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Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Michael S Kramer1,*,
  2. Ritsuko Kakuma2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 15 AUG 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 JUN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2


How to Cite

Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD003517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

  2. 2

    The University of Melbourne, Centre for International Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population Health, Carlton, Victoria, Australia

*Michael S Kramer, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, 2300 Tupper Street, Les Tourelles, Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3, Canada. michael.kramer@mcgill.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 15 AUG 2012

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Adair 1993a {published data only}
  • Adair L, Popkin BM, Vanderslice J, Akin J, Guilkey D, Black R, et al. Growth dynamics during the first two years of life: a prospective study in the Philippines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;47:42-51.
  • Brown K, Dewey K, Allen L. Complementary Feeding of Young children in Developing Countries: a Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. Geneva: WHO, 1998:30-2.
Ahn 1980 {published data only}
Akeson 1996a {published data only}
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Growth and nutrient intake in three- to twelve- month-old infants fed human milk or formulas with varying protein concentrations. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26:1-8.
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Human milk and standard infant formula together with high quality supplementary foods is sufficient for normal growth during infancy. Pediatric Research 1996;39 Suppl:313A.
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Protein and amino acid metabolism in three- to twelve-month-old infants fed human milk or formulas with varying protein concentrations. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26:297-304.
Brown 1991a {published data only}
  • Brown K, Dewey K, Allen L. Complementary Feeding of Young children in Developing Countries: a Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. Geneva: WHO, 1998:30-2.
  • Brown KH. The relationship between diarrhoeal prevalence and growth of poor infants varies with their age and usual energy intake (abstract). FASEB Journal 1991;5:A1079.
Castillo 1996 {published data only}
  • Castillo C, Atalah E, Riumallo J, Castro R. Breast-feeding and the nutritional status of nursing children in Chile. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 1996;30:125-33.
Cohen 1994a {published and unpublished data}
  • Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG. Determinants of growth from birth to 12 months among breast-fed Honduran infants in relation to age of introduction of complementary foods. Pediatrics 1995;96:504-10.
  • Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on infant breast milk intake, total energy intake, and growth: a randomised intervention study in Honduras. Lancet 1994;344:288-93.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:262-7.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Brown KH. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on iron status of breast-fed infants in Honduras. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;67:878-84.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Canahuati J, Brown KH. Do exclusively breast-fed infants require extra protein?. Pediatric Research 1996;39:303-7.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Canahuati J, Brown KH. Effects of age at introduction of complementary foods to breast-fed infants on duration of lactational amenorrhea in Honduran women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65:1403-9.
Dewey 1999a {published and unpublished data}
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:679-86.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:262-7.
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Brown KH. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on micronutrient status of term, low-birthweight, breastfed infants in Honduras. FASEB Journal 1998;12:A648.
Duijts 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Duijts L, Jaddoe VWV, Hofman A, Moll HA. Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy. Pediatrics 2010;126:e18-e25.
Duncan 1993 {published and unpublished data}
  • Duncan B, Ey J, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media. Pediatrics 1993;91:867-72.
Heinig 1993 {published data only}
Huffman 1987 {published and unpublished data}
  • Huffman SL, Ford K, Allen HA, Streble P. Nutrition and fertility in Bangladesh: breastfeeding and post partum amenorrhea. Population Studies 1987;41:447-62.
Kajosaari 1983 {published data only}
  • Kajosaari M. Atopy prevention in childhood: the role of diet: prospective 5-year follow-up of high-risk infants with six months exclusive breastfeeding and solid food elimination. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 1994;5(6 Suppl):26-8.
  • Kajosaari M. Atopy prophylaxis in high-risk infants. Prospective 5-year follow-up study of children with six months exclusive breastfeeding and solid food elimination. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1991;310:453-8.
  • Kajosaari M, Saarinen UM. Prophylaxis of atopic disease by six months' total solid food elimination. Evaluation of 135 exclusively breast-fed infants of atopic families. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1983;72:411-4.
Khadivzadeh 2004 {published data only}
  • Khadivzadeh T, Parsal S. Effect of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding on infant growth and morbidity. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2004;10(3):289-94.
