Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Structural and community-level interventions for increasing condom use to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections

  1. Ralfh Moreno1,
  2. Herfina Y Nababan2,
  3. Erika Ota3,*,
  4. Windy MV Wariki4,
  5. Satoshi Ezoe5,
  6. Stuart Gilmour6,
  7. Kenji Shibuya7

Editorial Group: Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group

Published Online: 29 JUL 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 4 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003363.pub3

How to Cite

Moreno R, Nababan HY, Ota E, Wariki WMV, Ezoe S, Gilmour S, Shibuya K. Structural and community-level interventions for increasing condom use to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD003363. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003363.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  2. 2

    James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  3. 3

    National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Health Policy, Tokyo, Japan

  4. 4

    Manado State University, Department of Public Health, Tondano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

  5. 5

    The University of Tokyo, Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

  6. 6

    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  7. 7

    Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Department of Global Health Policy, Tokyo, Japan

*Erika Ota, Department of Health Policy, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 29 JUL 2014



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Cowan 2010 {published data only}
  • Cowan FM, Pascoe SJ, Langhaug LF, Mavhu W, Chidiya S, Jaffar S, et al. The Regai Dzive Shiri project: results of a randomized trial of an HIV prevention intervention for youth. AIDS 2010;24(16):2541-52. [1473-5571: (Electronic)]
Doyle 2010 {published data only}
  • Doyle AM, Ross DA, Maganja K, Baisley K, Masesa C, Andreasen A, et al. Vijana Trial Study Group. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial. PLoS Medicine 2010;7(6):e1000287.
Feldblum 2001 {published data only}
  • Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh MA, Bwayo JJ, Omari M, Wong EL, Tweedy KG, et al. Female condom introduction and sexually transmitted infection prevalence: results of a community intervention trial in Kenya. AIDS 2001;15(8):1037-44. [0269-9370: (Print)]
  • Welsh MJ, Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh MA, Mwarogo P, Kungu D. Condom use during a community intervention trial in Kenya. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2001;12(7):469-74.
Garcia 2012 {published data only}
  • Garcia PJ, Holmes KK, Carcamo CP, Garnett GP, Hughes JP, Campos PE, et al. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections in urban communities (Peru PREVEN): a multicomponent community-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;379(9821):1120-8. [1474-547X: (Electronic)]
Gregson 2007 {published data only}
  • Gregson S, Adamson S, Papaya S, Mundondo J, Nyamukapa CA, Mason PR, et al. Impact and process evaluation of integrated community and clinic-based HIV-1 control: a cluster-randomised trial in eastern Zimbabwe. PLoS Medicine 2007;4(3):e102. [1549-1676: (Electronic)]
Jewkes 2008 {published data only}
  • Jewkes R, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, Puren A, et al. Impact of Stepping Stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:a506. [1756-1833: (Electronic)]
Kamali 2003 {published data only}
  • Kamali A, Quigley M, Nakiyingi J, Kinsman J, Kengeya-Kayondo J, Gopal R, et al. Syndromic management of sexually-transmitted infections and behaviour change interventions on transmission of HIV-1 in rural Uganda: a community randomised trial. Lancet 2003;361(9358):645-52. [0140-6736: (Print)]
NIMH 2010 {published data only}
  • NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Group. Results of the NIMH collaborative HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention trial of a community popular opinion leader intervention. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2010;54(2):204-14. [1944-7884: (Electronic)]
Ross 2007 {published data only}
  • Ross DA, Changalucha J, Obasi AI, Todd J, Plummer ML, Cleophas-Mazige B, et al. Biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: a community-randomized trial. AIDS 2007;21(14):1943-55. [0269-9370: (Print)]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Arnold 2012 {published data only}
