Interventional treatment of arteries that are narrowed and obstructed by atherosclerosis involves either bypassing the blockage using a graft; widening the artery from the inside with a balloon, a procedure known as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); or providing a strut to hold the vessel open, known as a stent. All of these treatments are, however, limited by the high numbers that fail within a year. Intravascular brachytherapy is the application of radiation directly to the site of vessel narrowing. It is known to inhibit the processes that lead to restenosis (narrowing) of vessels and grafts after treatment. This is an update of a review first published in 2002.