Khan 1984 {published data only}
Kramer 2000a {published and unpublished data}
  • Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Matush L, et al. for the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) Study Group. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 2008;65(5):578-84.
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias?. Pediatric Research 2000;47:151A.
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial (PROBIT): a cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. In: Koletzko B, Michaelsen KF, Hernell O editor(s). Short and Long Term Effects of Breast Feeding on Child Health. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000:327-45.
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA 2001;285:413-20.
  • Kramer MS, Guo T, Platt RW, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Collet JP, et al. Infant growth and health outcomes associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:291-5.
  • Kramer MS, Matush L, Bogdanovich N, Aboud F, Mazer B, Fombonne E, et al. Health and development outcomes in 6.5-y-old children breastfed exclusively for 3 or 6 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90:1070-4.
  • Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. for the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) Study Group. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5 years:  New evidence from a large randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86:1717-21.
  • Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. for the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) Study Group . Does prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduce the risk of allergy and asthma?  New evidence from a large randomized trial. BMJ 2007;335:815-20.
  • Kramer MS, Moodie EEM, Dahhou M, Platt RW . Breastfeeding and infant size: evidence of reverse causality. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;173:978-83.
Oddy 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Oddy W, Holt P, Sly P, Read A, Landau L, Stanley F, et al. Association between breast feeding and asthma in 6 year old children: findings of a prospective birth cohort study. BMJ 1999;319:815-9.
Onayade 2004 {published data only}
  • Onayade AA, Abiona TC, Abayomi IO, Makanjuola ROA. The first six month growth and illness of exclusively and non-exclusively breast-fed infants in Nigeria. East African Medical Journal 2004;81(3):146-53.
Pisacane 1995 {published data only}
Rao 1992 {published data only}
  • Rao S, Kanade AN. Prolonged breast-feeding and malnutrition among rural Indian children below 3 years of age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;46:187-95.
Savilahti 1987a {published data only}
  • Heiskanen K, Salmenpera L, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. Infant vitamin B-6 status changes with age and with formula feeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994;60:907-10.
  • Kallio MJ, Salmenpera L, Siimes MA, Perheentupa J, Miettinen TA. Exclusive breast-feeding and weaning: effect on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations in infants during the first year of life. Pediatrics 1992;89:663-6.
  • Savilahti E, Tainio VM, Salmenpera L, Siimes MA, Perheentupa J. Prolonged exclusive breast feeding and heredity as determinants in infantile atopy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1987;62:269-73.
Simondon 1997a {published and unpublished data}
  • Simondon KB, Delanay V, Diallo A, Elguero E, Simondon F. Lactational amenorrhea is associated with child age at the time of introduction of complementary food: a prospective cohort study in rural Senegal, West Africa. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:154-61.
  • Simondon KB, Simondon F. Age at introduction of complementary food and physical growth from 2 to 9 months in rural Senegal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;51:703-7.
WHO 1994a {published and unpublished data}
  • Brown K, Dewey K, Allen L. Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: a review of current scientific knowledge. Geneva: WHO, 1998:28-9.
  • Dewey KG, Peerson JM, Brown KH, Krebs NF, Michaelsen KF, Persson LA, et al. Growth of breast-fed infants deviates from current reference data: a pooled analysis of US, Canadian, and European data sets. Pediatrics 1995;96:495-503.
  • WHO Working Group on Infant Growth. An Evaluation of Infant Growth: Document WHO/NUT/94.8. Geneva: WHO, 1994.
  • WHO Working Group on Infant Growth. An evaluation of infant growth: the use and interpretation of anthropometry in infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1995;73:165-74.
WHO 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Frongillo EA Jr, de Onis M, Garza C, the World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. Effects of timing of complementary foods on post-natal growth. Experimental Biology, New Orleans, April 1997. FASEB Journal 1997;11:A574.
  • WHO Working Group on the Growth Reference Protocol, WHO Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. Growth of healthy infants and the timing, type and frequency of complementary foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(3):620-7.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Chantry 2006 {published data only}
Chantry 2007 {published data only}
Evelein 2011 {published data only}
  • Evelein AMV, Geerts CC, Visseren FLJ, Bots ML, Van der Ent CK, Grobbee DE, et al. The association between breastfeeding and the cardiovascular system in early childhood. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;93:712-8.