  • Arnold R, Maticka-Tyndale E, Tenkorang E, Holland D, Gaspard A, Luginaah I. Evaluation of school- and community-based HIV prevention interventions with junior secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health 2012;16(2):103-25.
Bassett 1998 {published data only}
  • Bassett M. Impact of peer education on HIV infection in Zimbabwe. Sexual Health Exchange 1998;4:14-15.
Basu 2004 {published data only}
  • Basu I, Jana S, Rotherman-Borus MJ, Swendeman D, Lee SJ, Newman P, et al. HIV prevention among sex workers in India. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2004;36(3):845-52.
Beattie 2010 {published data only}
  • Beattie TS, Bhattacharjee P, et al. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program. BMC Public Health 2010;10:476.
Bolu 2004 {published data only}
  • Bolu OO, Lindsey C, Kamb ML, Kent C, Zenilman J, Douglas JM, et al: Project RESPECT Study Group. Is HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention counseling effective among vulnerable populations?: a subset analysis of data collected for a randomized, controlled trial evaluating counseling efficacy (Project RESPECT). Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2004;31(8):469-74.
Boyer 2005 {published data only}
  • Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK, Pollack LM, Betsinger K, et al. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral, group, randomized controlled intervention trial to prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies in young women. Preventive Medicine 2005;40(4):420-31. [0091-7435: (Print)]
Campos 2013 {published data only}
  • Campos PE, Buffardi A L, Carcamo CP, Garcia PJ, Buendia C, Chiappe M, et al. Reaching the unreachable: providing STI control services to female sex workers via mobile team outreach. PLoS One 2013;8(11):e81041.
Celentano 1998 {published data only}
  • Celentano D D, Nelson KE, Lyles CM, Beyrer C, Eiumtrakul S, Go VF, et al. Decreasing incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in young Thai men: evidence for success of the HIV/AIDS control and prevention program.. AIDS 1998;12(5):F29-36.
DiClemente 2009 {published data only}
  • DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Rose ES, Sales JM, Lang DL, Caliendo AM, et al. Efficacy of sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent females seeking sexual health services: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(12):1112-21.
Doyle 2011 {published data only}
  • Doyle AM, Weiss HA, Maganja K, Kapiga S, McCormack S, Watson-Jones D, et al. The long-term impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention: Effects of dose and time since exposure to intervention. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2011;87:A215.
Duan 2013 {published data only}
  • Duan Y, Zhang H, Wang J, Wei S, Yu F, She M. Community-based peer intervention to reduce HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Sichuan province, China. AIDS Education and Prevention 2013;25(1):38-48.
El-Bassel 2010 {published data only}
  • El-Bassel N, Jemmott JB, Landis JR, Pequegnat W, Wingood GM, Wyatt GE, et al: NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention Trial for African American Couples Group. National Institute of Mental Health Multisite Eban HIV/STD prevention intervention for African American HIV serodiscordant couples: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010;170(17):1594-1601.
Fontanet 1998 {published data only}
  • Fontanet AL, Saba J, Chandelying V, Sakondhavat C, Bhiraleus P, Rugpao S, et al. Protection against sexually transmitted diseases by granting sex workers in Thailand the choice of using the male or female condom: results from a randomized controlled trial. AIDS 1998;12(14):1851-9.
Grosskurth 1995 {published data only}
  • Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, Mwijarubi E, Klokke A, Senkoro K, et al. Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1995;346(8974):530-6.
Kalichman 2013 {published data only}
  • Kalichman SC, Simbayi LC, Cain D, Carey KB, Carey MP, Eaton L, et al. Randomized community-level HIV prevention intervention trial for men who drink in South African alcohol-serving venues. European Journal of Public Health 2013;18:18.
Kamb 1998 {published data only}
  • Kamb ML, Fishbein M, Douglas JM Jr, Rhodes F, Rogers J, Bolan G, et al. Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases: a randomized controlled trial. Project RESPECT Study Group. JAMA 1998;280(13):1161-7.
Kennedy 2012 {published data only}
  • Kennedy SB. Community trial to prevent HIV/STDs among rural youths in post-conflict Liberia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2012;17:10.
