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Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

  1. Alex Bahar-Fuchs1,*,
  2. Linda Clare2,
  3. Bob Woods3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group

Published Online: 5 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003260.pub2


How to Cite

Bahar-Fuchs A, Clare L, Woods B. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD003260. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003260.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Australian National University, Centre for Research on Ageing, Health, and Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia

  2. 2

    Bangor University, School of Psychology, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, UK

  3. 3

    Bangor University, Dementia Services Development Centre Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK

*Alex Bahar-Fuchs, Centre for Research on Ageing, Health, and Wellbeing, Australian National University, Building 63, Eggleston Rd.,, Acton, Canberra, ACT, 2600, Australia. alex.baharfuchs@anu.edu.au. bfalex@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 5 JUN 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Beck 1988 {published data only}
  • Beck C, Heacock P, Mercer S, Thatcher R, Sparkman C. The impact of cognitive skills remediation training on persons with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1988;21:73-88.
Cahn-Weiner 2003 {published data only}
  • Cahn-Weiner DA, Malloy PF, Rebok GW, Ott BR. Results of a placebo-controlled study of memory training for mildly-impaired Alzheimer's disease patients. Applied Neuropsychology 2003;10:215-23.
Clare 2010 {published data only}
  • Clare L, Evans S, Parkinson C, Woods R, Linden D. Goal-setting in cognitive rehabilitation for people with early stage Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Gerontologist 2011;34(3):220-36.
  • Clare L, Linden DEJ, Woods R, Whitaker R, Evans SJ, Parkinson CH, et al. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer disease: a single-blind randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2010;18:928-39.
Davis 2001 {published data only}
  • Davis RN, Massman PJ, Doody RS. Cognitive intervention in Alzheimer disease: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 2001;15(1):1-9.
de Vreese 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • de Vreese LP, Neri M. Ecological impact of combined cognitive training programs (CTP) and drug treatment (ChE-I) in AD. International Psychogeriatrics 1999;11 Suppl:S91.
  • de Vreese LP, Neri M, Fioravanti M, Belloi L, Zanetti O. Memory rehabilitation in Alzheimer's disease: a review of progress. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2001;16:794-809.
  • de Vreese LP, Verlato C, Emiliani S, Schioppa S, Belloi L, Salvioli G, et al. Effect size of a three-month drug treatment in AD when combined with individual cognitive retraining: preliminary results of a pilot study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1998;248:41-2.
Galante 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Galante E, Venturini G, Fiaccadori C. Computer-based cognitive intervention for dementia: preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia 2007;29(3):26-32.
Heiss 1993 {published data only}
  • Heiss W-D, Kessler J, Mielke R, Szelies B, Herholz K. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease: a neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5(2):88-98.
  • Heiss WD, Kessler J, Slansky I, Mielke R, Szelies B, Herholz K. Activation PET as an instrument to determine therapeutic efficacy in Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;695:327-31.
Koltai 2001 {published data only}
  • Koltai DC, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Smechel DE. Influence of anosognosia on treatment outcome among dementia patients. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2001;11(3/4):455-75.
Loewenstein 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Loewenstein DA, Acevedo A, Czaja SJ, Duara R. Cognitive rehabilitation of mildly impaired Alzheimer's disease patients on cholinesterase inhibitors. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2004;12:395-402.
Neely 2009 {published data only}
  • Neely AS, Vikstrom S, Josephsson S. Collaborative memory intervention in dementia: caregiver participation matters. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2009;19(5):696-715.
Quayhagen 1995 {published data only}
  • Corbeil RR, Quayhagen MP, Quayhagen M. Intervention effects on dementia caregiving interaction: a stress-adaptation modeling approach. Journal of Aging and Health 1999;11(1):79-95.
