Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Interventions for impetigo

  1. Sander Koning1,
  2. Renske van der Sande1,
  3. Arianne P Verhagen1,
  4. Lisette WA van Suijlekom-Smit2,
  5. Andrew D Morris3,
  6. Christopher C Butler4,
  7. Marjolein Berger1,5,
  8. Johannes C van der Wouden1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Skin Group

Published Online: 18 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003261.pub3


How to Cite

Koning S, van der Sande R, Verhagen AP, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, Morris AD, Butler CC, Berger M, van der Wouden JC. Interventions for impetigo. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003261. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003261.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Erasmus Medical Center, Department of General Practice, Rotterdam, Netherlands

  2. 2

    Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Rheumatology, Rotterdam, Netherlands

  3. 3

    University of Wales College of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Cardiff, Wales, UK

  4. 4

    University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

  5. 5

    University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of General Practice, Groningen, Netherlands

*Johannes C van der Wouden, Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam, 1007 MB, Netherlands. j.vanderwouden@vumc.nl.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 JAN 2012

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Arata 1989a {published data only}
  • Arata J, Kanzaki H, Kanamoto A, Okawara A, Kato N, Kumakiri M. Double-blind comparative study of cefdinir and cefaclor in skin and skin structure infections. Chemotherapy 1989;37:1016-42.
Arata 1989b {published data only}
  • Arata J, Yamamoto Y, Tamaki H, Okawara A, Fukaya T, Ishibashi Y. Double-blind study of lomefloxacin versus norfloxacin in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. Chemotherapy 1989;37:482-503.
Arredondo 1987 {published data only}
  • Arredondo JL. Efficacy and tolerance of topical mupirocin compared with oral dicloxacillin in the treatment of primary skin infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;41(1):121-7.
Barton 1987 {published data only}
Barton 1988 {published data only}
Barton 1989 {published data only}
Bass 1997 {published data only}
  • Bass JW, Chan DS, Creamer KM, Thompson MW, Malone FJ, Becker TM, et al. Comparison of oral cephalexin, topical mupirocin, and topical bacitracin for treatment of impetigo. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1997;16(7):708-10.
Beitner 1996 {published data only}
Blaszcyk 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Blaszczyk-Kostanecka M, Dobozy A, Dominguez-Soto L, Guerrero R, Hunyadi J, Lopera J, et al. Comparison of two regimens of oral clindamycin versus dicloxacillin in the treatment of mild to moderate skin and soft-tissue infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1998;59(6):341-53.
Britton 1990 {published data only}
Bucko 2002a {published data only}
  • Bucko AD, Hunt BJ, Kidd SL, Hom R. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter comparison of oral cefditoren 200 or 400 mg BID with either cefuroxime 250 mg BID or cefadroxil 500 mg BID for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(7):1134-47.
Bucko 2002b {published data only}
  • Bucko AD, Hunt BJ, Kidd SL, Hom R. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter comparison of oral cefditoren 200 or 400 mg BID with either cefuroxime 250 mg BID or cefadroxil 500 mg BID for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(7):1134-47.
Christensen 1994 {published data only}
  • Christensen OB, Anehus S. Hydrogen peroxide cream: an alternative to topical antibiotics in the treatment of impetigo contagiosa. Acta Dermato-Venerologica 1994;74(6):460-2.
Ciftci 2002 {published data only}
  • Ciftci E, Guriz H, Aysev AD. Mupirocin vs terbinafine in impetigo. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2002;69(8):679-82. [MEDLINE: 12356219]
Claudy 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Claudy A, Groupe Francais d'Etude. Superficial pyoderma requiring oral antibiotic therapy: fusidic acid versus pristinamycin [Pyodermites superficielles necessitant une antibiotitherapie orale. Acide fusidique versus pristinamycine]. Presse Medicale 2001;30(8):364-8.
Dagan 1989 {published data only}
  • Dagan R, Bar-David Y. Comparison of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (augmentin) for the treatment of nonbullous impetigo. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1989;143(8):916-8.
Dagan 1992 {published data only}
  • Dagan R, Barr-David Y. Double-blind study comparing erythromycin and mupirocin for treatment of impetigo in children: implications of a high prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1992;36(2):287-90.
Daniel 1991a {published data only}
  • Daniel R. Azithromycin, erythromycin and cloxacillin in the treatment of infections of skin and associated soft tissues. European Azithromycin Study Group. Journal of International Medical Research 1991;19(6):433-45.
Daniel 1991b {published data only}
  • Daniel R. Azithromycin, erythromycin and cloxacillin in the treatment of infections of skin and associated soft tissues. European Azithromycin Study Group. Journal of International Medical Research 1991;19(6):433-45.
Demidovich 1990 {published data only}
  • Demidovich CW, Wittler RR, Ruff ME, Bass JW, Browning WC. Impetigo: current etiology and comparison of penicillin, erythromycin, and cephalexin therapies. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1990;144(12):1313-5.
Dillon 1983 {published data only}
Dux 1986 {published data only}
  • Dux PH, Fields L, Pollock D. 2% topical mupirocin versus systemic erythromycin and cloxacillin in primary and secondary skin infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1986;40(5):933-40.
Eells 1986 {published data only}
