM, Duggan K, Housemann RA, et al. A community-based approach to promoting walking in rural areas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;27(1):1-34.
Buijis 2003 {published data only}
  • Buijs R, Ross-Kerr J, Cousins SO, Wilson D. Promoting participation: evaluation of a health promotion program for low income seniors. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2003;20(2):93-107.
Bull 1998 {published data only}
Burke 2003 {published data only}
  • Burke V, Giangiulio N, Gillam HF, Beilin LJ, Houghton S. Physical activity and nutrition programs for couples: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2003;56(5):421-32.
Calfas 2002 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Zabinski MF, Wilfley DE, Rupp J, Prochaska J-J, et al. Preliminary evaluation of a multicomponent program for nutrition and physical activity change in primary care: PACE+ for adults. Preventive Medicine 2002;34(2):153-61.
Campbell 1985 {published data only}
Cardinal 1996 {published data only}
  • Cardinal BJ, Sachs ML. Effects of mail-mediated, stage-matched exercise behavior change strategies on female adults' leisure-time exercise behavior. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 1996;36(2):100-7. [MEDLINE: 2486]
Carels 2004 {published data only}
  • Carels RA, Darby LA, Cacciapaglia HM, Douglass OM. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women through a lifestyle change intervention. Journal of Women's Health 2004;13(4):412-26.
Castro 2002 {published data only}
Chang 2003 {published data only}
  • Chang SF. Worksite health promotion - on the effects of an employee fitness program.. Journal of Nursing Research 2003;11(3):412-26.
Clark 2003 {published data only}
Coleman 1999 {published data only}
Collins 2004 {published data only}
  • Collins R, Lee RE, Albright CL, King AC. The effects of a course preparing low-income multiethnic women to be more physically active. Health Education & Behavior 2004;31(1):47-64.
Conn 2002 {published data only}
Conn 2003 {published data only}
Dallow 2003 {published data only}
  • Dallow CB, Anderson J. Using self-efficacy and a transtheoretical model to develop a physical activity intervention for obese women. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003;17(6):373-81.
De Jong 2004 {published data only}
  • De Jong ORW, Hopman RM, Tak ECMP, Klazinga NS. An implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. Health Education Research 2004;19(3):316-25.
Donnelly 2000 {published data only}
  • Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Heelan KS, Seip R, Smith S. The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 2000;24(5):566-72. [MEDLINE: 26747]
Dunn 1997 {published data only}
Dunn 1998 {published data only}
  • Dunn AL, Garcia ME, Marcus BH, Kampert JB, Kohl-HW III, Blair SN. Six-month physical activity and fitness changes in Project Active, a randomized trial. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1998;30(7):1076-83. [MEDLINE: 6616]
DuVall 2004 {published data only}
Eakin 2000 {published data only}
  • Eakin EG, Glasgow RE, Riley KM. Review of primary care-based physical activity intervention studies: effectiveness and implications for practice and future research. Journal of Family Practice 2000;49(2):158-68. [MEDLINE: 2890]
Eaton 1998 {published data only}
Ebrahim 1997 {published data only}
Ebrahim 1998 {published data only}
Elberson 2001 {published data only}
  • Elberson KL, Daniels KK, Miller PM. Structured and nonstructured exercise in a corporate wellness program. A comparison of physiological outcomes. Outcomes Management for Nursing Practice 2001;5(2):82-6.
Elliot 2004 {published data only}
  • Elliot DL, Goldberg L, Duncan TE, Kuehl KS, Moe EL, Breger RK, et al. The PHLAME firefighters' study: feasibility and findings. American Journal of Health Behavior 2004;28(1):13-23.
Emmons 1999 {published data only}
  • Emmons KM, Linnan LA, Shadel WG, Marcus B, Abrams DB. The Working Healthy Project: a worksite health-promotion trial targeting physical activity, diet, and smoking. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1999;41(7):545-55. [MEDLINE: 3177]
Eriksen 2002 {published data only}
  • Eriksen HR, Ihlebaek C, Mikkelsen A, Gronningsaeter H, Sandal GM, Ursin H. Improving subjective health at the worksite: a randomized controlled trial of stress management training, physical exercise and an integrated health programme. Occupational Medicine 2002;52(7):383-91.
