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Intervention Review

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Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  1. J Bisson,
  2. M Andrew

Editorial Group: Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group

Published Online: 20 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub2


How to Cite

Bisson J, Andrew M. Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003388. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub2.

Author Information

*Dr Jonathan Bisson, Senior Lecturer in Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Monmouth House, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, UK. bissonji@cardiff.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2005

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (13 DEC 2013)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Blanchard 2003 {published data only}
  • Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, Devineni T, Veazey CH, Galovski TE, Mundy E, et al. A controlled evaluation of cognitive behaviorial therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research & Therapy 2003;41(1):79-96. [MedLine: BLANCHARD2003].
Blanchard 2003b {published data only}
  • Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, Devineni T, Veazey CH, Galovski TE, Mundy E, et al. A controlled evaluation of cognitive behaviorial therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research & Therapy 2003;41(1):79-96.
Brom 1989 {published data only}
  • Brom D, Kleber RJ, Defares PB. Brief psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorders. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1989;57(5):607-12. [MedLine: BROM1989].
Bryant 2003 {published data only}
  • Bryant RA, Moulds ML, Guthrie RM, Dang ST, Nixon RD. Imaginal exposure alone and imaginal exposure with cognitive restructuring in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71:706-12.
Carlson 1998 {published data only}
  • Carlson JG, Chemtob CM, Rusnak K, Hedlund NL, Muraoka MY. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EDMR) treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1998;11(1):3-24. [MedLine: CARLSON1998].
Classen 2001 {published data only}
  • Classen C, Butler LD, Koopman C, Miller E, DiMiceli S, Giese-Davis J, et al. Supportive-expressive group therapy and distress in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a randomized clinical intervention trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 2001;58(5):494-501.
Cloitre 2002 {published data only}
  • Cloitre M, Koenen KC, Cohen LR, Han H. Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2002;70:1067-74.
Cooper 1989 {published data only}
  • Cooper NA, Clum GA. Imaginal flooding as a supplementary treatment for PTSd in combat veterans: a controlled study. Behavior Therapy 1989;20:381-91.
Echeburua 1997 {published data only}
  • Echeburua E, Corral Pde, Zubizarreta I, Sarasua B. Psychological treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of sexual aggression. Behavior Modification 1997;21:433-56.
Ehlers 2003 {published data only}
  • Ehlers A, Clark D, Hackmann A, McManus F, Fennell M. Cognitive therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: Development and evaluation. Behavior Research and Therapy 2005;43:413-31.
Fecteau 1999 {published data only}
  • Fecteau G, Nicki R. Cognitive behavioural treatment of post traumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accident. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy 1999;27(3):201-14. [MedLine: FECTEAU1999].
Foa 1991 {published data only}
  • Foa EB, Rothbaum BO, Riggs DS, Murdock TB. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59(5):715-23. [MedLine: FOA1991].
Foa 1991b {published data only}
  • Foa EB, Rothbaum BO, Riggs DS, Murdock TB. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59(5):715-23.
Foa 1991c {published data only}
  • Foa EB, Rothbaum BO, Riggs DS, Murdock TB. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59(5):715-23.
Foa 1999 {published data only}
  • Foa EB, Dancu CV, Hembree EA, Jaycox LH, Meadows EA, Street GP. A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(2):194-200. [MedLine: FOA1999].
Foa 1999b {published data only}
  • Foa EB, Dancu CV, Hembree EA, Jaycox LH, Meadows EA, Street GP. A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(2):194-200.
Gersons 2000 {published data only}
  • Gersons BP, Carlier IV, Lamberts RD, Van der Kolk BA. Randomized clinical trial of brief eclectic psychotherapy for police officers with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2000;13(2):333-47. [MedLine: GERSONS2000].
Keane 1989 {published data only}
  • Keane TM, Fairbank JA, Caddell JM, Zimering RT. Implosive (flooding) therapy reduces symptoms of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy 1989;20(2):245-60. [MedLine: KEANE1989].
Krakow 2001 {published data only}
  • Krakow B, Hollifield M, Johnston L, Koss M, Schrader R, Warner TD, et al. Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286:537-45.
Kubany 2003 {published data only}
  • Kubany ES, Hill EE, Owens JA. Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD: preliminary findings. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2003;16:81-91.
Kubany 2004 {published data only}
  • Kubany ES, Hill EE, Owens JA. Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD (CTT-BW). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(1):3-18.
Marks 1998 {published data only}
  • Marks I, Lovell K, Noshirvani H, Livanou M, Thrasher S. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: a controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 1998;55(4):317-25. [MedLine: MARKS1998].
Neuner 2004 {published data only}
  • Neuner F, Schauer M, Klaschik C, Karunakara U, Elbert T. A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counselling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(4):579-87.
Peniston 1991 {published data only}
  • Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ. Alpha-theta brainwave neuro-feedback therapy for Vietnam veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Medical Psychotherapy 1991;4:47-60.
Power 2002 {published data only}
  • Power K, McGoldrick T, Brown K, Buchanan R, Sharp D, Swanson V, et al. A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring versus waiting list in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2002;9:229-318.
Resick 2002 {published data only}
  • Resick PA, Nishith P, Weaver TL, Astin MC, Feuer CA. A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2002;70(4):867-79. [MedLine: RESICK2002].
Resick 2002b {published data only}
  • Resick PA, Nishith P, Weaver TL, Astin MC, Feuer CA. A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2002;70(4):867-79.
Schnurr 2003 {published data only}
  • Schnurr PP, Friedman MJ, Foy DW, Shea MT, Hsieh FY, Lavori PW, et al. Randomized trial of trauma-focused group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 2003;60:481-9.
Taylor 2003 {published data only}
  • Taylor S, Thordarson DS, Maxfield L, Fedoroff IC, Lovell K, Ogrodniczuk J. Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71(2):330-8.
Vaughan 1994 {published data only}
  • Vaughan K, Armstrong MS, Gold R, O'Connor N, Jenneke W, Tarrier N. A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1994;25(4):283-91. [MedLine: VAUGHAN1994].
Vaughan 1994b {published data only}
  • Vaughan K, Armstrong MS, Gold R, O'Connor N, Jenneke W, Tarrier N. A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1994;25(4):283-91.
Zlotnick 1997 {published data only}
  • Zlotnick C, Shea TM, Rosen K, Simpson E, Mulrenin K, Begin A, et al. An affect-management group for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1997;10(3):425-36. [MedLine: ZLOTNICK1997].