Ly 2006 {published data only}
  • Ly CT, Diallo A, Simondon F, Simondon KB. Early short-term infant food supplementation, maternal weight loss and duration of breast-feeding: a randomised controlled trial in rural Senegal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;60:265-71.
Meinzen-Derr 2006 {published data only}
  • Meinzen-Derr JK, Guerrero ML, Altaye M, Ortega-Gallegos H, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Morrow AL. Risk of infant anemia is associated with exclusive breast-feeding and maternal anemia in a Mexican cohort. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136:452-8.
Rebhan 2009 {published data only}
Wang 2005 {published data only}
Weyermann 2006 {published data only}
  • Weyermann M, Rothenbacher D, Brenner H. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study from Germany. International Journal of Obesity 2006;30:1281-7.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Adair 1993b
  • Adair L, Popkin BM, Vanderslice J, Akin J, Guilkey D, Black R, et al. Growth dynamics during the first two years of life: a prospective study in the Philippines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;47:42-51.
Akeson 1996b
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Human milk and standard infant formula together with high quality supplementary foods is sufficient for normal growth during infancy. Pediatric Research 1996;39 Suppl:313A.
Akeson 1998a
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Growth and nutrient intake in three- to twelve- month-old infants fed human milk or formulas with varying protein concentrations. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26:1-8.
Akeson 1998b
  • Akeson PMK, Axelsson IE, Raiha NCR. Protein and amino acid metabolism in three- to twelve-month-old infants fed human milk or formulas with varying protein concentrations. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26:297-304.
Anderson 1999
Bauchner 1986
  • Bauchner H, Leventhal J, Shapiro E. Studies of breast-feeding and infections: How good is the evidence?. JAMA 1986;256:887-92.
Brown 1991b
  • Brown KH. The relationship between diarrhoeal prevalence and growth of poor infants varies with their age and usual energy intake (abstract). FASEB Journal 1991;5:A1079.
Brown 1998
  • Brown K, Dewey K, Allen L. Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries: a Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. Geneva: WHO, 1998:30-2.
Chandra 1991
  • Chandra RK, Hamed A. Cumulative incidence of atopic disorders in high risk infants fed whey hydrolysate, soy, and conventional cow milk formulas. Annals of Allergy 1991;67(2 Pt 1):129-32.
Cohen 1994b
  • Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on infant breast milk intake, total energy intake, and growth: a randomised intervention study in Honduras. Lancet 1994;344:288-93.
Cohen 1995
  • Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG. Determinants of growth from birth to 12 months among breast-fed Honduran infants in relation to age of introduction of complementary foods. Pediatrics 1995;96:504-10.
De Onis 2006a
  • De Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Martorell R. WHO Child Growth Standards. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 2006;Suppl 450:1-101.
De Onis 2006b
  • De Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Garza C, Yang H, for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Comparison of the World Health Organization and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes. Public Health Nutrition 2006;9(7):942-7.
Dewey 1995
  • Dewey KG, Pierson JM, Brown KH, Krebs NF, Michaelson KF, Persson LA, et al. Growth of breast-fed infants deviates from current reference data:  a pooled analysis of US, Canada, and European data sets. Pediatrics 1995;96:495-503.
Dewey 1996
Dewey 1997
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Canahuati J, Brown KH. Effects of age at introduction of complementary foods to breast-fed infants on duration of lactational amenorrhea in Honduran women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65:1403-9.
Dewey 1998a
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Brown KH. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on iron status of breast-fed infants in Honduras. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;67:878-84.
Dewey 1998b
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Brown KH. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on micronutrient status of term, low-birthweight, breastfed infants in Honduras. FASEB Journal 1998;12:A648.
Dewey 1999b
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:679-86.
Dewey 2001
  • Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:262-7.
Fewtrell 2011
  • Fewtrell M, Wilson DC, Booth I, Lucas A. Six months of exclusive breastfeeding; how good is the evidence?. BMJ 2011; Vol. 342:bmj.c5955.