Kerrigan 2006 {published data only}
  • Kerrigan D, Moreno L, Rosario S, Gomez B, Jerez H, Barrington C, et al. Environmental-structural interventions to reduce HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96(1):120-5.
Kim 2007 {published data only}
  • Kim JC, Watts CH, Hargreaves JR, Ndhlovu LX, Phetla G, Morison LA, et al. Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South Africa. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(10):1794-802.
Kim 2009 {published data only}
  • Kim J1, Ferrari G, Abramsky T, Watts C, Hargreaves J, Morison L, et al. Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009;87(11):824-32.
Koblin 2004 {published data only}
  • Koblin B, Chesney M, Coates T, EXPLORE Study Team. Effects of a behavioural intervention to reduce acquisition of HIV infection among men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE randomised controlled study. Lancet 2004;364(9428):41-50.
Labbe 2012 {published data only}
  • Labbé AC1, Pépin J, Khonde N, Dzokoto A, Méda H, Asamoah-Adu C, et al. Periodical antibiotic treatment for the control of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among sex workers in Benin and Ghana: a cluster-randomized placebo-controlled trial. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2012;39(4):253-9.
Larke 2010 {published data only}
  • Larke N, Cleophas-Mazige B, Plummer ML, Obasi AI, Rwakatare M, Todd J, et al. Impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions on use of health services by young people in rural Mwanza, Tanzania: results of a cluster randomized trial. Journal of Adolescent Health 2010;47(5):512-22.
Mathews 2012 {published data only}
  • Mathews C, Aarø LE, Grimsrud A, Flisher AJ, Kaaya S, Onya H, et al. Effects of the SATZ teacher-led school HIV prevention programmes on adolescent sexual behaviour: cluster randomised controlled trials in three sub-Saharan African sites. International Health 2012;4(12):111-22.
Maticka-Tyndale, E. 2011 {published data only}
  • Maticka-Tyndale E, Onokheroya A. HIV prevention for rural youth in Nigeria: Evaluation results of school- and community-based programming. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011;8:128.
Metcalf 2005 {published data only}
  • Metcalf CA1, Douglas JM Jr, Malotte CK, Cross H, Dillon BA, Paul SM, et al. RESPECT-2 Study Group. Relative efficacy of prevention counseling with rapid and standard HIV testing: a randomized, controlled trial (RESPECT-2). Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2005;32(2):130-8.
Okonofua 2003 {published data only}
  • Okonofua FE1, Coplan P, Collins S, Oronsaye F, Ogunsakin D, Ogonor JT, et al. Impact of an intervention to improve treatment-seeking behavior and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among Nigerian youths. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2003;7(1):61-73.
Padian 2007 {published data only}
  • Padian NS, van der Straten A, Ramjee G, Chipato T, de Bruyn G, Blanchard K, et al. MIRA Team. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370(9583):251-61.
Pronyk 2006 {published data only}
  • Pronyk PM, Hargreaves JR, Kim JC, Morison LA, Phetla G, Watts C, et al. Effect of a structural intervention for the prevention of intimate-partner violence and HIV in rural South Africa: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet 2006;368(9551):1973-83. [1474-547X: (Electronic)]
Pronyk 2008 {published data only}
  • Pronyk PM1, Kim JC, Abramsky T, Phetla G, Hargreaves JR, Morison LA, et al. A combined microfinance and training intervention can reduce HIV risk behaviour in young female participants. AIDS 2008;22(13):1659-65.
Quigley 2004 {published data only}
  • Quigley MA1, Kamali A, Kinsman J, Kamulegeya I, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Kiwuwa S, et al. The impact of attending a behavioural intervention on HIV incidence in Masaka, Uganda. AIDS 2004;18(15):2055-63.
Rotheram-Borus 2011 {published data only}
  • Rotheram-Borus MJ, Wu Z, Liang LJ, Li L, Detels R, Guan J, et al: NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Group. Reductions in sexually transmitted infections associated with popular opinion leaders in China in a randomised controlled trial. Sexually Transmitted Infections  2011;87(4):337-43.
Sawaya 2008 {published data only}
  • Sawaya GF, Chirenje MZ, Magure MT, Tuveson JL, Ma Y, Shiboski SC, et al. Effect of diaphragm and lubricant gel provision on human papillomavirus infection among women provided with condoms: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008;112(5):990-7.
Shain 2004 {published data only}