Fahrenwald 2002 {published data only}
Fiatarone 1994 {published data only}
  • Fiatarone MA, O'Neill EF, Ryan ND, Clements KM, Solares GR, Nelson ME, et al. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;330(25):1769-75. [MEDLINE: 28201]
Focht 2004 {published data only}
  • Focht BC, Brawley LR, Rejeski WJ, Ambrosius WT. Group-mediated activity counseling and traditional exercise therapy programs: Effects on health-related quality of life among older adults in cardiac rehabilitation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2004;28(1):52-61.
Fody-Urias 2001 {published data only}
  • Fody-Urias BM, Fillit H, Hill J. The effect of a fitness program on health status and health care consumption in Medicare MCOs. Managed Care Interface 2001;14(9):58-64. [MEDLINE: 38]
Fritz 2001 {published data only}
  • Fritz T, Rosenqvist U. Walking for exercise - immediate effect on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. Scandian Journal of Primary Health Care 2001;19(1):31-3.
Froehlich-Grobe 2004 {published data only}
  • Froehlich-Grobe K, White GW. Promoting physical activity among women with mobility impairments: A Randomized controlled trial to assess a home- and community-based intervention. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2004;85(4):640-8.
Furukawa 2003 {published data only}
  • Furukawa F, Kazuma K, Kawa M, Miyashita M, Niiro K, Kusukawa R, et al. Effects of an off-site walking program on energy expenditure, serum lipids, and glucose metabolism in middle-aged women. Biological Research for Nursing 2003;4(3):181-92.
Godin 1987 {published data only}
Goldwater 1985 {published data only}
Gossard 1986 {published data only}
  • Gossard D, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Mueller JK, Rogers F, Chandler M, et al. Effects of low- and high-intensity home-based exercise training on functional capacity in healthy middle-aged men. American Journal of Cardiology 1986;57(6):446-9. [MEDLINE: 28217]
Graham-Clarke 1994 {published data only}
  • Graham-Clarke P, Oldenburg B. The effectiveness of a general-practice-based physical activity intervention on patient physical activity status. Behaviour Change 1994;11(3):132-44. [MEDLINE: 28227]
Granner 2001 {published data only}
  • Granner ML, Liguori G, Kirkner GJ, Ainsworth BE. Health care provider counseling for physical activity among black and white South Carolinians. Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association 2001;97(8):338-41.
Halbert 1999 {published data only}
  • Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane P, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Recruitment of older adults for a randomized, controlled trial of exercise advice in a general practice setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999;47(4):477-81. [MEDLINE: 3066]
Halbert 2000 {published data only}
  • Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane PM, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors: effect of advice from an exercise specialist in Australian general practice. Medical Journal of Australia 2000;173(2):84-7.
Halbert 2001 {published data only}
Hamdorf 1999 {published data only}
Hamdorf 2002 {published data only}
  • Hamdorf P, Starr G, Williams M. California Active Aging Project. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2002;10(3):354-9.
Harrell 1996 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, Johnston LF, Griggs TR, Schaefer P, Carr-EG J, McMurray RG, et al. An occupation based physical activity intervention program: improving fitness and decreasing obesity. AAOHN J 1996;44(8):377-84. [MEDLINE: 4736]
Heinonen 1999 {published data only}
Hellenius 1995 {published data only}
  • Hellenius ML, Brismar KE, Berglund BH, de Faire UH. Effects on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin-like growth factor 1 and its binding protein, IGFBP-1, in a randomized controlled diet and exercise study in healthy, middle-aged men. Journal of Internal Medicine 1995;238(2):121-30. [MEDLINE: 2681]
Hellenius 1997 {published data only}
  • Hellenius ML, Krakau I, Faire UD. Favourable long-term effects from advice on diet and exercise given to healthy men with raised cardiovascular risk factors. Nutrition Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 1997;7:294-300. [MEDLINE: 26966]
Hirvensalo 2003 {published data only}
Hopman-Rock 2002 {published data only}
  • Hopman-Rock M, Westhoff MH. Health education and exercise stimulation for older people: development and evaluation of the program "Healthy and Vital" [Gezondheidsvoorlichting en bewegingsstimulering voor ouderen: ontwikkeling en evaluatie van het programma "Gezond & Vitaal"]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie 2002;33(2):56-63.
