Intervention Review

Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries

  1. Irene Kwan1,*,
  2. James Mapstone2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 18 OCT 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 MAY 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003438.pub2

How to Cite

Kwan I, Mapstone J. Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003438. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003438.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, National Collaborating Centre For Women's and Children's Health, London, UK

  2. 2

    Castle Point and Rochford NHS Primary Care Trust, Rayleigh, Essex, UK

*Irene Kwan, National Collaborating Centre For Women's and Children's Health, Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 2-16 Goodge Street, London, W1T2QA, UK. irenekwan27@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 OCT 2006

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Pedestrians and cyclists account for nearly one in three of all road users killed and seriously injured in road traffic crashes. Late detection of other road users is one of the basic driver failures responsible for collisions. Aids to improve pedestrians and cyclist visibility have been used to avert potential collisions. However, the impact of these strategies on drivers' responses, and on pedestrian and cyclist safety is unknown.

Objectives

1. To quantify the effect of visibility aids versus no visibility aids, and of different visibility aids on the occurrence of pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries.
2. To quantify the effect of visibility aids versus no visibility aids, and of different visibility aids on drivers' detection and recognition responses.

Search methods

Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. All electronic databases were searched from date of inception to the most recent date available. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid SP), TRANSPORT (to 2007/06), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), PsycEXTRA (Ovid SP), ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We searched the reference lists of included trials, contacted authors and searched the websites of relevant transport research organisations. The searches were last updated in May 2009.

Selection criteria

1. Randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies of the effect of visibility aids on the occurrence of pedestrian and cyclist-motor collisions and injuries.
2. Randomised controlled trials of the effect of visibility aids on drivers' detection and recognition responses. This included trials where the order of presentation of visibility aids was randomised or balanced using a Latin Square design.

Data collection and analysis

Two authors independently screened records, extracted data and assessed trial quality.

Main results

We found no trials assessing the effect of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries. To date we have identified 42 trials assessing the effect of visibility aids on drivers' responses. Fluorescent materials in yellow, red and orange colours improve detection and recognition in the daytime. For night-time visibility, lamps, flashing lights and retroreflective materials in red and yellow colours increase detection and recognition. Retroreflective materials enhance recognition, in particular when arranged in a 'biomotion' configuration, taking advantage of the motion from a pedestrian's limbs. Substantial heterogeneity between and within the trials limited the possibility for meta-analysis. Summary statistics and descriptive summaries of the outcomes were presented for individual trials when appropriate.

Authors' conclusions

Visibility aids have the potential to increase visibility and enable drivers to detect pedestrians and cyclists earlier. Biomotion markings, which highlight the movement and form of the pedestrian, showed evidence of improving pedestrians' conspicuity at night. Public acceptability of various effective strategies which improve visibility would merit further development. However, the effect of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety remains unknown. A cluster randomised controlled trial involving large communities may provide an answer to this question. It would, however, be a challenging trial to conduct. Studies that collect data of road traffic injuries relating to the use of visibility aids also warrant consideration.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility to prevent deaths and injuries

Pedestrians and cyclists are often killed or seriously injured in traffic crashes, especially in developing countries where walking and bicycling are essential modes of transportation. In the UK, one in three road traffic fatalities is a pedestrian or cyclist. Usually, in these crashes drivers fail to see the pedestrian or cyclist until it is too late. In recent years reflective garments, flashing lights, and other visibility aids have been used to try to prevent crashes.

The authors of this Cochrane review looked for studies which showed how effective visibility aids are for protecting pedestrians and cyclists. They focused their search on a type of study called a randomised controlled trial, which compares two similar groups of people who only differ on the issue being studied, for instance, the rate of crashes in communities with and without introduction of visibility aids. The authors found no studies that compared number of crashes but to date they have found 42 studies which compare driver detection of people with or without visibility aids. These studies showed that fluorescent materials in yellow, red and orange improved driver detection during the day; while lamps, flashing lights and retroreflective materials in red and yellow, particularly those with a 'biomotion' configuration (taking advantage of the motion from a pedestrian's limbs), improved pedestrian recognition at night. Although these visibility measures help drivers see pedestrians and cyclists, more research should be done to determine whether the increased visibility actually does prevent deaths and serious injuries.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

