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Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction

  1. Maria Makrides1,*,
  2. Lelia Duley2,
  3. Sjurdur F Olsen3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 18 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003402.pub2


How to Cite

Makrides M, Duley L, Olsen SF. Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003402. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003402.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, Child Nutrition Research Centre, North Adelaide, SA, Australia

  2. 2

    University of Nottingham, Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, Nottingham, UK

  3. 3

    Institute of Public Health, Aarhus C, Denmark

*Maria Makrides, Child Nutrition Research Centre, Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA, 5006, Australia. maria.makrides@health.sa.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Angola 1992 {published data only}
  • D'Almeida A, Carter JP, Anatol A, Prost C. Effects of a combination of evening primrose oil (gamma linolenic acid) and fish oil (eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid) versus magnesium, and versus placebo in preventing pre-eclampsia. Women & Health 1992;19:117-31.
Denmark 1992 {published data only}
  • Dalby Sorensen J, Olsen SF, Pedersen AK, Boris J, Secher NJ, FitzGerald GA. Effect of fish oil supplementation in the third trimester of pregnancy on prostacyclin and thromboxane production. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168:915-22.
  • Dalby Sorensen J, Secher NJ, Olsen SF. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in the third trimester of pregnancy. 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:343.
  • Olsen SF, Dalby Sorensen J, Secher NJ, Hedegaard M, Brink Henriksen T, Hansen HS, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet 1992;339:1003-7.
  • Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Fish oil and preeclampsia. 8th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1992 November 8-12; Buenos Aires, Argentina. 1992:94.
  • Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Sorensen JD, Grant A. Gestational age and fish oil supplementation in third trimester: a population-based randomized controlled trial. Proceedings of 13th World Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO); 1991 September; Singapore. 1991:31.
  • Olsen SF, Sorensen JD, Secher NJ, Hedegaard M, Henriksen TB, Hansen HS, et al. Fish oil supplementation and duration of pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1994;156:1302-7.
  • Salvig JD, Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1996;103:529-33.
  • Sorensen JD, Olsen SF, Pedersen AK, Boris J, Secher NJ, FitzGerald GA. Effects of fish oil supplementation in the third trimester of pregnancy on prostacyclin and thromboxane production. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1993;43:229.
  • Sorensen JD, Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: a randomised controlled study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Supplement 1995;73:110.
  • Sorensen JD, Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Jespersen J. Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood lipids, serum urate, coagulation and fibrinolysis. A randomised controlled study. Fibrinolysis 1994;8:54-60.
  • Van Houwelingen AC, Sorensen JD, Hornstra G, Simonis MMG, Boris J, Olsen SF, et al. Essential fatty acid status in neonates after fish-oil supplementation during late pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 1995;74:723-31.
England 1995 {published data only}
  • Onwude J, Hjartar H, Tuffnell D, Thornton JG, Lilford RJ. Fish oil in high risk pregnancy: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Proceedings of 26th British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 1992 July 7-10; Manchester, UK. 1992:430.
  • Onwude JL, Lilford RJ, Hjartardottir H, Staines A, Tuffnell D. A randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of fish oil in high risk pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1995;102:95-100.
Europe 2000 {published data only}
Netherlands 1994 {published data only}
  • Bulstra-Ramakers MTEW, Huisjes HJ, Visser GHA. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1994;102:123-6.
USA 2003 {published data only}
  • Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2003;101:469-79.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Australia 2004 {published data only}
  • Barden AE, Mori TA, Dunstan JA, Taylor AL, Thornton CA, Croft KD, et al. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy lowers f2-isoprostanes in neonates at high risk of atopy. Free Radical Research 2004;38:233-9.
  • Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, Beilin LJ, Holt PG, Calder PC, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;58:429-37.
Colombia 1993 {published data only}
  • Herrera JA. Nutritional factors and rest reduce pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia in positive roll-over test primigravidas. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1993;41:31-5.
Colombia 1998 {published data only}
Denmark 1994 {published data only}
  • Secher NJ, Sorensen JD. Biochemical and epidemiological evidence for the preventive effect of fish oil on pre-eclampsia. 9th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1994 March 15-18; Sydney, Australia. 1994:77.
England 1984 {published data only}
  • Morrison RA, O'Brien PMS, Micklewright A. The effect of dietary supplementation with linoleic acid on the development of pregnancy induced hypertension. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:48.
England 1986 {published data only}
  • Morrison RA, O'Brien PMS. The effect of dietary supplementation with prostaglandin precursors in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). 5th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1986 7-10 July; Nottingham, England. 1986.
Finland 1993 {published data only}
  • Laivuori H, Hovatta O, Viinikka L, Ylikorkala O. Dietary supplementation with primrose oil or fish oil does not change urinary excretion of prostacyclin and thromboxane metabolites in pre-eclamptic women. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1993;49:691-4.
France 1985 {published data only}
  • Fievet P, Tribout B, Castier B, Dieval J, Capiod JC, Delobel J, et al. Effects of evening primrose oil (EPO) on platelet functions during pregnancy in patients with high risk of toxemia [abstract]. Kidney International 1985;28:234.
Netherlands 2000 {published data only}
  • Otto SJ, van Houwelingen AC, Hornstra G. The effect of supplementation with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid derived from single cell oils on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids of pregnant women in the second trimester. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids 2000;63:323-8.
Netherlands 2004 {published data only}