  • Shain RN, Piper JM, Holden AE, Champion JD, Perdue ST, Korte JE, et al. Prevention of gonorrhea and chlamydia through behavioral intervention: results of a two-year controlled randomized trial in minority women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2004;31(7):401-8.
Spielberg 2013 {published data only}
  • Spielberg F, Crookston BT, Chanani S, Kim J, Kline S, Gray BL. Leveraging microfinance to impact HIV and financial behaviors among adolescents and their mothers in West Bengal: a cluster randomized trial. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 2013;25(2):157-66.
Strathdee 2013 {published data only}
  • Strathdee SA, Abramovitz D, Lozada R, Martinez G, Rangel MG, Vera A, et al. Reductions in HIV/STI incidence and sharing of injection equipment among female sex workers who inject drugs: results from a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2013;8(6):e65812.
Van der Straten 2009 {published data only}
  • van der Straten A, Cheng H, Moore J, Kacanek D, Blanchard K, De Bruyn G, et al. The use of the diaphragm instead of condoms in a phase III diaphragm trial. AIDS and Behavior  2009;13(3):564-72.
Wawer 1999 {published data only}
  • Wawer MJ, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Paxton LA, Kiwanuka N, et al. Control of sexually transmitted diseases for AIDS prevention in Uganda: a randomised community trial. Rakai Project Study Group. Lancet 1999;353(9152):525-35.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Vermund ongoing {published data only}
  • Can combination prevention strategies reduce HIV transmission in generalized epidemic settings in Africa? The HPTN 071 (PopART) study plan in South Africa and Zambia. Ongoing study 2013.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Abdullah 2002
  • Abdullah AS, Fielding R, Hedley AJ, Ebrahim SH, Luk YK. Reasons for not using condoms among the Hong Kong Chinese population: implications for HIV and STD prevention. Sexually Transmitted Infections  2002;78(3):180-4.
Adam 2009
  • Adam PC, de Wit JB, Toskin I, Mathers BM, Nashkhoev M, Zablotska I, et al. Estimating levels of HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge, and condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2009;52 Suppl 2:S143-51.
Adimora 2010
  • Adimora AA, Auerbach JD. Structural interventions for HIV prevention in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2010; Vol. 55:S132-5. [1525-4135]
Akinyemi 2010
  • Akinyemi JO, Awolude OA, Adewole IF, Kanki PJ. Condom use among antiretroviral therapy patients in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2010;4(8):495-502. [1972-2680: (Electronic)]
Anglemyer 2011
Arora 2012
Atienza 2002
Bandura 1986
  • Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. 1st Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
Barnett 2006
  • Barnett T, Whiteside A. AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization. 2nd Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Berhan 2012
  • Berhan A, Berhan Y. Is the sexual Behaviour of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy safe or risky in Sub-Saharan Africa? Meta-analysis and meta-regression. AIDS Research and Therapy 2012;9(1):14.
Bertrand 2006
  • Bertrand JT, O'Reilly K, Denison J, Anhang R, Sweat M. Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries. Health Education Research 2006;21(4):567-97. [0268-1153: (Print)]
Blankenship 2000
Blankenship 2010
  • Blankenship KM, Biradavolu MR, Jena A, George A. Challenging the stigmatization of female sex workers through a community-led structural intervention: learning from a case study of a female sex worker intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV 2010;22(1 supp 2):1629-36. [0954-0121]
Britannica 2003
  • Islam | Christianity. Encyclopædia Britannica 2003:306.
Charania 2011
  • Charania MR, Crepaz N, Guenther-Gray C, Henny K, Liau A, Willis LA, et al. Efficacy of structural-level condom distribution interventions: a meta-analysis of U.S. and international studies, 1998-2007. AIDS and Behavior  2011;15(7):1283-97. [1573-3254: (Electronic)]
Coates 2008
Cohen 2006
  • Cohen DA, Wu SY, Farley TA. Structural interventions to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted disease: are they cost-effective for women in the southern United States?. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2006;33(7 Suppl):S46-9. [0148-5717: (Print)]
Cohen 2011
  • Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011;365(6):493-505.
Crepaz 2004
Crosby 2005
  • Crosby R, Yarber WL, Sanders SA, Graham CA. Condom discomfort and associated problems with their use among university students. The Journal of American College Health 2005;54(3):143-7. [0744-8481: (Print)]
