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Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Michael S Kramer1,*,
  2. Ritsuko Kakuma2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 15 AUG 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 JUN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2

How to Cite

Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD003517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

  2. 2

    The University of Melbourne, Centre for International Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population Health, Carlton, Victoria, Australia

*Michael S Kramer, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, 2300 Tupper Street, Les Tourelles, Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3, Canada. michael.kramer@mcgill.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 15 AUG 2012

SEARCH

[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain from 4-6 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain from 6-12 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 3 Monthly length gain 4-6 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 6-12 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 5 Weight-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 6 Length-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 7 Weight-for-length z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 8 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 9 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 10 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 11 Receipt of Fe supplements 6-9 months.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 12 Hemoglobin concentration (g/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 13 Hemoglobin concentration < 110 g/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 14 Hemoglobin concentration < 103 g/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 15 Hematocrit (%) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 16 Hematocrit < 33% at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 17 Plasma ferritin concentration (mcg/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.18]
Analysis 1.18. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 18 Plasma ferritin concentration < 12 mcg/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.19]
Analysis 1.19. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 19 Plasma ferritin concentration < 15 mcg/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.20]
Analysis 1.20. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 20 Plasma zinc concentration < 70 mcg/dL at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.21]
Analysis 1.21. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 21 % of days with fever 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.22]
Analysis 1.22. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 22 % of days with cough 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.23]
Analysis 1.23. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 23 % of days with nasal congestion 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.24]
Analysis 1.24. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 24 % of days with nasal discharge 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.25]
Analysis 1.25. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 25 % of days with hoarseness 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.26]
Analysis 1.26. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 26 % of days with diarrhea 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.27]
Analysis 1.27. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 27 % of days with fever 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.28]
Analysis 1.28. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 28 % of days with nasal congestion 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.29]
Analysis 1.29. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 29 % of days with diarrhea 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.30]
Analysis 1.30. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 30 Age first crawled (mo).
[Analysis 1.31]
Analysis 1.31. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 31 Age first sat from lying position (mo).
[Analysis 1.32]
Analysis 1.32. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 32 Did not walk by 12 months.
[Analysis 1.33]
Analysis 1.33. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 33 Maternal postpartum weight loss 4-6 months (kg).
[Analysis 1.34]
Analysis 1.34. Comparison 1 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 versus 4 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 34 Maternal resumption of menses 6 months postpartum.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain 4-6 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain 6-9 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 Monthly length gain 4-6 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 6-9 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Weight-for-age z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Weight-for-age z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 7 Length-for-age z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 8 Length-for-age z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 9 Weight-for-length z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 10 Weight-for-length z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.11]
Analysis 2.11. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 11 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.12]
Analysis 2.12. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 12 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.13]
Analysis 2.13. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 13 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.14]
Analysis 2.14. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 14 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.15]
Analysis 2.15. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 15 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.16]
Analysis 2.16. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 16 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.17]
Analysis 2.17. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 17 Mid-upper arm circumference at 6-7 months (cm).
[Analysis 2.18]
Analysis 2.18. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 18 Mid-upper arm circumference at 9-10 months (cm).
[Analysis 2.19]
Analysis 2.19. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 19 One or more episodes of gastrointestinal infection at 4-6 months.
[Analysis 2.20]
Analysis 2.20. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 20 One or more episodes of respiratory infection at 4-6 months.
[Analysis 2.21]
Analysis 2.21. Comparison 2 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 versus 3-4 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 21 Resumption of menses by 6-7 months postpartum.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Weight-for-age < 75% of reference mean.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain 3-8 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain 6-9 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 Monthly weight gain 8-12 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 3-8 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Monthly length gain 6-9 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Monthly length gain 8-12 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 7 Weight-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.8]
Analysis 4.8. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 8 Weight-for-age z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.9]
Analysis 4.9. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 9 Weight-for-age z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.10]
Analysis 4.10. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 10 Length-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.11]
Analysis 4.11. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 11 Length-for-age z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.12]
Analysis 4.12. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 12 Length-for-age z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.13]
Analysis 4.13. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 13 Weight-for-length z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.14]
Analysis 4.14. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 14 Weight-for-length z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.15]
Analysis 4.15. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 15 Weight-for-length z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.16]
Analysis 4.16. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 16 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.17]
Analysis 4.17. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 17 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.18]
Analysis 4.18. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 18 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.19]
Analysis 4.19. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 19 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.20]
Analysis 4.20. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 20 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.21]
Analysis 4.21. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 21 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.22]
Analysis 4.22. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 22 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.23]
Analysis 4.23. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 23 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.24]
Analysis 4.24. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 24 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.25]
Analysis 4.25. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 25 Head circumference at 6 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.26]
Analysis 4.26. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 26 Head circumference at 9 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.27]
Analysis 4.27. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 27 Head circumference at 12 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.28]
Analysis 4.28. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 28 Sleeping time at 9 months (min/day).
[Analysis 4.29]
Analysis 4.29. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 29 Total essential amino acid concentration (umol/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.30]