Esterly 1991 {published data only}
Farah 1967 {published data only}
Faye 2007 {published data only}
Fujita 1984 {published data only}
  • Fujita K, Takahashi H, Hoshino M, Nonami E, Katsumata M, Miura Y. Clinical evaluation of AT-2266 in the treatment of superficial suppurative skin and soft tissue infections. A double blind study in comparison with cephalexin compound granules (L-Keflex). Chemotherapy 1984;32:728-53.
Gilbert 1989 {published data only}
Ginsburg 1978 {published data only}
Giordano 2006 {published data only}
  • Giordano PA, Elston D, Akinlade BK, Weber K, Notario GF, Busman TA, et al. Cefdinir vs. cephalexin for mild to moderate uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in adolescents and adults. Current Medical Research & Opinion 2006;22(12):2419-28.
Goldfarb 1988 {published data only}
  • Goldfarb J, Crenshaw D, O'Horo J, Lemon E, Blumer JL. Randomized clinical trial of topical mupirocin versus oral erythromycin for impetigo. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1988;32(12):1780-3.
Gonzalez 1989 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez A. Schachner LA, Cleary T, Scott G, Taplin D, Lambert W. Pyoderma in childhood. Advances in Dermatology 1989;4:127-41.
Gould 1984 {published data only}
  • Gould JC, Smith JH, Moncur H. Mupirocin in general practice: a placebo-controlled trial. Royal Society of Medicine: International Congress and Symposium Series 1984;80:85-93.
Gratton 1987 {published data only}
Hains 1989 {published data only}
Ishii 1977 {published data only}
  • Ishii T, et al. Therapetic potential of eksalb simplex against impetigo bullosa [Ekizarube Shimpurekkusu no Suihosei Nokashin ni Taisuru Chiryo Koka]. Kiso to Rinsho (The Clinical Report) 1977;11(2):751-5.
Jaffe 1985 {published data only}
  • Jaffe AC, O'Brien CA, Reed MD, Blumer, JL. Randomized comparative evaluation of Augmentin® and cefaclor in pediatric skin and soft-tissue infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(1):160-8.
Jaffe 1986 {published data only}
  • Jaffe GV, Grimshaw JJ. A clinical trial of hydrocortisone/potassium hydroxyquinoline sulphate ('Quinocort') in the treatment of infected eczema and impetigo in general practice. Pharmatherapeutica 1986;4(10):628-36.
Kennedy 1985 {published data only}
  • Kennedy CTC, Watts JA, Speller DCE. Bactroban ointment in the treatment of impetigo: a controlled trial against neomycin. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Nassau Bahama Islands. 1985:125-129.
  • Kennedy CTC, Watts JA, Speller DCE. Mupirocin in the treatment of impetigo: a controlled trial against neomycin. Mupirocin - a novel topical antibiotic for the treatment of skin infection. London: Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series, 1984; Vol. 80:79-83.
Kiani 1991 {published data only}
  • Kiani R. Double-blind, double-dummy comparison of azithromycin and cephalexin in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1991;10(10):880-4.
Koning 2003 {published data only}
  • Koning S, van Belkum A, Snijders S, van Leeuwen W, Verbrugh H, Nouwen J, et al. Severity of nonbullous Staphylococcus aureus impetigo in children is associated with strains harboring genetic markers for exfoliative toxin B, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003;41(7):3017-3021.
  • Koning S, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, Nouwen JL, Verduin CM, Bernsen RMD, Oranje AP, et al. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: a double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2002;324(7331):203-06.
Koning 2008 {published data only}
Koranyi 1976 {published data only}
  • Koranyi KI, Burech DL, Haynes RE. Evaluation of bacitracin ointment in the treatment of impetigo. Ohio State Medical Journal 1976;72(6):368-70.
Kuniyuki 2005 {published data only}
McLinn 1988 {published data only}
  • McLinn S. A bacteriologically controlled, randomized study comparing the efficacy of 2% mupirocin ointment (Bactroban) with oral erythromycin in the treatment of patients with impetigo. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1990;22(5 Pt 1):883-5.
  • McLinn S. Topical mupirocin vs. systemic erythromycin treatment for pyoderma. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1988;7(11):785-90.
Mertz 1989 {published data only}
  • Mertz PM, Marshall DA, Eaglstein WH, Piovanetti Y, Montalvo J. Topical mupirocin treatment of impetigo is equal to oral erythromycin therapy. Archives of Dermatology 1989;125(8):1069-73.
  • Mertz, PM. Comparison of the effects of topical mupirocin ointment to orally administered erythromycin in the treatment of impetigo in children. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1987;88(4):1069-73.
Montero 1996 {published data only}
  • Montero L. A comparative study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of azithromycin and cefaclor in the treatment of children with acute skin and/or soft tissue infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37(Suppl C):125-31.
Moraes Barbosa 1986 {published data only}
  • Moraes Barbosa AD. Comparative study between topical 2% sodium fusidate and oral association of chloramphenicol/neomycin/bacitracin in the treatment of staphylococcic impetigo in newborn [Estudo comparativo entre o uso topico de fusidato de sodio a 2%, cloranfenicol, associacao neomicina/bacitracina e eritromicina (oral) no tratamento do impetigo estafilococico do recem-nascido]. Arquivos Brasileiros de Medicina 1986;60(6):509-11.
Morley 1988 {published data only}
Nolting 1988 {published data only}
Oranje 2007 {published data only}
  • Oranje AP, Chosidow O, Sacchidanand S, Todd G, Singh K, Scangarella N, et al. Topical retapamulin ointment, 1%, versus sodium fusidate ointment, 2%, for impetigo: a randomized, observer-blinded, noninferiority study. Dermatology 2007;215(4):331-40.
Pruksachat 1993 {published data only}