Huang 2002 {published data only}
  • Huang LH, Chen SW, Yu YP, Chen PR, Lin YC. The effectiveness of health promotion education programs for community elderly. Journal of Nursing Research 2002;10(4):261-70.
Humpel 2004 {published data only}
Jakicic 1995 {published data only}
  • Jakicic JM, Wing RR, Butler BA, Robertson RJ. Prescribing exercise in multiple short bouts versus one continuous bout: effects on adherence, cardiorespiratory fitness, and weight loss in overweight women. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 1995;19(12):893-901. [MEDLINE: 28211]
Jakicic 1999 {published data only}
  • Jakicic JM, Winters C, Lang W, Wing RR. Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness in overweight women: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999;282(16):1554-60. [MEDLINE: 26796]
Jette 1996 {published data only}
Jobe 2001 {published data only}
Kaukiainen 2002 {published data only}
  • Kaukiainen A, Nygard CH, Virtanen P, Saloniemi A. Physical activity intervention among unemployed male construction workers. Advances in Physiotherapy 2002;4(1):1-15.
Keele-Smith 2003 {published data only}
Kelley 2004 {published data only}
  • Kelley K, Abraham C. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years. Social Science & Medicine 2004;59(4):787-97.
Kennedy 2003 {published data only}
Kerr 2000 {published data only}
Kim 2004 {published data only}
  • Kim S, Koniak-Griffin D, Flaskerud JH, Guarnero PA. The impact of lay health advisors on cardiovascular health promotion: using a community-based participatory approach. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2004;19(3):192-9.
King 1984 {published data only}
King 1995 {published data only}
  • King AC, Haskell WL, Young DR, Oka RK, Stefanick ML. Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation 1995;91(10):2596-604.
King 1997 {published data only}
King 2000 {published data only}
  • King AC, Pruitt LA, Phillips W, Oka R, Rodenburg A, Haskell WL. Comparative effects of two physical activity programs on measured and perceived physical functioning and other health-related quality of life outcomes in older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 2000;55(2):M74-83.
King 2001 {published data only}
Kinion 1993 {published data only}
  • Kinion ES, Christie N, Villella AM. Promoting activity in the elderly through interdisciplinary linkages. NursingConnections 1993;6(3):19-26. [MEDLINE: 1897]
Kirk 2001 {published data only}
Kirk 2004 {published data only}
Kirk-Gardner 2003 {published data only}
  • Kirk-Gardner R, Steven D. Hearts for Life: a community program on heart health promotion. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2003;13(1):5-10.
Koffman 2001 {published data only}
  • Koffman DM, Bazzarre T, Mosca L, Redberg R, Schmid T, Wattigney WA. An evaluation of Choose to Move 1999: an American Heart Association physical activity program for women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001;161(18):2193-9.
Kohno 2002 {published data only}
  • Kohno H, Egawa K, Oida Y, Nagamatsu T, Kitabatake Y, Maie H. Effect of functional fitness promotion program for community-dwelling elderly person using the transtheoretical model. Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute 2001;100:11-20.
Kontulainen 2004 {published data only}
  • Kontulainen S, Heinonen A, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Sievanen H, Vuori I. Former exercisers of an 18-month intervention display residual aBMD benefits compared with control women 3.5 years post-intervention: a follow -up of a randomized controlled high-impact trial. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(3):248-51.
Kukkonen-H 1998 {published data only}
  • Kukkonen-Harjula K, Laukkanen R, Vuori I, Oja P, Pasanen M, Nenonen A, et al. Effects of walking training on health-related fitness in healthy middle-aged adults--a randomized controlled study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 1998;8(4):236-42. [MEDLINE: 3563]
Lansdown 2002 {published data only}
  • Lansdown R, Ledward A, Hall A, Issae W, Yona E, Matulu J. Physical activity intervention: A Transtheoretical Model-based intervention designed to help sedentary young adults become active. Health Educucation Research 2002;17(4):451-60.