增加行人與自行車騎士能見度的介入性措施以預防其死亡或受傷

在道路交通碰撞事件中,幾乎每三個死亡或嚴重受傷的道路使用者中就有一個是行人和自行車騎士。較晚察覺到其他的道路使用者是造成車禍的駕駛者的基本失誤之一。增進行人與自行車騎士能見度的輔助措施已被用來避免可能的碰撞。然而,這些策略對於駕駛者的反應,行人與自行車騎士安全的影響則尚未知。

目標

1.量化有能見度輔助設備相對於無能見度輔助設備之效果,以及不同的能見度輔助設備對於行人及自行車騎士與機動車交通碰撞和受傷的發生所產生的效果。2.量化有能見度輔助設備相較於無能見度輔助設備之效果,以及不同能見度輔助設備對於駕駛者的察覺與辨認反應所產生的效果。

搜尋策略

我們搜尋了CENTRAL,Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, TRANSPORT, National Research Register, PsycInfo及PsycLit。我們搜尋了所納入的試驗的參考文獻清單,我們聯絡了作者並且搜尋了相關的交通運輸研究機構的網站。最後一次搜尋的更新是在2005年4月。

選擇標準

1.能見度輔助設備對於行人及自行車騎士與機動車發生碰撞和受傷效果之隨機對照試驗與有對照組的前後測研究。2.能見度輔助設備對於駕駛者察覺和辨認反應效果的隨機對照試驗。這包括使用拉丁方塊設計來隨機分配或是平衡分配能見度設備的使用順序的試驗。

資料收集與分析

兩位作者分別篩選記錄,擷取資料並評估試驗的品質。

主要結論

我們發現沒有評估能見度輔助設備對於行人及自行車騎士與機動車碰撞和受傷發生效果的試驗。我們找到了39篇評估能見度輔助設備對於駕駛者反應效果的試驗。在白天,黃色、紅色和橘色的螢光物質能增進察覺和辨認反應。對於夜間的能見度,紅色和黃色的燈具、閃光燈和回復反射物體能夠增加察覺度和辨認反應度。處於‘biomotion’型態下的回復反射物體也能夠增加辨認度。試驗與試驗間以及各試驗內部實質存在的異質性妨礙了統合分析的可能性。在合宜的情況下,我們也呈現了各試驗的總結統計量(Summary statistics)和描述性結果的總結。

作者結論

能見度輔助設備有增加能見度的潛力並使駕駛者較早察覺行人和自行車騎士。大眾對於這些措施的接受度有助於其進一步的發展。然而,能見度輔助設備對於行人和自行車騎士安全保障的效果仍然未知。因此日後採集簡單且具意義的結果資料的研究是需要的。

翻譯人

本摘要由高雄榮民總醫院徐圭璋翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

增加行人和自行車騎士的能見度以避免死亡和受傷:行人和自行車騎士通常死於或嚴重受傷於交通碰撞事件,特別是以步行或騎自行車為交通運輸基本模式的發展中國家。在英國,每三個道路交通致死者中就有一個是行人或自行車騎士。通常在這些碰撞事件中,駕駛者都無法及時察覺行人或自行車騎士,等到查覺時都為時已晚。最近這幾年反光服裝,閃光燈和其他能見度輔助設備已被試用來預防碰撞。考科藍回顧的作者蒐尋了可以顯現能見度輔助設備如何得以有效保護行人和自行車騎士的研究。他們將蒐尋的重點放在隨機對照試驗上,即比較兩組相似但僅有要研究的議題上有所差異的組別,例如,比較有引進與沒有引進能見度輔助設備的社區其碰撞的發生率。作者並沒有發現任何比較碰撞發生次數的研究,但是他們找到了37篇比較駕駛者在有或沒有能見度輔助設備下能否查覺他人的研究。這些研究顯示,在白天,黃色、紅色和橘色的螢光物質能夠增進駕駛者的察覺。而紅色、黃色或處於‘biomotion’型態下的燈具,閃光燈和回復反射物質則有助於夜間的能見度。雖然這些能見度措施有助於駕駛者察覺行人和自行車騎士,未來卻應該有更多的研究來確定增加能見度是否確實能夠避免死亡和嚴重受傷。