  • Pruksachatkunakorn C, Vaniyapongs T, Pruksakorn S. Impetigo: an assessment of etiology and appropriate therapy in infants and children. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 1993;76(4):222-9.
Rice 1992 {published data only}
  • Rice TD, Duggan AK, DeAngelis C. Cost-effectiveness of erythromycin versus mupirocin for the treatment of impetigo in children. Pediatrics 1992;89(2):210-4.
Rist 2002 {published data only}
Rodriguez-Solares 1993 {published data only}
  • Rodriguez-Solares A, Pérez-Gutiérrez F, Prosperi J, Milgram E, Martin A. A comparative study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of azithromycin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin in the treatment of children with acute skin and skin-structure infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993;31(Suppl E):103-9.
Rojas 1985 {published data only}
  • Rojas R, Eells L, Eaglestein W, Provanetti Y, Mertz PM, Mehlisch DR. The efficacy of Bactroban ointment and its vehicle in the treatment of impetigo: a double-blind comparative study. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:96-102.
  • Rojas R, Zaias N. The efficacy of Bactroban ointment in the treatment of impetigo as compared to its vehicle: a double-blind comparative study. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:150-4.
Ruby 1973 {published data only}
  • Ruby RJ, Nelson JD. The influence of hexachlorophene scrubs on the response to placebo or penicillin therapy in impetigo. Pediatrics 1973;52(6):854-9.
Sutton 1992 {published data only}
  • Sutton JB. Efficacy and acceptability of fusidic acid cream and mupirocin ointment in facial impetigo. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51(5):673-8.
Tack 1997 {published data only}
  • Tack KJ, Keyserling CH, McCarty J, Hedrick JA. Study of use of cefdinir versus cephalexin for treatment of skin infections in pediatric patients. The Cefdinir Pediatric Skin Infection Study Group. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1997;41(4):739-42.
Tack 1998 {published data only}
  • Tack KJ, Littlejohn TW, Mailloux G, Wolf MM, Keyserling CH. Cefdinir versus cephalexin for the treatment of skin and skin-structure infections. Cefdinir Adult Skin Infection Study Group. Clinical Therapeutics 1998;20(2):244-56.
Tamayo 1991 {published data only}
  • Tamayo L, Orozco MI, Sosa de Martinez MC. Topical rifamycin and mupirocin in the treatment of impetigo [Rifamycina SV y mupirocín tópicos en el tratamiento del impétigo]. Dermatología Revista Mexicana 1991;55:99-103.
Tassler 1993 {published data only}
  • Tassler H. Comparative efficacy and safety of oral fleroxacin and amoxicillin/clavunalate potassium in skin and soft-tissue infections. American Journal of Medicine 1993;94(3A):159s-165s.
Vainer 1986 {published data only}
  • Vainer G, Torbensen E. Treatment of impetigo in general practice. Comparison of 3 locally administered antibiotics [Behandling af impetigo i almen praksis]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1986;148(20):1202-6.
Wachs 1976 {published data only}
Wainscott 1985 {published data only}
  • Wainscott G, Huskisson SC. A comparative study of Bactroban ointment and chlortetracycline cream. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:137-140.
Welsh 1987 {published data only}
  • Welsh O, Saenz C. Topical mupirocin compared with oral ampicillin in the treatment of primary and secondary skin infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;41(1):114-20.
White 1989 {published data only}
  • White DG, Collins PO, Rowsell RB. Topical antibiotics in the treatment of superficial skin infections in general practice – a comparison of mupirocin with sodium fusidate. Journal of Infection 1989;18(3):221-9.
Wilkinson 1988 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Alavena 1987 {published data only}
  • Alavena R, Roitman J, Cuadros C. Contagious impetigo [Impetigo contagioso. Evulacion de siete esquemas de tratamiento]. Revista de la Sanida de las Fuerzas Policialis 1987;48(1):20-2.
Anonymous 1998 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Cefdinir - A new oral Cephalosporin. The Medical Letter 1998;40(1034):85-7.
Arata 1983 {published data only}
  • Arata J, Nohara N, Suwaki M, Umemura S, Nakagawa S, Miyoshi K, et al. Double-blind comparison of cefadroxil and cephalexin granules in the treatment of impetigo. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 1983;1443(36):1443-60.
Arata 1994 {published data only}
  • Arata J, Kanzaki H, Abe Y, Torigoe R, Ohkawara A, Yamanaka K, et al. A multicenter, double-blind, double-placebo comparative study of SY 5555 versus cefaclor in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. Chemotherapy 1994;42(6):740-60.
Arosemena 1977 {published data only}
  • Arosemena R, Bogaert H, Bonilla Dib E, Close de León J, Corrales H, Delgado Mayorga S, et al. Double blind study comparing preparations for topical application [Ensayo doble ciego entre preparaciones combinadas para aplicación tópica]. Investigación Médica Internacional 1977;4:502-8.
Azimi 1999 {published data only}
  • Azimi PH, Barson WJ, Janner D, Swanson R. Efficacy and safety of ampicillin/subactam and cefuroxime in the treatment of serious skin and skin structure infections in paediatric patients. Unasyn Pediatric Study Group. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1999;18(7):609-13.
Baldwin 1981 {published data only}
  • Baldwin RJT, Cranfield R. A multi-centre general practice trial comparing fucidin ointment and fucidin cream. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1981;35(4):157-60.
Ballantyne 1982 {published data only}
Bastin 1982 {published data only}
  • Bastin R, Rapin M, Kernbaum S. Controlled study of pristinamycin versus oxacillin in staphylococcal infections [Etude clinique de l'activite anti-staphylococcique de la pristinamycine et de l'oxacilline]. Pathologie et Biologie 1982;30(6 part 2):473-5.