Lawlor 2001 {published data only}
  • Lawlor DA, Hopker SW. The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2001;322(7289):763-7. [MEDLINE: 341]
Leon 1996 {published data only}
  • Leon AS, Casal D, Jacobs D, Jr. Effects of 2,000 kcal per week of walking and stair climbing on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1996;16(3):183-92. [MEDLINE: 28219]
Lewis 1993a {published data only}
  • Lewis CE, Raczynski JM, Heath GW, Levinson R, Hilyer JC, Cutter GR. Promoting physical activity in low-income African-American communities: the PARR project. Ethnicity & Disease 1993;3(2):106-18. [MEDLINE: 1852]
Lewis 1993b {published data only}
Li 2001 {published data only}
  • Li F, Harmer P, McAuley E, Duncan TE, Duncan SC, Chaumeton N, et al. An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: a randomized contolled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2001;23(2):139-46. [MEDLINE: 31]
Lindstrom 2003 {published data only}
  • Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, Rastas M, Salminen V, Eriksson J. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3 -year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 2003;26(12):3230-6.
Little 2004 {published data only}
  • Little P, Dorward M, Gralton S, Hammerton L, Pillinger J, White P, et al. A randomised controlled trial of three pragmatic approaches to initiate increased physical activity in sedentary patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. British Journal of General Practice 2004;54(500):189-95.
Lord 1995 {published data only}
  • Lord JC, Green F. Exercise on prescription: does it work?. Health Educucation Journal 1995;54(4):453-64. [MEDLINE: 4685]
Lupton 2002 {published data only}
  • Lupton BS, Fonnebo V, Sogaard AJ, Langfeldt E. The Finnmark Intervention Study. Better health for the fishery population in an Arctic village in North Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 2002;20(4):213-8.
MacKeen 1985 {published data only}
  • MacKeen PC, Rosenberger G, Slater JS, Nicholas WC, Buskirk ER. A 13-year follow-up of a coronary heart disease risk factor screening and exercise program for 40- to 59-year-old men: exercise habit maintenance and physiologic status. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1985;5(11):510-23.
Manson 1999 {published data only}
  • Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341(9):650-8. [MEDLINE: 28223]
Marcus 1992 {published data only}
  • Marcus BH, Banspach SW, Lefebvre RC, Rossi JS, Carleton RA, et al. Using the stages of change model to increase the adoption of physical activity among community participants. American Journal of Health Promotion 1992;6(6):424-9. [MEDLINE: 1286]
Marcus 1993 {published data only}
  • Marcus BH, Stanton AL. Evaluation of relapse prevention and reinforcement interventions to promote exercise adherence in sedentary females. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1993;64(4):447-52. [MEDLINE: 28218]
Marcus 1995 {published data only}
Marcus 1998a {published data only}
  • Marcus BH, Emmons KM, Simkin-Silverman LR, Linnan LA, Taylor ER, Bock BC, et al. Evaluation of motivationally tailored vs. standard self-help physical activity interventions at the workplace. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998;12(4):246-53. [MEDLINE: 3694]
Marcus 1998b {published data only}
  • Marcus BH, Bock BC, Pinto BM, Forsyth LH, Roberts MB, Traficante RM. Efficacy of an individualized, motivationally-tailored physical activity intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 1998;20:174-80.
Marshall 2003b {published data only}
  • Marshall AL, Leslie ER, Bauman AE, Marcus BH, Owen N. Print versus website physical activity programs: a randomized trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003;25(2):88-94.
Martin 2004 {published data only}
  • Martin DE, Thuring N, Melges T, Martin BW. The Stages of Change in three stage concepts and two modes of physical activity: A comparison of stage distributions and practical implications. Health Education Research 2004;19(4):400-17.
Mattila 2003 {published data only}
  • Mattila R, Malmivaara A, Kastarinen M, Kivela SL, Nissinen A. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Human Hypertension 2003;17(3):199-205.
McAuley 1994 {published data only}
McMahon 2002 {published data only}
  • McMahon A, Kelleher CC, Helly G, Duffy E. Evaluation of a workplace cardiovascular health promotion programme in the Republic of Ireland. Health Promotion International. 2002;17(4):297-308.
