This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 AUG 2012)

Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Michael S Kramer*,
  2. Ritsuko Kakuma

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 21 JAN 2002

Assessed as up-to-date: 29 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517


How to Cite

Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.

Author Information

  1. McGill University, Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

*Michael S Kramer, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A2, Canada. michael.kramer@mcgill.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 21 JAN 2002

SEARCH

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 AUG 2012)

[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain from 4-6 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain from 6-12 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 3 Monthly length gain 4-6 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 6-12 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 5 Weight-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 6 Length-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 7 Weight-for-length z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 8 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 9 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 10 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 11 Receipt of Fe supplements 6-9 months.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 12 Hemoglobin concentration (g/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 13 Hemoglobin concentration < 110 g/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 14 Hemoglobin concentration < 103 g/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 15 Hematocrit (%) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 16 Hematocrit < 33% at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 17 Plasma ferritin concentration (mcg/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.18]
Analysis 1.18. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 18 Plasma ferritin concentration < 12 mcg/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.19]
Analysis 1.19. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 19 Plasma ferritin concentration < 15 mcg/L at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.20]
Analysis 1.20. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 20 Plasma zinc concentration < 70 mcg/dL at 6 months.
[Analysis 1.21]
Analysis 1.21. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 21 % of days with fever 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.22]
Analysis 1.22. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 22 % of days with cough 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.23]
Analysis 1.23. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 23 % of days with nasal congestion 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.24]
Analysis 1.24. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 24 % of days with nasal discharge 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.25]
Analysis 1.25. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 25 % of days with hoarseness 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.26]
Analysis 1.26. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 26 % of days with diarrhea 4-6 months.
[Analysis 1.27]
Analysis 1.27. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 27 % of days with fever 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.28]
Analysis 1.28. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 28 % of days with nasal congestion 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.29]
Analysis 1.29. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 29 % of days with diarrhea 6-12 months.
[Analysis 1.30]
Analysis 1.30. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 30 Age first crawled (mo).
[Analysis 1.31]
Analysis 1.31. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 31 Age first sat from lying position (mo).
[Analysis 1.32]
Analysis 1.32. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 32 Did not walk by 12 months.
[Analysis 1.33]
Analysis 1.33. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 33 Maternal postpartum weight loss 4-6 months (kg).
[Analysis 1.34]
Analysis 1.34. Comparison 1 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 4-6 months, developing countries, controlled trials, Outcome 34 Maternal resumption of menses 6 months postpartum.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain 4-6 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain 6-9 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 Monthly length gain 4-6 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 6-9 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Weight-for-age z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Weight-for-age z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 7 Length-for-age z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 8 Length-for-age z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 9 Weight-for-length z-score at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 10 Weight-for-length z-score at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.11]
Analysis 2.11. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 11 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.12]
Analysis 2.12. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 12 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.13]
Analysis 2.13. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 13 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.14]
Analysis 2.14. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 14 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.15]
Analysis 2.15. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 15 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6-7 months.
[Analysis 2.16]
Analysis 2.16. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 16 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 9-10 months.
[Analysis 2.17]
Analysis 2.17. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 17 Mid-upper arm circumference at 6-7 months (cm).
[Analysis 2.18]
Analysis 2.18. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 18 Mid-upper arm circumference at 9-10 months (cm).
[Analysis 2.19]
Analysis 2.19. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 19 One or more episodes of gastrointestinal infection at 4-6 months.
[Analysis 2.20]
Analysis 2.20. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 20 One or more episodes of respiratory infection at 4-6 months.
[Analysis 2.21]
Analysis 2.21. Comparison 2 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 21 Resumption of menses by 6-7 months postpartum.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Prolonged (> 6 months) exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding, developing countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Weight-for-age < 75% of reference mean.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Monthly weight gain 3-8 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Monthly weight gain 6-9 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 Monthly weight gain 8-12 months (g/mo).
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 Monthly length gain 3-8 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Monthly length gain 6-9 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Monthly length gain 8-12 months (cm/mo).
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 7 Weight-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.8]
Analysis 4.8. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 8 Weight-for-age z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.9]