D'Amico 2012
  • D'Amico EJ, Tucker JS, Miles JN, Zhou AJ, Shih RA, Green HD Jr. Preventing alcohol use with a voluntary after-school program for middle school students: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of CHOICE. Prevention Science 2012;13(4):415-25.
da Silveira 2005
  • da Silveira MF, dos Santos IS, Beria JU, Horta BL, Tomasi E, Victora CG. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 2005;21(5):1557-64. [0102-311X: (Print)]
Dandona 2005
  • Dandona R, Dandona L, Gutierrez J, Kumar A, McPherson S, Samuels F, et al. High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India. BMC Public Health 2005;5(1):87. [1471-2458]
Donner 2000
  • Donner A, Klar N. Design and Analysis of Cluster Randomization Trials in Health Research. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2000.
Essien 2005
Foss 2007
  • Foss AM, Hossain M, Vickerman PT, Watts CH. A systematic review of published evidence on intervention impact on condom use in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Sexually Transmitted Infections  2007;83(7):510-6. [1472-3263: (Electronic)]
Gorbach 2005
  • Gorbach PM, Drumright LN, Holmes KK. Discord, discordance, and concurrency: comparing individual and partnership-level analyses of new partnerships of young adults at risk of sexually transmitted infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2005;32(1):7-12.
Gupta 2008
  • Gupta GR, Parkhurst JO, Ogden JA, Aggleton P, Mahal A. Structural approaches to HIV prevention. The Lancet 2008; Vol. 372, issue 9640:764-75. [0140-6736]
Hearst 2004
Hecht 2009
  • Hecht R, Bollinger L, Stover J, McGreevey W, Muhib F, Madavo CE, et al. Critical choices in financing the response to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Health Affairs 2009;28(6):1591-605.
Herbst 2007a
  • Herbst JH, Beeker C, Mathew A, McNally T, Passin WF, Kay LS, et al. The effectiveness of individual-, group-, and community-level HIV behavioral risk-reduction interventions for adult men who have sex with men: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;32(4 Suppl):S38-67. [0749-3797: (Print)]
Herbst 2007b
  • Herbst JH, Kay LS, Passin WF, Lyles CM, Crepaz N, Marin BV. A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico. AIDS and Behavior  2007;11(1):25-47. [1090-7165: (Print)]
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Holmes 2004
  • Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82(6):454-61.
  • Pope PAUL VI. Of Human Life [HUMANAE VITAE]. Encyclical Letter of his Holiness Pope Paul Vl 1968.
Jadack 1997
Johnson 2008
Jones 2012
  • Jones J, Mosher W, Daniels K. Current contraceptive use in the United States, 2006–2010, and changes in patterns of use since 1995. National Health Statistics Reports 2012;60:25.
Killip 2004
  • Killip S, Mahfoud Z, Pearce K. What is an intracluster correlation coefficient? Crucial concepts for primary care researchers. The Annals of Family Medicine 2004;2(3):204-8.
Koenig 2012
  • Koenig HG, King DE, Benner V. Handbook of Religion and Health. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Kumar 2006
  • Kumar GA, Dandona R, Gutierrez JP, McPherson S, Bertozzi SM, Dandona L. Access to condoms for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh. The National Medical Journal of India 2006;19(6):306-12. [0970-258X: (Print)]
Lau 2008
  • Lau JT1, Wang M, Wong HN, Tsui HY, Jia M, Cheng F, et al. Prevalence of bisexual behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China and associations between condom use in MSM and heterosexual behaviors. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2008;35(4):406-13.
Lefkowitz 2004
  • Lefkowitz ES, Gillen MM, Shearer CL, Boone TL. Religiosity, sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes during emerging adulthood. Journal of Sex Research 2004;41(2):150-9. [0022-4499: (Print)]
Lyles 2007
  • Lyles CM, Kay LS, Crepaz N, Herbst JH, Passin WF, Kim AS, et al. Best-evidence interventions: findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000-2004. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(1):133-43. [1541-0048: (Electronic)]
Mah 2010
  • Mah TL, Halperin DT. Concurrent sexual partnerships and the HIV epidemics in Africa: evidence to move forward. AIDS and Behavior  2010;14(1):11-6; discussion 34-7.
Majoko 2007
Maticka-Tyndale 2012
Matson 2010
  • Matson PA, Adler NE, Millstein SG, Tschann JM, Ellen JM. Developmental changes in condom use among urban adolescent females: influence of partner context. Journal of Adolescent Health 2011;48(4):386-90. [1054-139X]