McMurdo 1992 {published data only}
McMurdo 1995 {published data only}
Messier 2000 {published data only}
  • Messier SP, Royer TD, Craven TE, O'Toole ML, Burns R, Ettinger WH. Long-term exercise and its effect on balance in older, osteoarthritic adults: results from the Fitness, Arthritis, and Seniors Trial (FAST). Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2000;48(2):131-8. [MEDLINE: 2870]
Miller 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Mills 1996 {published data only}
  • Mills KM, Stewart AL, King AC, Roitz K, Sepsis PG, Ritter PL, et al. Factors associated with enrollment of older adults into a physical activity promotion program. Journal of Aging & Health 1996;8(1):96-113. [MEDLINE: 2591]
Milne 2002 {published data only}
Mulder 1981 {published data only}
Munsch 2003 {published data only}
  • Munsch S, Biedert E, Keller U. Evaluation of a lifestyle change programme for the treatment of obesity in general practice. Swiss Medical Weekly 2003;133(9-10):148-54.
Napolitano 2003 {published data only}
  • Napolitano MA, Fotheringham M, Tate D, Sciamanna C, Leslie E, Owen N, et al. Evaluation of an internet-based physical activity intervention: a preliminary investigation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2003;25(2):92-9.
Naylor 1999 {published data only}
  • Naylor PJ, Simmonds G, Riddoch C, Velleman G, Turton P. Comparison of stage-matched and unmatched interventions to promote exercise behaviour in the primary care setting. Health Education Research 1999;14(5):653-66. [MEDLINE: 3368]
Newman 2002 {published data only}
Nisbeth 2000 {published data only}
  • Nisbeth O, Klausen K, Andersen LB. Effectiveness of counselling over 1 year on changes in lifestyle and coronary heart disease risk factors. Patient Education & Counseling 2000;40(2):121-31. [MEDLINE: 264]
Noland 1989 {published data only}
Nurminen 2002 {published data only}
  • Nurminen E, Malmivaara A, Ilmarinen J, Ylostalo P, Mutanen P, Ahonen G, et al. Effectiveness of a worksite exercise program with respect to perceived work ability and sick leaves among women with physical work. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 2002;28(2):85-93.
Oexmann 2001 {published data only}
  • Oexmann MJ, Ascanio R, Egan BM. Efficacy of a church-based intervention on cardiovascular risk reduction. Ethnicity & Disease 2001;11(4):817-22.
Oida 2003 {published data only}
  • Oida Y, Kitabatake Y, Nishijima Y, Nagamatsu T, Kohno H, Egawa K. Effects of a 5-year exercise-centered health-promoting programme on mortality and ADL impairment in the elderly. Age & Aging 2003;32(6):585-92.
Oman 2000 {published data only}
Ortega-Sanchez 2004 {published data only}
  • Ortega-Sanchez R, Jimenez-Mena C, Cordoba-Garcia R, Munoz-Lopez J, Garcia-Machado ML, Vilaseca-Canals J. The effect of office-based physician's advice on adolescent exercise behavior. Preventive Medicine 2004;38(2):219-26.
Ostwald 1989 {published data only}
Parks 1997 {published data only}
Partonen 1998 {published data only}
  • Partonen T, Leppamaki S, Hurme J, Lonnqvist J. Randomized trial of physical exercise alone or combined with bright light on mood and health-related quality of life. Psychological Medicine 1998;28(6):1359-64. [MEDLINE: 26897]
Paschal 2004 {published data only}
  • Paschal AM, Lewis RK, Martin A, Dennis-Shipp D, Simpson DS. Baseline assessment of the health status and health behaviors of African Americans participating in the activities-for-life program: a community -based health intervention program. Journal of Community Health 2004;29(4):305-18.
Pereira 1998 {published data only}
  • Pereira MA, Kriska AM, Day RD, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Kuller LH. A randomized walking trial in postmenopausal women: effects on physical activity and health 10 years later. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998;158(15):1695-701.