Analysis 4.30. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 30 Total amino acid concentration (umol/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.31]
Analysis 4.31. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 31 Atopic eczema in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.32]
Analysis 4.32. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 32 Food allergy at 1 year (by history).
[Analysis 4.33]
Analysis 4.33. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 33 Food allergy at 1 year (by double challenge).
[Analysis 4.34]
Analysis 4.34. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 34 Two or more episodes of wheezing in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.35]
Analysis 4.35. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 35 Hemoglobin concentration (g/L) at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.36]
Analysis 4.36. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 36 Hemoglobin concentration < 110 g/L at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.37]
Analysis 4.37. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 37 Serum ferritin concentration (mcg/L) at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.38]
Analysis 4.38. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 38 Serum ferritin concentration < 10 mcg/L at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.39]
Analysis 4.39. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 39 One or more episodes of gastrointestinal infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.40]
Analysis 4.40. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 40 Hospitalization for gastrointestinal infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.41]
Analysis 4.41. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 41 One or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.42]
Analysis 4.42. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 42 Two or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.43]
Analysis 4.43. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 43 Four or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.44]
Analysis 4.44. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 44 One or more episodes of lower respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.45]
Analysis 4.45. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 45 Two or more episodes of respiratory tract infection (upper or lower) in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.46]
Analysis 4.46. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 46 Hospitalization for respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.47]
Analysis 4.47. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 47 Number of episodes of otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.48]
Analysis 4.48. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 48 One or more episodes of otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.49]
Analysis 4.49. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 49 Frequent otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.50]
Analysis 4.50. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 50 Death in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.51]
Analysis 4.51. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 51 Any dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth) at 6 years.
[Analysis 4.52]
Analysis 4.52. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 52 Any incisor caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth) at 6 years.
[Analysis 4.53]
Analysis 4.53. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 53 Height at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.54]
Analysis 4.54. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 54 Leg length at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.55]
Analysis 4.55. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 55 Head circumference at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.56]
Analysis 4.56. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 56 BMI at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.57]
Analysis 4.57. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 57 Triceps skinfold thickness at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.58]
Analysis 4.58. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 58 Subscapular skinfold thickness.
[Analysis 4.59]
Analysis 4.59. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 59 Waist circumference at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.60]
Analysis 4.60. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 60 Hip circumference at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.61]
Analysis 4.61. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 61 Systolic blood pressure at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.62]
Analysis 4.62. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 62 Diastolic blood pressure at 6.5 years (mm Hg).
[Analysis 4.63]
Analysis 4.63. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 63 Atopic eczema at 5-7 years.
[Analysis 4.64]
Analysis 4.64. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 64 Hay fever at 5-7 years.
[Analysis 4.65]
Analysis 4.65. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 65 Asthma at 5-7 years.
[Analysis 4.66]
Analysis 4.66. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 66 Food allergy at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.67]
Analysis 4.67. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 67 Allergy to animal dander at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.68]
Analysis 4.68. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 68 Positive skin-prick test to house dust mite at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.69]
Analysis 4.69. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 69 Positive skin-prick test to cat dander at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.70]
Analysis 4.70. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 70 Positive skin-prick test to birch pollen at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.71]
Analysis 4.71. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 71 Positive skin-prick test to mixed northern grasses at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.72]
Analysis 4.72. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 72 Positive skin-prick test to Alternaria at 6.5 years.
[Analysis 4.73]
Analysis 4.73. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 73 Any positive skin-prick test at 6-7 years.
[Analysis 4.74]
Analysis 4.74. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 74 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: vocabulary.
[Analysis 4.75]
Analysis 4.75. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 75 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: similarities.
[Analysis 4.76]
Analysis 4.76. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 76 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: matrices.
[Analysis 4.77]
Analysis 4.77. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 77 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: block designs.
[Analysis 4.78]
Analysis 4.78. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 78 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: verbal IQ.
[Analysis 4.79]
Analysis 4.79. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 79 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: performance IQ.
[Analysis 4.80]
Analysis 4.80. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 80 Wechsler cognitive ability test at 6.5 years: full-scale IQ.
[Analysis 4.81]
Analysis 4.81. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 81 Teacher's academic rating at 6.5 years: reading.
[Analysis 4.82]
Analysis 4.82. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 82 Teacher's academic rating at 6.5 years: writing.
[Analysis 4.83]
Analysis 4.83. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 83 Teacher's academic rating at 6.5 years: mathematics.
[Analysis 4.84]
Analysis 4.84. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 84 Teacher's academic rating at 6.5 years: other subjects.
[Analysis 4.85]
Analysis 4.85. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 85 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: total difficulties.
[Analysis 4.86]
Analysis 4.86. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 86 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: emotional symptoms.
[Analysis 4.87]
Analysis 4.87. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 87 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: conduct problems.
[Analysis 4.88]
Analysis 4.88. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 88 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: hyperactivity/inattention.
[Analysis 4.89]
Analysis 4.89. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 89 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: peer problems.
[Analysis 4.90]
Analysis 4.90. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 90 Parent's behavior rating at 6.5 years: prosocial behavior.
[Analysis 4.91]
Analysis 4.91. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 91 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: total difficulties.
[Analysis 4.92]
Analysis 4.92. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 92 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: emotional symptoms.
[Analysis 4.93]
Analysis 4.93. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 93 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: conduct problems.
[Analysis 4.94]
Analysis 4.94. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 94 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: hyperactivity/inattention.
[Analysis 4.95]
Analysis 4.95. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 95 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: peer problems.
[Analysis 4.96]
Analysis 4.96. Comparison 4 Exclusive breastfeeding for 6-7 months versus 3-4 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 96 Teacher's behavior rating at 6.5 years: prosocial behavior.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Very low density lipoprotein concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Low density lipoproteinconcentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 High-density lipoprotein-2 concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 High-density lipoprotein-3 concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Apoprotein B concentration (mg/dL) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 Exclusive breastfeeding for > 6 months versus 6 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Total triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.