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Chemtob 1997
  • Chemtob CM, Novaco RW, Hamada RS, Gross DM. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for severe anger in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997;65(1):184-9.
Echeburua 1996
  • Echeburua E, Corral P, Sarasua B, Zubizarreta I. Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: an experimental study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 1996;10(3):185-99.
Frank 1988
  • Frank E, Anderson B, Stewart BD, Dancu C, Hughes C, West D. Efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy and systematic desensitization in the treatment of rape trauma. Behavior therapy 1988;19:403-20.
Gidron 1996
  • Gidron Y, Peri T, Connolly JF, Shalev AY. Written disclosure in posttraumatic stress disorder: is it beneficial for the patient?. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1996;184(8):505-7.
Lange 2003
  • Lange A, Rietdijk D, Hudcovicova M, van de Ven JP, Schrieken B, Emmelkamp PM. Interapy: a controlled randomised trial of standardised treatment of posttraumtic stress through the internet. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71(5):901-9.
Paunovic 2001
  • Paunovic N, Ost LG. Cognitive-behavior therapy versus exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2001;39:1183-97.
Tarrier 1999
  • Tarrier N, Pilgrim H, Sommerfield C. A randomised trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67:13-8.
Watson 1997
  • Watson CG, Tuorila JR, Vickers KS, Gearhart LP, Mendez CM. The efficacies of three relaxation regimens in the treatment of PTSD in Vietnam war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psyhcology 1997;53(8):917-23.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Boudewyns 1990
  • Boudewyns PA, Hyer L. Physiological response to combat memories and preliminary treatment outcome in Vietnam veteran PTSD patients treated with direct therapeurtic exposure. Behavior Therapy 1990;21:63-87.
Glynn 1999
  • Glynn SM, Eth S, Randolph ET, Foy DW, Urbaitis M, Boxer L, et al. A test of behavioral family therapy to augment exposure for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(2):243-51.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Beck 1961
  • Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.
Blake 1995
  • Blake DD, Weathers FW, Nagy LM, Kaloupek DG, Gusman FD, Charney, D.Set al. The development of a clinician administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1995;8:75-90.
Foa 2000
  • Foa EB, Keane T, Friedman M. Effective treatments for PTSD: practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York, NY: Guildford Press, 2000.
Horowitz 1979
  • Horowitz MJ, Wilner N, Alvarez W. Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine 1979;41:209-18.
Kessler 1995
  • Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 1995;52:1048-60.
Moher 1998
  • Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, Cook DJ, Jadad AR, Moher M, et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy in meta-analyses?. Lancet 1998;352:609-13.
Moncrieff 2001
  • Moncrieff J, Churchill R, Drummond DC, McGuire H. Development of a quality assessment instrument for trials of treatments for depression and neurosis. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2001;10(3):126-33.
Pitman 1991
  • Pitman RK, Altman B, Greenwald E, Longpre RE, Macklin ML, Poire RE, et al. Psychiatric complications during flooding therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1991;52:17-20.
Rose 2004
  • Rose S, Bisson J, Wessely S. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 2004. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
Sherman 1998
  • Sherman JJ. Effects of psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1998;11:413-36.
Solomon 1992
  • Solomon SD, Gerrity ET, Muff AM. Efficacy of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder. JAMA 1992;268:633-8.
Spielberger 1973
  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R. Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press, 1973.
Stein 2004
  • Stein DJ, Zungu-Dirwayi N, Van der Linden GJ, Seedat S. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, 2004. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..