Combined vitamin B6-magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder
Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group
Published Online: 19 OCT 2005
Assessed as up-to-date: 10 APR 2005
Copyright © 2009 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
How to Cite
Nye C, Brice A. Combined vitamin B6-magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003497. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003497.pub2.
- Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
- Published Online: 19 OCT 2005
The use of mega-vitamin intervention began in the 1950s with the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Pyroxidine (vitamin B6) was first used with children diagnosed with "autism syndrome" when speech and language improvement was observed in some children as a result of large doses of B6. A number of studies attempted to assess the effects of vitamin B6-Magnesium (Mg) was found to reduce undesirable side effects from B6) on characteristics such as verbal communication, non-verbal communication, interpersonal skills, and physiological function, in individuals with autism.
To determine the efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium (B6-Mg) for treating social, communication, and behavioural responses of children and adults with autism.
We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2005), EMBASE (1980 to April 2005), PsycINFO (1887 to April 2005), Dissertation Abstracts International (1861 to April 2005). The search engine FirstSearch was also used (April 2005). Reference lists for all the obtained studies and other review articles were examined for additional studies.
All studies in which the participants had been diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder were randomly allocated prior to intervention and in which outcomes were compared to either a placebo or non-treated group were included.
Data collection and analysis
Two reviewers independently evaluated and extracted data from all potential studies identified for inclusion.
The 2005 update includes a new trial (Kuriyama 2002) to bring the total of included studies to three (total n=33). One study, which used a cross-over design (Tolbert 1993) provided insufficient data to conduct an analysis. Another crossover study (Findling 1997) yielded no significant differences between treatment and placebo group performances following the B6 intervention on measures of social interaction, communication, compulsivity, impulsivity, or hyperactivity. The latest study (Kuriyama 2002) was motivated by evidence from epilepsy research and was focussed on a subgroup of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) who exhibited clinical features similar to those with pyroxidine-dependent epilepsy. This small study (n=8) only measured IQ and 'Social Quotient' and found a statistically significant benefit for IQ (5.2, 95% CI = [0.2 to 10.3]) when in the treated group, by using change scores.
Due to the small number of studies, the methodological quality of studies, and small sample sizes, no recommendation can be advanced regarding the use of B6-Mg as a treatment for autism.
Plain language summary
Vitamin B6 and magnesium in combination for children with autism spectrum disorder
Studies investigating the effect of vitamin B6 in improving the behaviour of children with autism spectrum disorder have been reported for over three decades. The purpose of this review was to summarize those studies and analyse the effectiveness of vitamin B6 as an intervention. Only three studies met the inclusion criteria of this review and of these only one study reported adequate data for analysis. Results were inconclusive and sample sizes were small. Therefore the use of vitamin B6 for improving the behaviour of individuals with autism cannot currently be supported. Further research using larger, well-designed trials is needed.
五零年代開始使用綜合維生素治療精神分裂病人. Pyroxidine (維生素 B6) 首先被用於治療自閉症候群兒童.在給予大劑量B6後,某些病童在說話和語言方面有進步.一些試驗嘗試評估維生素B6和鎂合併治療自閉症候群的效果.維生素B6和鎂合併治療可以減少B6在言語溝通,非口語溝通,人際溝通技巧和心理功能方面的副作用.
我們搜尋Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2002), EMBASE (1980 to January 2002), PsycINFO (1887 to January 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International (1861 to January 2002). 也使用FirstSearch搜尋引擎 (January 2002). 所有資料庫2005年四月前的資料都經過搜尋.也檢視參考文獻清單和其他回顧文獻,以找出其他的試驗.
本更新回顧新增含一個新試驗 (Kuriyama 2002), 使總試驗數增為三個 (總樣本數33). 一個試驗使用交叉設計 (Tolbert 1993), 卻沒有提供足夠資料而不能進行分析.另一個交叉設計試驗 (Findling 1997) 於B6治療後,比較治療和對照組,對治療後社會互動,溝通,強迫行為,衝動行為或過動狀態等結果變項的影響,結果並沒有得到顯著差異.最新的研究 (Kuriyama 2002) 受到癲癇研究的啟發,研究對象為:臨床廣泛性發展障礙 (PDDs) 次族群,他們與pyroxidine依賴性癲癇有相似的症狀.這個小研究 (樣本數為8) 只測量智商和社會商數,結果顯示IQ有顯著進步 (5.2, 95% CI = [0.2 to 10.3]).
此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院 (National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan) 統籌。