Frongillo 1997a
  • Frongillo EA Jr, de Onis M, Garza C, the World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. Effects of timing of complementary foods on post-natal growth. Experimental Biology, New Orleans, April 1997. FASEB Journal 1997;11:A574.
Gdalevich 2001a
  • Gdalevich M, Mimouni D, David M, Mimouni M. Breast-feeding and the onset of atopic dermatitis in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2001;45:520-7.
Gdalevich 2001b
  • Gdalevich M, Mimouni D, Mimouni M. Breast-feeding and the risk of bronchial asthma in childhood: a systematic review with meta-analysis of prospective studies. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:261-6.
Haschke 2000
  • Haschke F, van't Hof M, Euro-growth study groups. Euro-Growth references for breast-fed boys and girls: influence of breast-feeding and solids on growth until 36 months of age. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31:S60-S71.
Heiskanen 1994
  • Heiskanen K, Salmenpera L, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. Infant vitamin B-6 status changes with age and with formula feeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994;60:907-10.
Hill 1977
  • Hill A. A Short Textbook of Medical Statistics. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1977.
Ip 2007
  • Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 153, AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007 2007.
Jadad 1996
  • Jadad A, Moore R, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds J, Gavaghan D, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?. Controlled Clinical Trials 1996;17:1-12.
Kajosaari 1991
  • Kajosaari M. Atopy prophylaxis in high-risk infants. Prospective 5-year follow-up study of children with six months exclusive breastfeeding and solid food elimination. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1991;310:453-8.
Kajosaari 1994
  • Kajosaari M. Atopy prevention in childhood: the role of diet: prospective 5-year follow-up of high-risk infants with six months exclusive breastfeeding and solid food elimination. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 1994;5(6 Suppl):26-8.
Kallio 1992
  • Kallio MJ, Salmenpera L, Siimes MA, Perheentupa J, Miettinen TA. Exclusive breast-feeding and weaning: effect on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations in infants during the first year of life. Pediatrics 1992;89:663-6.
Kramer 2000b
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias?. Pediatric Research 2000;47:151A.
Kramer 2000c
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial (PROBIT): a cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. In: Koletzko B, Michaelsen KF, Hernell O editor(s). Short and Long Term Effects of Breast Feeding on Child Health. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000:327-45.
Kramer 2001
  • Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA 2001;285:413-20.
Owen 2005a
  • Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Davey Smith G, Cook DG. Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics 2005;115:1367-77.
Owen 2005b
  • Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Davey Smith G, Gillman MW, Cook DG. The effect of breastfeeding on mean body mass index throughout life: a quantitative review of published and unpublished observational evidence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82:1298-307.
Sauls 1979
Savilahti 1987b
  • Savilahti E, Tainio VM, Salmenpera L, Siimes MA, Perheentupa J. Prolonged exclusive breast feeding and heredity as determinants in infantile atopy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1987;62:269-73.
Simondon 1997b
Simondon 2003
  • Simondon KB, Delanay V, Diallo A, Elguero E, Simondon F. Lactational amenorrhea is associated with child age at the time of introduction of complementary food: a prospective cohort study in rural Senegal, West Africa. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:154-61.
WHO 1991
  • World Health Organization. Indicators for assessing breast-feeding practices: Document WHO/CDD/SER. Vol. 91, Geneva: WHO, 1991:14.
WHO 1994b
  • WHO Working Group on Infant Growth. An evaluation of infant growth: Document WHO/NUT/94.8. Geneva: WHO, 1994.
WHO 1995
  • WHO Working Group on Infant Growth. An evaluation of infant growth: the use and interpretation of anthropometry in infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1995;73:165-74.
WHO 2001a
  • WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Infant Mortality. Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. Lancet 2001;355:451-5.
WHO 2001b
  • World Health Organization. Infant and young child nutrition. 54th World Health Assembly (WHA 54.2). Geneva: WHO, 2001.
WHO 2002
  • WHO Working Group on the Growth Reference Protocol, WHO Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. Growth of healthy infants and the timing, type and frequency of complementary foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(3):620-7.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Kramer 2009