Winging of the scapula is caused by weakness of the thoracoscapular muscles, which allows the scapula to lift off the chest wall during shoulder movements. In facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (and occasionally in other muscular dystrophies) there is selective weakness of the thoracoscapular muscles which may spare other shoulder muscles such as the deltoid muscle. This imbalance results in significant winging and loss of shoulder function. Historically, a number of different surgical and non-surgical interventions have been used to achieve scapular stability. This review examines the evidence available for the use of all scapular fixation techniques in muscular dystrophy, especially facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.