Bernard 1997 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Bernard P, Vaillant L, Martin C, Beylot C, Quentin R, Touron D. Pristinamycin versus oxacillin in the treatment of superficial pyoderma [Pristinamycine (Pyostacine 500) versus Oxacilline (Bristopen) dans le traitement des pyodermites superficielles]. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie 1997;124:394-9.
Bin Jaafar 1987 {published data only}
Burnett 1963 {published data only}
Cassels-Brown 1981 {published data only}
  • Cassels-Brown G. A comparative study of fucidin ointment and cicatrin cream in the treatment of impetigo. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1981;35(4):153-5.
Colin 1988 {published data only}
  • Colin M, Avon P. Comparative double-blind evaluation of a new topical antibacterial agent, mupirocin, compared with placebo in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections [Evaluation comparative double aveugle du nouvel agent antibactérien topique, la mupirocine, par rapport à un placebo dans le traitement des infections de la peau et des tussus mous]. Pharmatherapeutica 1988;5(3):198-203.
Cordero 1976 {published data only}
De Waard 1967 {published data only}
  • De Waard F, Nelemand FA. The treatment of impetigo with a very long-acting sulpha drug [De behandeling van impetigo met een zeer lang werkend sulfapreparaat]. Huisarts en Wetenschap 1967;10:383-387.
Dillon 1970 {published data only}
Dillon 1979a {published data only}
  • Dillon HC, Gray BM, Ware JC. Clinical and laboratory studies with cefaclor: efficacy in skin and soft-tissue infections. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1979;55 Suppl 4:77-81.
Drehobl 1997 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Drehobl M, Koenig L, Barker M, St-Clair P, Maladorno D. Fleroxacin 400 mg once daily versus ofloxacin 400 mg twice daily in skin and soft-tissue infections. Chemotherapy 1997;43(5):378-84.
el Mofty 1990 {published data only}
  • el Mofty M, Harvey SG, Gibson JR, Calthrop JG, Marks P. Trimethoprim-polymyxin B sulphate cream compared with fusidic acid cream in the treatment of superficial bacterial infection of the skin. Journal of International Medical Research 1990;18(2):89-93.
Esterly 1970 {published data only}
Faingezicht 1992 {published data only}
  • Faingezicht I, Bolanos HJ, Arias G, Guevara J, Ruiz M. Comparative study of cefprozil and cefaclor in children with bacterial infections of skin and skin structures. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 1992;11(11):976-8.
Fedorovskaia 1989 {published data only}
  • Federovskaia RF, Bukharovich AM, Danilova TN, Masyukova SA, Blinova MY. Tomicide paste in combined therapy of pyoderma [Opyt primeneniia tomitsidovoi pasty v kompleksnoi terapii bol'nykh piodermiiami]. Vestnik Dermatologii i Venerologii 1989;9:63-6.
Fleisher 1983 {published data only}
Forbes 1952 {published data only}
  • Forbes MA. A clinical evaluation of neomycin in different bases. Southern Medical Journal 1952;45(3):235-9.
Free 2006 {published data only}
  • Free A, Roth E, Dalessandro M, Hiram J, Scangarella N, Shawar R, et al. Retapamulin ointment twice daily for 5 days vs oral cephalexin twice daily for 10 days for empiric treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions of the skin. Skinmed 2006;5(5):224-32.
Gentry 1985 {published data only}
Gibbs 1987 {published data only}
  • Gibbs DL, Kashin P, Jevons S. Comparative and non-comparative studies of the efficacy and tolerance of tioconazole cream 1% versus another imidazole and/or placebo in neonates and infants with candidal diaper rash and/or impetigo. Journal of International Medical Research 1987;15(1):23-31.
Golcman 1997 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Golcman B, Tuma SR, Golcman R, Schalka S, Gonzalez MA. Efficacy and safety of cefprozil and cefaclor on cutaneous infections. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 1997;72(1):79-82.
Goldfarb 1987 {published data only}
  • Goldfarb J, Aronoff SC, Jaffe A, Reed MD, Blumer JL. Sultamicillin in the treatment of superficial skin and soft tissue infections in children. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1987;31(4):663-4.
Gooch 1991 {published data only}
  • Gooch WM, Kaminester L, Cole GW, Binder R, Morman MR, Swinehart JM, et al. Clinical comparison of cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin and cefadroxil in the treatment of patients with primary infections of the skin or skin structures. Dermatologica 1991;183(1):336-43.
Hanfling 1992 {published data only}
  • Hanfling MJ, Hausinger SA, Squires J. Loracarbef versus cefaclor in pediatric skin and skin structure infections. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1992;11 Suppl 8:27-30.
Harding 1970 {published data only}
  • Harding JW, Path MRC. General practitioners' forum. Flucloxacillin in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Practioner 1970;205(230):801-6.
Heskel 1992 {published data only}
Jacobs 1992 {published data only}
  • Jacobs RF, Brown WD, Chartrand S, Darden P, Drehobl MA, Yetman R, et al. Evaluation of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil suspensions for treatment of pediatric skin infections. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1992;36(8):1614-8.
Jennings 1999 {published data only}
  • Jennings MB, Alfieri D, Kosinski M, Weinberg JM. An investigator-blind study of the efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus cefadroxil in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections of the foot. The Foot: International Journal of Clinical Foot Science 1999;9(2):68-72.
Jennings 2003 {published data only}
  • Jennings MB, McCarty JM, Scheffler NM, Puopolo AD, Rothermel CD. Comparison of azithromycin and cefadroxil for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections. Cutis 2003;72(3):240-4.
Keeny 1979 {published data only}
  • Keeney RE, Seamans ML, Russo RM, Gururaj VJ, Alle JE. The comparative efficacy of minocycline and penicillin-V in Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infections. Cutis 1979;23(5):711-8.