Peterson 1999 {published data only}
  • Peterson TR, Aldana SG. Improving exercise behavior: An application of the stages of change model in a worksite setting. American Journal of Health Promotion 1999;13(4):29-32. [MEDLINE: 7968]
Peterson 2002 {published data only}
Petrella 2000 {published data only}
  • Petrella RJ, Wight D. An office-based instrument for exercise counseling and prescription in primary care. The Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP). Archives of Family Medicine 2000;9(4):339-44. [MEDLINE: 2911]
Petrella 2001 {published data only}
Pfeiffer 2001 {published data only}
  • Pfeiffer BA, Clay SW, Conatser-RR J. A green prescription study: does written exercise prescribed by a physician result in increased physical activity among older adults?. Journal of Aging & Health 2001;13(4):527-38.
Philips 2004 {published data only}
Pinto 2001 {published data only}
  • Pinto BM, Lynn H, Marcus BH, DePue J, Goldstein MG. Physician-based activity counseling: intervention effects on mediators of motivational readiness for physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2001;23(1):2-10. [MEDLINE: 195]
Plotnikoff 2001 {published data only}
Pohjonen 2001 {published data only}
  • Pohjonen T, Ranta R. Effects of worksite physical exercise intervention on physical fitness, perceived health status, and work ability among home care workers: Five -year follow-up. Preventive Medicine 2001;32(6):465-75.
Poole 2001 {published data only}
Poston 2001 {published data only}
  • Poston-WSC II, Haddock CK, Olvera NE, Suminski RR, Reeves RS, Dunn JK, et al. Evaluation of culturally appropriate intervention to increase physical activity. American Journal of Health Behavior 2001;25(4):396-406.
Proper 2003a {published data only}
  • Proper KI, Hildebrandt VH, van der Beek AJ, Twisk JW, van Mechelen W. Effect of individual counseling on physical activity fitness and health: a randomized controlled trial in a workplace setting. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003;24(3):218-26.
Proper 2003b {published data only}
  • Proper KI, Koning M, van der Beek AJ, Hildebrandt VH, Bosscher RJ, van Mechelen W. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2003;13(2):106-17.
Purath 2004 {published data only}
  • Purath J, Miller AM, McCabe G, Wilbur J. A brief intervention to increase physical activity in sedentary working women. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 2004;36(1):76-91.
Reijneveld 2003 {published data only}
  • Reijneveld SA, Westhoff MH, Hopman-Rock M. Promotion of health and physical activity improves the mental health of elderly immigrants: results of a group randomised controlled trial among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands aged 45 and over. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2003;57(6):405-11.
Renger 2002 {published data only}
Resnick 2002b {published data only}
  • Resnick B, Magaziner J, Orwig D, Zimmerman S. Evaluating the components of the Exercise Plus Program: rationale, theory and implementation. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):648-58.
Reynolds 2001 {published data only}
  • Reynolds F. Strategies for facilitating physical activity and wellbeing: A health promotion perspective. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2001;64(7):330-6.
Robison 1992 {published data only}
Ruby 1993 {published data only}
  • Ruby KL, Blainey CA, Haas LB, Patrick M. The knowledge and practices of registered nurse, certified diabetes educators: teaching elderly clients about exercise. Diabetes Educator 1993;19(4):299-306. [MEDLINE: 1982]
Samaras 1997 {published data only}
  • Samaras K, Ashwell S, Mackintosh AM, Fleury AC, Campbell LV, Chisholm DJ. Will older sedentary people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus start exercising? A health promotion model. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 1997;37(2):121-128. [MEDLINE: 2242]
Schoenfelder 2000 {published data only}
  • Schoenfelder DP. A fall prevention program for elderly individuals. Exercise in long-term care settings. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2000;26(3):43-51. [MEDLINE: 348]
Schuler 2002 {published data only}
  • Schuler G. Primary and secondary prevention: physical activity [Primare und sekundare Pravention: Korperliche Aktivitat]. Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie 2002;91(Suppl 2):30-9.
Sciamanna 2002 {published data only}
Sevick 2000 {published data only}
  • Sevick MA, Dunn AL, Morrow MS, Marcus BH, Chen GJ, Blair SN. Cost-effectiveness of lifestyle and structured exercise interventions in sedentary adults: Results of Project ACTIVE. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;19(1):1-8. [MEDLINE: 7942]
Simmons 2003 {published data only}
  • Simmons D, Voyle JA. Reaching hard-to-reach, high-risk populations: piloting a health promotion and diabetes disease prevention programme on an urban marae in New Zealand. Health Promotion International 2003;18(1):41-50.