  • Quayhagen MP, Quayhagen M, Corbeil RR, Roth PA, Rodgers JA. A dyadic remediation program for care recipients with dementia. Nursing Research 1995;44(3):153-9.
Quayhagen 2000 {published data only}
  • Quayhagen MP, Quayhagen M, Corbeil RR, Hendrix RC, Jackson JE, Snyder L, et al. Coping with dementia: evaluation of four nonpharmacologic interventions. International Psychogeriatrics 2000;12(2):249-65.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 2001 {published data only}
  • Anderson J, Arens K, Johnson R, Coppens P. Spaced retrieval vs memory tape therapy in memory rehabilitation for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Clinical Gerontologist 2001;24(1-2):123-39.
Arkin 1997 {published data only}
  • Arkin Sharon M. Alzheimer memory training: quizzes beat repetition, especially with more impaired. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 1997; Vol. 12, issue 4:147-58.
Barban 2012 {published data only}
  • Barban F, Annicchiarico R, Perri R, Fadda L, Carlesimo GA, Pantelopoulos S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of a computer-based cognitive treatment for healthy elderly, clinical and preclincal Alzheimer's disease. The SOCIABLE project. Proceedings of the 7th Congresso Sindem of the Italian Association for the Study of Dementia Linked to the Italian Neurological Society; Naples, Italy; March 22-24, 2012. 2012, issue var.pagings.
Bentwich 2011 {published data only}
  • Bentwich J, Dobronevsky E, Aichenbaum S, Shorer R, Peretz R, Khaigrekht M, et al. Beneficial effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive training for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a proof of concept study. Journal of Neural Transmission 2011;118(3):463-71.
Bernhardt 2002 {published data only}
  • Bernhardt T, Maurer K, Froelich L. Influence of a memory training program on attention and memory performance of patients with dementia [Der Einfluss eines alltagsbezogenen kognitiven Trainings auf die Aufmerksamkeits-und Gedaechtnisleistung von Personen mit Demenz]. Zeitschrift fuer Gerontologie und Geriatrie 2002;35:32-8.
Bottino 2005 {published data only}
  • Bottino CM, Carvalho IA, Alvarez AM, et al. Cognitive rehabilitation combined with drug treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients: a pilot study. Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;19(8):861-9.
Breuil 1994 {published data only}
  • Breuil V, De Rotrou J, Forette F, Tortrat D, Ganansia Ganem A, Frambourt A, et al. Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1994; Vol. 9, issue 3:211-7.
Brinkmann 1982 {published data only}
  • Brinkman SD, Smith RC, Meyer JS, et al. Lecithin and memory training in suspected Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Gerontology 1982; Vol. 37, issue 1:4-9.
Brodaty 1989 {published data only}
  • Brodaty H, Gresham M. Effect of a training programme to reduce stress in carers of patients with dementia [see comments]. Comment in: BMJ 1990 Feb 3;300(6720):330. British Medical Journal 1989;299(6712):1375-9.
Brodaty 1997 {published data only}
Ceccato 2012 {published data only}
  • Ceccato E, Vigato G, Bonetto C, Bevilacqua A, Pizziolo P, Crociani S, et al. STAM protocol in dementia: a multicenter, single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 2012; Vol. 27, issue 5:301-10.
Chapman 2004 {published data only}
  • Chapman SB, Weiner MF, Rackley A, Hynan LS, Zientz J. Effects of cognitive-communication stimulation for Alzheimer's disease patients treated with donepezil. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 2004;47(5):1149-63.
Clare 2002 {published data only}
Diesfeldt 1991 {published data only}
  • Diesfeldt HF, Smits JC. Face-name learning in psychogeriatric patients [Gezichten krijgen namen-een cognitieve training voor psychogeriatrische patienten voor het onthouden van namen en gezichten]. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr 1991;22:221-7.
Dunlosky 2003 {published data only}
Ermini Fuenfsch 1995 {published data only}
  • Ermini Fuenfschilling D, Meier D. Memory training: an important part of a "milieu therapy" for patients with senile dementia [Gedaechtnistraining: Wichtiger Bestandteil der Milieutherapie bei seniler Demenz]. Zeitschrift fuer Gerontologie und Geriatrie 1995; Vol. 28, issue 3:190-4.
Farina 2006 {published data only}
  • Farina E, Mantovani F, Fioravanti R, Rotella G, Villanelli F, Imbornone E, et al. Efficacy of recreational and occupational activities associated to psychologic support in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: a multicenter controlled study. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders 2006;20(4):275-82.
Fernandez 2006 {published data only}