Kotrajaras 1973 {published data only}
Kumakiri 1988 {published data only}
  • Kumakiri M, Yasui C, Ohkawara A. Clinical study on TE-031 tablet in dermatology. Chemotherapy 1988;36(Suppl 3):935-7.
Kumar 1988 {published data only}
  • Kumar A, Murray DL, Hanna CB, Kreindler TG, Jacobson KD, McCall Bundy J, et al. Comparitive study of cephalexin hydrochloride and cephalexin monohydrate in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1988;32(6):882-5.
Lassus 1990 {published data only}
  • Lassus A. Comparative studies of azithromycin in skin and soft-tissue infections and sexually transmitted infections by Neisseria and Chlamydia species. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1990;25 Supp A:115-21.
Lentino 1984 {published data only}
  • Lentino JR, Stachowski M, Strikas R, Parrillo P. Comparative efficacy of cefotiam versus cephalotin in the therapy of skin and soft-tissue infections. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1984;25(6):778-80.
Levenstein 1982 {published data only}
  • Levenstein JH. Efficacy and tolerability of an amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination in the treatment of common bacterial infections. A general practitioner trial. South African Medical Journal (Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde) 1982;62(5 Spec No):16A-20A.
Lewis-Jones 1985 {published data only}
  • Lewis-Jones S, Hart CA, Vickers CFH. Bactroban ointment versus fusidic acid in acute primary skin infections in children. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:103-8.
Linder 1978 {published data only}
Linder 1993 {published data only}
  • Linder CW, Nelson K, Paryani S, Stallworth JR, Blumer JL. Comparative evaluation of cefadroxil and cephalexin in children and adolescents with pyodermas. Clinical Therapeutics 1993;15(1):46-56.
Lipets 1987 {published data only}
  • Lipets ME, Gnidenko VV. Gentamycin ointment in the therapy of impetigo in children [Gentamitsinovaia maz' v terapii impetigo u detei]. Pediatriia 1987;9:103.
Liu 1986 {published data only}
  • Liu ZL, Jiang ZP. Comparison between the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in child impetigo herpetiformis. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine 1986;6(9):566-6.
MacKenna 1945 {published data only}
  • MacKenna RMB, Cooper-Willis ES. Impetigo contagiosa in the army, treated with microcrystalline sulphathiazole. Lancet 1945;246(6363):357-8.
Macotela-Ruiz 1988 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Macotela-Ruiz E, Duran-Bermudez H, Kuri-Con FJ, Arevalo-Lopez A, Villalobos-Ibarra JL. Evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of local fusidic aid versus oral dicloxacillin in infections of the skin [Evaluacion de la eficacia y toxicidad del acido fusidico local frente a dicloxacilina oral en infecciones de la piel]. Medicina Cutanea Ibero-latino-americana 1988;16(2):171-3.
Mallory 1991 {published data only}
  • Mallory SB. Azithromycin compared with cephalexin in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. American Journal of Medicine 1991;91 Suppl 3A:36-9.
Manaktala 2009 {published data only}
  • Manaktala C, Singh AK, Verma M, Sachdeva A, Sharma J, Roy A, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of cefditoren pivoxil in uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in Indian patients. Indian Journal of Dermatology 2009;54(4):350-6.
McCarty 1992 {published data only}
  • McCarty J, Ruoff GE, Jacobson KD. Loracarbef (LY163892) versus cefaclor in the treatment of bacterial skin and skin structure infections in an adult population. American Journal of Medicine 1992;92 Suppl 6A:80-5.
McMillan 1969 {published data only}
Milidiú d Silva 1985 {published data only}
  • Milidiú da Silva I, Silva SCL. The evaluation of Bactroban ointment in the treatment of dermatological infections. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:162-5.
Nakayama 1983 {published data only}
  • Nakayama I, Akieda Y, Watanabe T, Suzuki T, Itokawa K. Clinical investigation of a long-acting amoxicillin preparation in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections in surgery. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 1983;36(5):1137-63.
Neldner 1991 {published data only}
  • Neldner KH. Double-blind randomized study of oral temafloxacin and cefadroxil in patients with mild to moderately severe bacterial skin infections. American Journal of Medicine 1991;91 Suppl 6A:111-4.
Nichols 1997 {published data only}
  • Nichols RL, Smith JW, Gentry LO, Gezon J, Campbell T, Sokol P, et al. Multicenter, randomized study comparing levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin for uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections. Southern Medical Journal 1997;90(12):1193-200.
Nicolle 1990 {published data only}
  • Nicolle LE, Postl B, Urias B, Ling N, Law B. Outcome following therapy of group A streptococcal infection in schoolchildren in isolated northern communities. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1990;81(6):468-70.
Nolting 1992 {published data only}
Orecchio 1986 {published data only}
  • Orecchio RM, Mischler TW. A double-blind multiclinic comparative trial of mupirocin topical and its vehicle in the treatment of bacterial skin infections. Current Therapeutic Research 1986;39(1):82-6.
Pakrooh 1978 {published data only}
  • Pakrooh H. A comparison of sodium fusidate ointment ('Fucidin') alone versus oral antibiotic therapy in soft-tissue infections. Current Medical Research & Opinion 1977-78;5(4):289-94.
Palazzini 1993 {published data only}
  • Palazzini E, Palmerio B. Treatment of pyogenic skin infections with rifaximin cream. European Review for Medical & Pharmacological Sciences 1993;15(2):87-92.
Parish 1984 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Aten EM. Treatment of skin and skin structure infections: a comparative study of augmentin and cefaclor. Therapeutics for the Clinician 1984;34(6):567-70.