Sims 2004 {published data only}
  • Sims J, Huang N, Pietsch J, Naccarella L. The Victorian Active Script Programme: promising signs for general practitioners, population health, and the promotion of physical activity. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2004;38(1):19-25.
Singh 1997 {published data only}
  • Singh S. Why are GP exercise schemes so successful (for those who attend)? Results from a pilot study. Journal of Management in Medicine 1997;11(4):233-7. [MEDLINE: 2339]
Singh 1997a {published data only}
  • Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA. A randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training in depressed elders. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 1997;52(1):M27-35. [MEDLINE: 7698]
Smith 2003 {published data only}
  • Smith BJ, Brown BJ, Hermann JR. Impact of a physical activity program emphasizing cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and flexibility among middle-aged women. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior 2003;35(4):215-216.
Smolander 2000 {published data only}
  • Smolander J, Blair SN, Kohl HW. Work ability, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness: 2-year results from Project Active. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 2000;42(9):906-10. [MEDLINE: 403]
Sorensen 1999 {published data only}
  • Sorensen M, Anderssen S, Hjerman I, Holme I, Ursin H. The effect of exercise and diet on mental health and quality of life in middle-aged individuals with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Journal of Sports Sciences 1999;5(17):369-77. [MEDLINE: 26829]
Steptoe 1999 {published data only}
  • Steptoe A, Doherty S, Rink E, Kerry S, Kendrick T, Hilton S. Behavioural counselling in general practice for the promotion of healthy behaviour among adults at increased risk of coronary heart disease: randomized trial. BMJ 1999;319(7215):943-7. [MEDLINE: 26805]
Steptoe 2000 {published data only}
  • Steptoe A, Rink E, Kerry S. Psychosocial predictors of changes in physical activity in overweight sedentary adults following counseling in primary care. Preventive Medicine 2000;31(2 Pt 1):183-94. [MEDLINE: 3001]
Steptoe 2001 {published data only}
  • Steptoe A, Kerry S, Rink E, Hilton S. The impact of behavioral counseling on stage of change in fat intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in adults at increased risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public Health 2001;91(2):265-9.
Stevens 1999 {published data only}
Stevens 2003 {published data only}
  • Stevens M, Lemmink KA, van Heuvelen MJ, de Jong J, Rispens P. Groningen Active Living Model (GALM): stimulating physical activity in sedentary older adults; validation of the behavioral change model. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 Pt 1):561-70.
Stiggelbout 2004 {published data only}
  • Stiggelbout M, Popkema DY, Hopman-Rock M, de Greef M, van Mechelen W. Once a week is not enough: effects of a widely implemented group based exercise programme for older adults; a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58(2):83-8.
Swinburn 2003 {published data only}
  • Swinburn B, Sager R. Promotion of exercise prescriptions in general practice for older populations. Geriatrics and Aging 2003;6(7):20-23.
Taylor 1998 {published data only}
  • Taylor AH, Doust J, Webborn N. Randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of a GP exercise referral programme in Hailsham, East Sussex, on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1998;52(9):595-601.
Twisk 2004 {published data only}
  • Twisk J, Proper K. Evaluation of the results of a randomized controlled trial: how to define changes between baseline and follow-up. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2004;57(3):223-8.
van der Bij 2002 {published data only}
Veverka 2003 {published data only}
  • Veverka D, Anderson J, Auld G, Coulter G, Kennedy C, Chapman P, et al. Use of the stages of change model in improving nutrition and exercise habits in enlisted Air Force men. Military Medicine 2003;168(5):373-9.
Votruba 1968 {published data only}
Vuori 1994 {published data only}
Wankel 1985 {published data only}
  • Wankel LM, Yardley JK, Graham J. The effects of motivational interventions upon the exercise adherence of high and low self-motivated adults. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 1985;10(3):147-56. [MEDLINE: 695]
Weinehall 2001 {published data only}
  • Weinehall L, Hellsten G, Boman K, Hallmans G. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in Sweden: the Norsjo community intervention programme--motives, methods and intervention components. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. Supplement 2001;56:13-20.