Fernandez-Calvo 2010 {published data only}
  • Fernandez-Calvo B, Contador I, Serna A, de LVM, Ramos F. The effect of an individual or group intervention format in cognitive stimulation of patients with Alzheimer's disease. [Spanish]. Revista de Psicopatologia y Psicologia Clinica 2010;15(2):115-23.
Forster 2011 {published data only}
  • Buschert VC. Effects of a newly developed cognitive intervention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2011;25(4):679-94.
  • Forster S, Buschert VC, Teipel SJ, Friese U, Buchholz H G, Drzezga A, et al. Effects of a 6-month cognitive intervention on brain metabolism in patients with amnestic MCI and mild Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 2011; Vol. 26:337-48.
Gaugler 2011 {published data only}
  • Gaugler JE, Gallagher-Winker K, Kehrberg K, Lunde AM, Marsolek CM, et al. The Memory Club: providing support to persons with early-stage dementia and their care partners. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias 2011; Vol. 26, issue 3:218-26.
Giordano 2010 {published data only}
  • Giordano M, Dominguez LJ, Vitrano T, Curatolo M, Ferlisi A, Di Prima A, et al. Combination of intensive cognitive rehabilitation and donepezil therapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2010;51(3):245-9.
Goudour 2011 {published data only}
  • Goudour A, Samson S, Bakchine S, Ehrlé N. [Semantic memory training in Alzheimer's disease]. Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement 2011; Vol. 9, issue 2:237-47.
Graessel 2011 {published data only}
  • Graessel E, Stemmer R, Eichenseer B, Pickel S, Donath C, Kornhuber J, et al. Non-pharmacological, multicomponent group therapy in patients with degenerative dementia: a 12-month randomizied, controlled trial. BMC Medicine 2011; Vol. 9, issue 129.
Graff 2006 {published data only}
  • Graff MJL, Vernooij-Dassen MJM, Thijssen M, Dekker J, Hoefnagels WHL, Rikkert MGM. Community based occupational therapy for patients with dementia and their care givers: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2006;333(7580):1196.
Guenther 1991 {published data only}
  • Guenther V, Fuchs D, Schett P, Meise U, Rhomberg HP. Cognitive training in organic psychogeriatric syndromes [Kognitives Training bei organischem Psychosyndrom]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1991;116(22):846-51.
Haslam 2011 {published data only}
  • Haslam C, Hodder KI, Yates PJ. Errorless learning and spaced retrieval: how do these methods fare in healthy and clinical populations?. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2011;33(4):432-47.
Hwang 2012 {published data only}
  • Hwang HR, Choi SH, Yoon DH, Yoon BN, Suh YJ, Lee D, et al. The effect of cognitive training in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a preliminary study. Journal of Clinical Neurology 2012; Vol. 8, issue 3:190-7.
Israel 1987 {published data only}
  • Israel L, Dell'Accio E, Martin G, Hugonot R. [[Extrait de Ginkgo biloba et exercises d'entrainement de la memoire: evaluation comparative chez des personnes agees ambulatoires]]. Psychologie Medicale 1987;19(8):1431-9.
Israel 1989 {published data only}
  • Israel L, Dell'Accio E, Hugonot R. [[Action combinee de Praxilene et d'exercises d'entrainement mental sur les troubles de la memoire de sujets ages]]. Psychologie Medicale 1989;21(8):1219-34.
Jelcic 2012 {published data only}
  • Jelcic N, Meneghello F, Bonetto N, Ermani M, Dam M, Cagnin A. Effects of lexical-semantic treatment on memory in early Alzheimer disease: an observer-blinded randomized controlled trial. Proceedings of the 7th Congresso Sindem: Italian Association for the Study of Dementia Linked to the Italian Neurological Society; Naples, Italy; March 22-24, 2012. 2012, issue var.pagings.
Jobe 2001 {published data only}
Kixmiller 2002 {published data only}
Kurz 2012 {published data only}
  • Kurz A, Thone-Otto A, Cramer B, Egert S, Frolich L, Gertz H-J, et al. CORDIAL: Cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive-behavioral treatment for early dementia in alzheimer disease: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 2012; Vol. 26, issue 3:246-53.
Lam 2010 {published data only}
  • Lam CW, Lui WC, Luk NY, Chau SC, Poon V, Tam P, et al. Effectiveness of an individualized functional training program on affective disturbances and functional skills in mild and moderate dementia-a randomized control trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2010;25(2):133-41.
Mate-Kole 2007 {published data only}
  • Mate-Kole CC, Fellows RP, Said PC, McDougal J, Catayong K, Dang V, et al. Use of computer assisted and interactive cognitive training programmes with moderate to severely demented individuals: a preliminary study. Aging & Mental Health 2007;11(5):485-95.