Parish 1991 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Jungkind DL. Systemic antimicrobial therapy in skin and skin structure infections: comparison of temafloxacin and ciprofloxacin. American Journal of Medicine 1991;91 Suppl 6A:115-9.
Parish 1992 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Doyle CA, Durham SJ, Wilber RB. Cefprozil versus cefaclor in the treatment of mild to moderate skin and skin-structure infections. Clinical Therapeutics 1992;14(3):458-69.
Parish 1997 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Doyle CA, Durham SJ, Wilber RB. Cefprozil versus cefaclor in the treatment of mild to moderated skin and skin-structure infections [Cefprozil versus cefaclor no tratamento de infeccoes leves a moderadas da pele e estruturas da pele]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina 1997;54(5):342-50.
Parish 2000 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Routh HB, Miskin B, Fidelholtz J, Werschler P, Heyd A, et al. Moxifloxacin versus cephalexin in the treatment of uncomplicated skin infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2000;54(8):497-503.
Parish 2006 {published data only}
  • Parish LC, Jorizzo JL, Breton JJ, Hirman JW, Scangarella NE, Shawar RM. Topical retapamulin ointment (1%, wt/wt) twice daily for 5 days versus oral cephalexin twice daily for 10 days in the treatment of secondarily infected dermatitis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2006;55(6):1003-13.
Park 1993 {published data only}
  • Park SW, Wang HY, Sung HS. A study for the isolation of the causative organism, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and therapeutic aspects in patients with impetigo. Korean Journal of Dermatology 1993;31(3):312-9.
Pien 1983 {published data only}
  • Pien FD. Double-blind comparative study of two-dosage regimens of cefaclor and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the outpatient treatment of soft-tissue infections. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1983;24(6):856-9.
Powers 1991 {published data only}
  • Powers RD, Schwartz R, Snow RM, Yarbrough III DR. Ofloxacin versus cephalexin in the treatment of skin, skin structure, and soft-tissue infections in adults. Clinical Therapeutics 1991;13(6):727-36.
Powers 1993 {published data only}
  • Power RD. Open trial of oral fleroxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of infections of skin and soft tissue. American Journal of Medicine 1993;94 Suppl 3A:155-8.
Pusponegoro 1990 {published data only}
  • Pusponegoro EHD, Wiryadi BE. Clindamycin and cloxacillin compared in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clinical Therapeutics 1990;12(3):236-41.
Risser 1985 {published data only}
  • Risser WL, Kaplan SL, Mason EO, Listernick R, Yogev R, Pickering LK. Treatment of soft-tissue infections in children with amoxicillin-clavulanic combination or cefaclor. Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental 1985;37(4):747-53.
Saenz 1985 {published data only}
  • Saenz C, Garcia-Estrada E. Controlled clinical trial of Bactroban ointment in the treatment of skin infections. Excerpta Medica Current Clinical Practice Series 1985;16:205-10.
Salzberg 1972 {published data only}
  • Salzberg R. Comparative clinical and bacteriological studies with Bactrim and ampicillin in the pediatrics [Vergleichende klinische und bakteriologische Untersuchungen mit Bactrim und Ampicillin in der pädiatrischen Praxis]. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis / Revue Suisse de Medecine Praxis 1972;61(33):1051-2.
Schupbach 1992 {published data only}
  • Schupbach CW, Olovich KG, Dere WH. Efficacy of cefaclor AF in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. Clinical Therapeutics 1992;14(3):470-9.
Schwartz 1996 {published data only}
  • Schwartz R, Das-Young LR, Ramirez-Ronda C, Frank E. Current and future management of serious skin and skin-structure infections. American Journal of Medicine 1996;100 Suppl 6A:91-5.
Smith 1985 {published data only}
  • Smith JH, Gould JC. Placebo-controlled study of Bactroban ointment in patients attending general practice. Bactroban. Proceedings of an International Symposium; 1984 May 21-22; Nassau, Bahama Islands. 1985:130-6.
Smith 1993 {published data only}
  • Smith JW, Nichols RL. Comparison of oral fleroxacin with oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. American Journal of Medicine 1993;94 Suppl 3A:150-4.
Sobye 1966 {published data only}
  • Sobye P. Cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection treated with fucidin ointment [Kutane Staphylococcus aureus infektioner behandlet med fugidinsalve]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1966;128(7):204-7.
Stevens 1993 {published data only}
  • Stevens DL, Pien F, Drehobl M. Comparison of oral cefpodoxime proxetil and cefaclor in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease 1993;16(2):123-29.
Tack 1991 {published data only}
  • Tack KJ, Wilks NE, Sermdikian G, Frazier CH, Shirin K, Puoipolo A, et al. Cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Drugs 1991;42 Suppl 3:51-6.
Török 2004 {published data only}
  • Török E, Somogyi T, Rutkai K, Iglesias L, Bielsa I. Fusidic acid suspension twice daily: a new treatment schedule for skin and soft tissue infection in children, with improved tolerability. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 2004;15(3):158-63.
Urbach 1966 {published data only}
  • Urbach F. Combined chemotherapy in the treatment of superficial bacterial infections of the skin. Current Therapeutic Research 1966;8(4):199-202.
Van der Auwera 1985 {published data only}
  • Van der Auwera P, Klastersky J, Thys JP, Meunier-Carpentier F, Legrand JC. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oxacillin combined with rifampin in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1985;28(4):467-72.
Villiger 1986 {published data only}