  • de Groot RH, Hornstra G, van Houwelingen AC, Roumen F. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal polyunsaturated fatty acid status and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79:251-60.
Norway 2001 {published data only}
  • Haugen G, Helland I. Influence of preeclampsia or maternal intake of omega-3 fatty acids on the vasoactive effect of prostaglandin F-two-alpha in human umbilical arteries. Gynecologic & Obstetric Investigation 2001;52:75-81.
  • Helland IB, Saugstad OD, Smith L, Saarem K, Solvoll K, Ganes T, et al. Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid supplementation to pregnant and lactating women. Pediatrics 2001;108:e82.
  • Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:e39-44.
Scotland 2003 {published data only}
  • Malcolm CA, Hamilton R, McCulloch DL, Montgomery C, Weaver LT. Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science 2003;44:3685-91.
  • Malcolm CA, McCulloch DL, Montgomery C, Shepherd A, Weaver LT. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial. Archives of Diseases in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition 2003;90:F383-90.
  • Montgomery C, Speake BK, Cameron A, Sattar N, Weaver LT. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and fetal accretion. British Journal of Nutrition 2003;90:135-45.
Slovenia 1994 {published data only}
  • Sajina-Stritar B. Prevention of gestational hypertension and its complications with ASA and N-3 fatty acids (comparative study). Proceedings of 14th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1994; Helsinki, Finland. 1994:182.
South Africa 1989 {published data only}
  • England MJ, Chetty N, Dukes IAF, Reavis S, Atkinson P, Sonnendecker EWW. Eicosapentaenoic acid in pre-eclampsia: a randomized trial. Proceedings of Silver Jubilee Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 1989; London, UK. 1989:154.
Venezuela 2000 {published data only}
  • Rivas-Echeverria CA, Echeverria Y, Molina L, Novoa D. Synergic use of aspirin, fish oil and vitamins C and E for the prevention of preeclampsia. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19:30.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Russia 1999 {published data only}
  • Pavlovich SV, Burlev VA, Vikhliaeva EM. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid spectrum indices in the 2nd-3rd pregnancy trimesters (in Russian). Eksperimentalnaia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia 1999;62:35-8.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
DOMInO {published data only}
  • Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, Quinlivan J. Randomised trial of DHA in pregnancy to prevent postnatal depressive symptoms and enhance neurodevelopment in children. Australian Clinical Trials Registry www.actr.org.au (accessed 2005). [ACTRN012605000569606]
Mexico {published data only}
  • Ramakrishnan U. Randomized controlled trial of prenatal DHA supplementation to improve child growth and development in infancy. Personal communication 2004.
NICHD {published data only}
  • Spong CY, Thom EA, Harper M. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to prevent preterm birth in high risk pregnancies. www.ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed 2005). [NCT001135902]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Andersen 1989
  • Andersen HJ, Andersen LF, Fuchs AR. Diet, pre-eclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation [letter]. Lancet 1989;i:1146.
Bakker 2003
  • Bakker EC, Ghys AJ, Kester AD, Vles JS, Dubas JS, Blanco CE, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at birth and cognitive function at 7 y of age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;57:89-95.
Cheruku 2002
  • Cheruku SR, Montgomery-Downs HE, Farkas SL, Thoman EB, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Higher maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy is associated with more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76:608-13.
Colombo 2004
DH 1998
  • Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Home and Health Department, Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland. Why mothers die? Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1994-1996. London: HMSO, 1998.
Dyerberg 1985
  • Dyerberg J, Bang HO. Pre-eclampsia and prostaglandins. Lancet 1985;i:1267.
Hewitt 1988
  • Hewitt BG, Newnham JP. A review of the obstetric and medical complications leading to the delivery of infants of very low birthweight. Medical Journal of Australia 1988;149:234.
Hibbeln 2003
  • Hibbeln J, Davis J, Heron J. Low dietary omega-3s and increased depression risk in 14,541 pregnancies. American Psychiatric Association 156th Annual Meeting; 2003 May 17-22; San Francisco, USA. 2003.
Higgins 2005
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5 [updated May 2005]. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2005. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
League of Health
  • People's League of Health. The nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers in relation to maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire 1946;53:498-509.
Morris 1993
Olsen 1985
Olsen 1986
  • Olsen SF, Hansen HS, Sorensen T, Jensen B, Secher NJ, Sommer S, et al. Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birthweight by prolonging gestation. Lancet 1986;2:367-9.
Olsen 1987a
Olsen 1987b
  • Olsen SF, Hansen HS, Sorensen T, Jensen B, Secher NJ, Sommer S, et al. Hypothesis: dietary (n-3)-fatty acids prolong gestation in human beings. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 1987;242:51-6.
Olsen 1990
  • Olsen SF, Secher NJ. A possible preventive effect of low-dose fish oil on early delivery and pre-eclampsia: indications from a 50-year-old controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 1990;64:599-609.
Olsen 1993
  • Olsen SF. Consumption of marine n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy as a possible determinant of birth weight. A review of current epidemiological evidence [Published erratum appeared in Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:856]. Epidemiologic Reviews 1993;15:399-413.
Olsen 1994
  • Olsen SF. Further on the association between retarded foetal growth and adult cardiovascular disease. Could low intake of marine diets be a common cause?. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1994;47:565-9.
Pritchard 1984
  • Pritchard JA, Cunningham FG, Pritchard, SA. The Parkland Memorial Hospital protocol for treatment of eclampsia: evaluation of 245 cases. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1984;148:951-63.
SA Health Commission
  • South Australian Health Commission. Maternal, perinatal and infant mortality in South Australia 1997. South Australia: South Australian Health Commission, 1999.
Simopoulos 1991

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Duley 1995
  • Duley L. Prophylactic fish oil in pregnancy. [revised 21 April 1994] In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP, Crowther CA (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database [database on disk and CDROM]. The Cochrane Collaboration, Issue 2, 1995. Oxford: Update Software.