Analysis 4.9. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 9 Weight-for-age z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.10]
Analysis 4.10. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 10 Length-for-age z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.11]
Analysis 4.11. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 11 Length-for-age z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.12]
Analysis 4.12. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 12 Length-for-age z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.13]
Analysis 4.13. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 13 Weight-for-length z-score at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.14]
Analysis 4.14. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 14 Weight-for-length z-score at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.15]
Analysis 4.15. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 15 Weight-for-length z-score at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.16]
Analysis 4.16. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 16 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.17]
Analysis 4.17. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 17 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.18]
Analysis 4.18. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 18 Weight-for-age z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.19]
Analysis 4.19. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 19 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.20]
Analysis 4.20. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 20 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.21]
Analysis 4.21. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 21 Length-for-age z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.22]
Analysis 4.22. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 22 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.23]
Analysis 4.23. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 23 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 9 months.
[Analysis 4.24]
Analysis 4.24. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 24 Weight-for-length z-score < -2 at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.25]
Analysis 4.25. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 25 Head circumference at 6 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.26]
Analysis 4.26. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 26 Head circumference at 9 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.27]
Analysis 4.27. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 27 Head circumference at 12 months (cm).
[Analysis 4.28]
Analysis 4.28. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 28 Sleeping time at 9 months (min/day).
[Analysis 4.29]
Analysis 4.29. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 29 Total essential amino acid concentration (umol/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.30]
Analysis 4.30. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 30 Total amino acid concentration (umol/L) at 6 months.
[Analysis 4.31]
Analysis 4.31. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 31 Atopic eczema in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.32]
Analysis 4.32. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 32 Food allergy at 1 year (by history).
[Analysis 4.33]
Analysis 4.33. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 33 Food allergy at 1 year (by double challenge).
[Analysis 4.34]
Analysis 4.34. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 34 Two or more episodes of wheezing in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.35]
Analysis 4.35. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 35 Any atopy at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.36]
Analysis 4.36. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 36 Atopic eczema at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.37]
Analysis 4.37. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 37 Pollen allergy at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.38]
Analysis 4.38. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 38 Asthma at 5-6 years.
[Analysis 4.39]
Analysis 4.39. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 39 Food allergy at 5 years (by history).
[Analysis 4.40]
Analysis 4.40. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 40 Allergy to animal dander at 5 years.
[Analysis 4.41]
Analysis 4.41. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 41 Positive skin prick test at 6 years.
[Analysis 4.42]
Analysis 4.42. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 42 Hemoglobin concentration (g/L) at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.43]
Analysis 4.43. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 43 Hemoglobin concentration < 110 g/L at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.44]
Analysis 4.44. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 44 Serum ferritin concentration (mcg/L) at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.45]
Analysis 4.45. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 45 Serum ferritin concetration < 10 mcg/L at 12 months.
[Analysis 4.46]
Analysis 4.46. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 46 Death in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.47]
Analysis 4.47. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 47 One or more episodes of gastrointestinal infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.48]
Analysis 4.48. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 48 Hospitalization for gastrointestinal infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.49]
Analysis 4.49. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 49 One or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.50]
Analysis 4.50. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 50 Two or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.51]
Analysis 4.51. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 51 Four or more episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.52]
Analysis 4.52. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 52 One or more episodes of lower respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.53]
Analysis 4.53. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 53 Two or more episodes of respiratory tract infection (upper or lower) in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.54]
Analysis 4.54. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 54 Hospitalization for respiratory tract infection in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.55]
Analysis 4.55. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 55 Number of episodes of otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.56]
Analysis 4.56. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 56 One or more episodes of otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 4.57]
Analysis 4.57. Comparison 4 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding 3-7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 57 Frequent otitis media in first 12 months.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 1 Very low density lipoprotein concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 2 Low density lipoproteinconcentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 3 High-density lipoprotein-2 concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 4 High-density lipoprotein-3 concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 5 Apoprotein B concentration (mg/dL) at 9 months.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 Exclusive versus mixed breastfeeding > 7 months, developed countries, observational studies, Outcome 6 Total triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) at 9 months.