Medley 2004
  • Medley A, Garcia-Moreno C, McGill S, Maman S. Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82(4):299-307. [0042-9686: (Print)]
Medley 2009
  • Medley A, Kennedy C, O'Reilly K, Sweat M. Effectiveness of peer education interventions for HIV prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Education and Prevention 2009;21(3):181-206. [1943-2755: (Electronic)]
Michielsen 2010
  • Michielsen K, Chersich MF, Luchters S, De Koker P, Van Rossem R, Temmerman M. Effectiveness of HIV prevention for youth in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials. AIDS 2010;24(8):1193-202. [1473-5571: (Electronic)]
Ng 2011
Noar 2008
  • Noar SM. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence. AIDS and Behavior  2008;12(3):335-53.
Ojo 2011
Ortblad 2013
Ota 2011
Painter 2001
  • Painter TM. Voluntary counseling and testing for couples: a high-leverage intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science & Medicine 2001;53(11):1397-411.
Paul-Ebhohimhen 2008
  • Paul-Ebhohimhen VA, Poobalan A, van Teijlingen ER. A systematic review of school-based sexual health interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Public Health 2008;8:4. [1471-2458: (Electronic)]
Potts 2008
Pulerwitz 2006
  • Pulerwitz J, Barker G, Segundo M, Nascimento M. Promoting gender equity among young Brazilian men as an HIV prevention strategy (Horizons Research Summary). (accessed June 2013).
Randall 1991
Reece 2010
Reniers 2010
Rojanapithayakorn 1996
Roth 2001
Sangani 2004
  • Sangani P, Rutherford G, Wilkinson D. Population-based interventions for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001220]
Sarkar 2008
Senn 2009
  • Senn TE, Carey MP, Vanable PA, Coury-Doniger P, Urban M. Sexual partner concurrency among STI clinic patients with a steady partner: correlates and associations with condom use. Sexually Transmitted Infections  2009;85(5):343-7.
Shahmanesh 2008
  • Shahmanesh M, Patel V, Mabey D, Cowan F. Effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in resource poor setting: a systematic review. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2008;13(5):659-79. [1365-3156: (Electronic)]
Shisana 2001
  • Shisana O, Simbayi L. Nelson Mandela HSRC Study of HIV/AIDS: Full Report. South African national HIV prevalence, behavioural risks and mass media. Household Survey 2002. 1st Edition. Cape Town: The Human Science Research Council 2002, 2002.
Siegfried 2009
Subramanian 2008
  • Subramanian T, Gupte MD, Paranjape RS, Brahmam GN, Ramakrishnan L, Adhikary R, et al. HIV, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, India: results of a cross-sectional survey. AIDS 2008;22 Suppl 5:S69-79.
Suleman 2012
  • Otho SM, Perveen S, Abbas Q. FSWs typology and condoms use among HIV high risk groups in Sindh, Pakistan: a developing country perspective. ISDS Annual Conference Proceedings. 2012; Vol. ISSN 1947-2579.
Sumartojo 2000
Sunmola 2005
Swerissen 2004
Taljaard 2008
  • Taljaard M, Donner A, Villar J, Wojdyla D, Velazco A, Bataglia V, et al. Intracluster correlation coefficients from the 2005 WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health: implications for implementation research. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2008;22(2):117-25.
Thomsen 2004
Townsend 2013
  • Townsend L, Mathews C, Zembe Y. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-Income countries. Prevention Science 2013;14(1):88-105.
  • UNAIDS. Acting early to prevent AIDS: The case of Senegal. (accessed 1 December 2013).
  • UNAIDS/WHO/London School of Hygiene, Tropical Medicine. Male circumcision: global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability. (accessed 15 June 2013).
  • UNAIDS 2013. Global Report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. (accessed 20 February 2014).
Underhill 2008
USAID 2002
  • USAID. What Happened in Uganda? Declining HIV Prevalance, Behavior Change, and the National Response. (accessed July 26 2013).
Wang 2011
Wariki 2012
  • Wariki WM, Ota E, Mori R, Koyanagi A, Hori N, Shibuya K. Behavioral interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV infection among sex workers and their clients in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012; Vol. 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858]
Weiss 1993
Weiss 2000
Weller 2002
WHO 2012
  • WHO. Social determinants of health. (accessed 3 March 2014).
Xia 2005
  • Xia G, Yang X. Risky sexual behavior among female entertainment workers in China: implications for HIV/STD prevention intervention. AIDS Education and Prevention 2005;17(2):143-56.