Mayer 2012 {published data only}
  • Mayer JF, Bishop LA, Murray LL. The feasibility of a structured cognitive training protocol to address progressive cognitive decline in individuals with vascular dementia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 2012; Vol. 21, issue 2:167-79.
Onor 2007 {published data only}
  • Onor ML, Trevisiol M, Negro C, Alessandra S, Saina M, Aguglia E. Impact of a multimodal rehabilitative intervention on demented patients and their caregivers. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 2007;22(4):261-72.
Oresnik 2008 {published data only}
  • Oresnik M. The influence of cognitive rehabilitation on cognitive competence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatria Danubina 2008;20(2):174-8.
Panza 1996 {published data only}
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Raggi 2007 {published data only}
  • Raggi A, Iannaccone S, Marcone A, Ginex V, Ortelli P, Nonis A, et al. The effects of a comprehensive rehabilitation program of Alzheimer's disease in a hospital setting. Behavioural Neurology 2007;18(1):1-6.
Requena 2004 {published data only}
  • Requena C, Lopez Ibor MI, Maestu F, Campo P, Lopez Ibor JJ, Ortiz T. Effects of cholinergic drugs and cognitive training on dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2004;18(1):50-4.
  • Requena C, Maestu F, Campo P, Fernandez A, Ortiz T. Effects of cholinergic drugs and cognitive training on dementia: two-year follow up. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2006;22(4):339-45.
Schreiber 1999 {published data only}
  • Schreiber M, Schweizer A, Lutz K, Kalveram KT, Jaencke Lutz. Potential of an interactive computer-based training in the rehabilitation of dementia: an initial study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 1999; Vol. 9, issue 2:155-67.
Sheikh 1986 {published data only}
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Spector 2003 {published data only}
Talassi 2007 {published data only}
  • Talassi E, Guerreschi M, Feriani M, Fedi V, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M. Effectiveness of a cognitive rehabilitation program in mild dementia (MD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a case control study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2007;44:391-9.
Tarraga 2006 {published data only}
  • Tarraga L, Modinos G, et al. A randomised pilot study to assess the efficacy of an interactive, multimedia tool of cognitive stimulation in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2006;77:8.
Van Tilborg 2011 {published data only}
  • van Tilborg Ilse ADA, Kessels RPC, Hulstijn W. How should we teach everyday skills in dementia? A controlled study comparing implicit and explicit training methods. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011;25(7):638-48.
Viola 2011 {published data only}
  • Viola LF, Nunes PV, Yassuda MS, Aprahamian I, Santos FS, Santos GD, et al. Effects of a multidisciplinary cognitive rehabilitation program for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil) 2011; Vol. 66, issue 8:1395-400.
Yesavage 1981 {published data only}
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Zarit 1982 {published data only}
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References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ACTRN12611001173987 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611001173987. Effectiveness of self-management skills enhancing group rehabilitation on dementia patients' and their spousal caregivers' quality-of-life. ANZCTR: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611001173987.aspx.
ISRCTN21027481 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN21027481. Goal-oriented cognitive Rehabilitation in Early-stage Alzheimer's disease: multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled Trial (GREAT). ISRCTN: http://isrctn.org/ISRCTN21027481.
NCT01329484 {published data only}
  • NCT01329484. Computerized personal interventions for Alzheimer's patients. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01329484?term=NCT01329484&rank=1.
NCT01689948 {published data only}
  • NCT01689948. Alzheimer disease: rehabilitation's intervention at home. A preliminary pilot study. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01689948.
Vidovich 2011 {published data only}
  • Vidovich MR, Shaw J, Flicker L, Almeida OP. Cognitive activity for the treatment of older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)-PACE AD: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2011; Vol. 12:47.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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