Wen 2002 {published data only}
  • Wen LM, Thomas M, Jones H, Orr N, Moreton R, King L, et al. Promoting physical activity in women: evaluation of a 2-year community -based intervention in Sydney, Australia. Health Promotion International 2002;17(2):127-37.
Wilbur 2001 {published data only}
Wood 1983 {published data only}
  • Wood PD, Haskell WL, Blair SN, Williams PT, Krauss RM, Lindgren FT, et al. Increased exercise level and plasma lipoprotein concentrations: a one-year, randomized, controlled study in sedentary, middle-aged men. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 1983;32(1):31-9. [MEDLINE: 28189]
Woods 2002 {published data only}
  • Woods C, Mutrie N, Scott M. Physical activity intervention: a transtheoretical model-based intervention designed to help sedentary young adults become active. Health Education Research 2002;17(4):451-60.
Yalden 2001 {published data only}
  • Yalden J, Chung L. Tai Chi: towards an exercise program for the older person. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing 2001;8(1):4-13.
Yanek 2001 {published data only}
  • Yanek LR, Becker DM, Moy TF, Gittelsohn J, Koffman DM. Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women. Public Health Reports 2001;116(Suppl 1):68-81.
Young 1999 {published data only}
  • Young DR, Appel LJ, Jee S, Miller ER 3rd. The effects of aerobic exercise and T'ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: results of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999;47(3):277-284. [MEDLINE: 28222]
Zask 2001 {published data only}
  • Zask A, van Beurden E, Barnett L, Brooks LO, Dietrich UC. Active school playgrounds-myth or reality? Results of the "move it groove it" project. Preventive Medicine 2001;33(5):403-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Castro 2001 {published data only}
Lowther 2002a {published data only}
  • Lowther M, Mutrie N, Scott EM. Promoting physical activity in a socially and economically deprived community: a 12 month randomized control trial of fitness assessment and exercise consultation. Journal of Sports Sciences 2002;20(7):577-88.
Lowther 2002b {published data only}
  • Lowther M, Mutrie N, Scott EM. Promoting physical activity in a socially and economically deprived community: a 12 month randomized control trial of fitness assessment and exercise consultation. Journal of Sports Sciences 2002;20(7):577-88.
Mutrie 2002 {published data only}
  • Mutrie N, Carney C, Blamey A, Crawford F, Aitchison T, Whitelaw A. "Walk in to Work Out": a randomised controlled trial of a self help intervention to promote active commuting. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2002;56:407-12.
Nies 2003 {published data only}
Zakocs 2003 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Coday 2002 {published data only}
  • Coday M, Klesges LM, Garrison RJ, Johnson KC, O'Toole M, Morris GS. Health Opportunities with Physical Exercise (HOPE): social contextual interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in urban settings. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):637-47.
Grandes 2003 {published data only}
  • Grandes G, Sánchez A, Torcal J, Ortega Sánchez-Pinilla R, Lizarraga K, Serra J, et al. Protocol for the multi-centre evaluation of the Experimental Programme Promotion of Physical Activity (PEPAF) [Protocolo para la evaluacion multicentrica del Programa Experimental de Promocion de la Actividad Fisica (PEPAF)]. Atencion Primaria 2003;32(8):475-80.
King 2002 {published data only}
  • King AC, Friedman R, Marcus B, Castro C, Forsyth L, Napolitano M, Pinto B. Harnessing motivational forces in the promotion of physical activity: the Community Health Advice by Telephone (CHAT) project. Health Educucation Research 2002;17(5):627-36.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Ashworth 2005
Bandura 1986
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Dickersin 1995
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DOH 2004
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DOH 2005b
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FNB 2002
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Folsom 1997
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Higgins 2005
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Hillsdon 1996
Hillsdon 1999
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Hillsdon 2004
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HM Treasury 2002
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Jolliffe 2001
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Kahn 2002
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Lefebvre 1996
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Pate 1995
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Thomas 2006
US Dept. Health 1996
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WHO 2002
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WHO 2004
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Williams 2001
Zelen 1990