  • Villiger JW, Robertson WD, Kanki K, Ah Chan M, Fetherston J, Hague IK, et al. A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin (Bactroban) with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. Current Medical Research & Opinion 1986;10(5):339-45.
Wachs 1992 {published data only}
  • Wachs GN, Nolen TM, Parish LC, Morman MR, Cleaver L, Ginsberg D. Comparison of cefadroxil and amoxicillin/clavulanate in mild to moderate skin and skin-structure infections. Advances in Therapy 1992;9(2):69-80.
Wible 2003 {published data only}
  • Wible K, Tregnaghi M, Bruss J, Fleishaker D, Naberhuis-Stehouwer S, Hilty M. Linezolid versus cefadroxil in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections in children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2003;22(4):315-23.
Wolbling 1987 {published data only}
  • Wölbling RH, Schäfer V. Treatment of impetiginized eczema with prednicarbate in combination with a quarternary ammonium salt [Zur Behandlung des impetiginisierten Ekzems mit Prednicarbat in Kombination mit einem quarternären Ammoniumsalz]. Arzneimittelforschung 1987;37(2):218-20.
Wong 1989 {published data only}
  • Wong KS, Lim KB, Tham SN, Ling ML, Tan T. Comparative double-blinded study between mupirocin and tetracycline ointments for treating skin infections. Singapore Medical Journal 1989;30(4):380-3.
Yura 1988 {published data only}
  • Yura J, Shinagawa N, Mizuno A, Watanabe S, Ando M, Sakai K, et al. Clinical evaluation of cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 1988;41(10):1517-37.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Chen 2011 {published data only}
  • Chen AE, Carroll KC, Diener-West M, Ross T, Ordun J, Goldstein MA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of cephalexin versus clindamycin for uncomplicated pediatric skin infections. Pediatrics 2011;127(3):e573-80.
Chosidow 2005 {published data only}
  • Chosidow O, Bernard P, Berbis P, Humbert P, Crickx B, Jarlier V, et al. Cloxacillin versus pristinamycin for superficial pyodermas: A randomized, open-label, non-inferiority study. Dermatology 2005;210(4):370-4.
Davies 1945 {published data only}
  • Davies JH, Dixon K, Stuart-Harris CH. A therapeutic trial of penicillin in infective conditions of the skin. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1945;14(Oct):183-96.
Ghosh 1995 {published data only}
  • Ghosh SK. A study on the role of neem, haldi, sajina and garlic oil (Nutriderm Oil) in pyoderma and infective dermatitis. Indian Journal of Dermatology 1995;40(2):73-5.
Gubelin 1993 {published data only}
  • Gübelin HW, Zegpi E, Oroz MJ, Del Canto ETM, Pérez J, Grandi P, et al. Comparative clinique study of topical mupirocine and oral cloxacillin in the treatment of skin infections [Estudio clínico comparativo de mupirocine tópico y cloxacilina oral en el tratamiento de infecciones cutáneas]. Dermatología (Santiago de Chile) 1993;9(2):78-83.
Kar 1988 {published data only}
  • Kar PK. A study of treatment of pyoderma with injection benzathine penicillin. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1988;86(1):8-11.
Kar 1996 {published data only}
  • Kar PK. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children. Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology & Leprology 1996;62(2):91-4.
Luby 2002 {published data only}
  • Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Schnell BM, Hoekstra RM, Rahbar MH, Keswick BH. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2002;67(4):430-5.
Menendez 2007 {published data only}
  • Menéndez S, Fernández M, Amoroto M, Uranga R, Acuña P, Elisa Benítez J, et al. Efficacy and security of topical OLEOZON in the treatment of patients with impetigo [Eficacia y seguridad del OLEOZON tópico en el tratamiento de pacientes con impétigo]. Revista Panamericana de Infectología 2007;9(2):23-9.
Motohiro 1992 {published data only}
  • Motohiro T, Aramaki M, Oda, K, Kawakami A, Koga T, Tomita S, et al. Clinical studies on cefprozil granules in pediatric skin soft tissues infections [[unknown]]. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 1992;45(12):1684-99.
Pierard-Franchimont 2008 {published data only}
  • Pierard-Franchimont CHF, Szepetiuk G, Devillers C, Pierard GE. Comparative randomized intraindividual assessment of the efficacy of fusidic acid and povidone iodine in impetigo. Current Topics in Pharmacology 2008;12(2):113-7.
Sharquie 2000 {published data only}
  • Sharquie KE, al-Turfi IA, al-Salloum SM. The antibacterial activity of tea in vitro and in vivo (in patients with impetigo contagiosa). Journal of Dermatology 2000;27(11):706-10.
Suchmacher 2010 {published data only}
  • Suchmacher Neto M, Geller M, Ribeiro MG, Guimarães OR, Oliveira L, Cunha KSG, et al. Clinical assessment of azithromycin dihydrate in the treatment of pediatric impetigo [Avaliação clínica de azitromicina di-hidratada no tratamento de impetigo pediátrico]. Pediatr Mod 2010 2010;46(5):unknown.
Tong 2010 {published data only}
  • Tong SYC, Andrews RM, Kearns T, Gundjirryirr R, McDonald MI, Currie BJ, et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: A pilot randomised controlled trial. Journal of Paedatrics & Child Health 2010;46(3):131-3. [ACTRN12607000592448]
Wang 1988 {published data only}
  • Wang YM. Treating impetigo by traditional chinese medicine decoction lotion [In Chinese]. Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine [Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi] 1988;8(7):442.
Wang 1995 {published data only}
  • Wang ZB. Shen Qi Tang in treating impetigo in palm and toe in 168 cases [In Chinese]. Shandong Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine [Shan Dong Zhong Yi Za Zhi] 1995;14(11):500-501.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
ACTRN12609000858291 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12609000858291. An open label randomised controlled trial to determine if 5 days of once-daily oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or three days of twice-daily oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will lead to non-inferior cure rates of impetigo compared to a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (the current gold standard treatment) in children living in remote Aboriginal communities between the age of 12 weeks to less than 13 years. www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=83543 (accessed 3 August 2010).
CTRI/2008/091/000060 {published data only}
  • CTRI/2008/091/000060. A clinical trial to study the safety and efficacy of combination drug, vancomycin and ceftriaxone compared to vancomycin in mild to severe bacterial infections. apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?TrialID=CTRI/2008/091/000060 (accessed 3 August 2010).
NCT00202891 {published data only}
  • NCT00202891. Sisomicin Cream Vs Nadifloxacin Cream in Primary Pyodermas (Study P04460)(TERMINATED). clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT00202891 (accessed 3 August 2010).
NCT00626795 {published data only}
  • NCT00626795. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of TD1414 2% Cream in Impetigo and Secondarily Infected Traumatic Lesions (SITL). clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00626795?term=NCT00626795 (accessed 3 August 2010).
NCT00852540 {unpublished data only}
  • 110978. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double Dummy, Comparative, Multicenter Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Retapamulin Ointment, 1%, versus Oral Linezolid in the Treatment of Secondarily-Infected Traumatic Lesions and Impetigo Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/protocol_detail.jsp?protocolId=110978&studyId=4EDB3886-9DE1-4A2F-8245-226DEC1B7BEF&compound=retapamulin&type=Compound&letterrange=Q-U (accessed 3 August 2010).
NCT00986856 {published data only}
  • NCT00986856. Fucidin® Cream in the Treatment of Impetigo. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT00986856 (accessed 3 August 2010).
NCT01171326 {unpublished data only}
  • NCT01171326. Study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical minocycline FXFM244 in impetigo patients. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01171326 (accessed 11 July 2011).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Alsterholm 2010
  • Alsterholm M, Flytström I, Bergbrant I-M, Faergemann J. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis. Acta Dermatovenereologica 2010;90:52-7.
Baltimore 1985
Birnie 2008
Bruijnzeels 1993
  • Bruijnzeels MA, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, van der Velden J, van der Wouden JC. [Het Kind Bij de Huisarts: Een Nationale Studie naar Ziekten en Verrichtingen in de Huisartspraktijk]. The child in general practice. Dutch National Survey of morbidity and interventions in general practice. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1993.
Canizares 1993
  • Canizares O. Epidemiology and ecology of skin diseases in the tropics and subtropics. In: Canizares O editor(s). A manual of dermatology for developing countries. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993:22-35.
Carruthers 1988
Cheng 2009
  • Cheng AC, Yong M, Athan E, Fowler V. Treatment for bacteraemia due to Staphylococcus aureus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007627]
Dagan 1993
de Neeling 1998
  • de Neeling AJ, van Leeuwen WJ, Schouls LM, Schot CS, van Veen-Rutgers A, et al. Resistance of staphylococci in the Netherlands: Surveillance by an electronic network during 1989 -1995. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1998;41(1):93-101.
Dillon 1979b
  • Dillon HC. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis following pyoderma. Review of Infectious Diseases 1979;1(6):935-43.
Espersen 1998
Hay 1998
  • Hay RJ, Adriaans BM. Bacterial infections. In: Champion RH, Burton JL, Ebling FJG editor(s). Textbook of Dermatology. 6th Edition. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998:1109-11.
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.1 [updated September 2008].. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Jadad 1998
  • Jadad AR, Moher D, Klassen TP. Guides for reading and interpreting systematic reviews: II How did the authors find the studies and assess their quality?. Archives of Paediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1998;152(8):812-7.
Jahanfar 2009
Koning 2006
Kristensen 1991
McCormick 1995
  • McCormick A, Fleming D, Charlton J. Morbidity statistics from general practice. Fourth national study 1991-1992. London: HMSO, 1995.
Mohammedamin 2006
  • Mohammedamin RSA, van der Wouden JC, Koning S, van der Linden MW, Schellevis FG, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, et al. Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? A comparison between 1987 and 2001. BMC Dermatology 2006;6:4. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-5945-6-4]
Resnick 2000
  • Resnick DS. Staphylococcal and streptococcal skin infections: pyodermas and toxin-mediated syndromes. In: Harper J, Oranje A, Prose N editor(s). Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology. 1st Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000:369-72.
Shankar 2007
  • Shankar PK, Kumar MTS. Antibiotics for Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006337]
Smeenk 1999
  • Smeenk G, Sebens FW, Houwing RH. Use and disadvantages of local antibiotics and disinfectants on the skin [Nut en gevaren van op de huid toegepaste antibiotica en desinfectantia]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 1999;143(22):1140-3.
Van den Bosch 2007
  • Van de Bosch W, Backx C, Van Boven K. Impetigo: dramatic increase of occurrence and severity [Impetigo: dramatische toename van vóórkomen en ernst]. Huisarts en Wetenschap 2007;50(4):250-3.
van Rijen 2008

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Koning 2003
  • Koning S, Verhagen AP, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, Morris AD, Butler C, van der Wouden JC. Interventions for impetigo. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003261]