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Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

  1. Elizabeth R Moore1,*,
  2. Gene C Anderson2,
  3. Nils Bergman3,
  4. Therese Dowswell4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 16 MAY 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 15 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3


How to Cite

Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N, Dowswell T. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD003519. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Vanderbilt University, School of Nursing, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

  2. 2

    Professor Emerita, University of Florida, Case Western Reserve University, Gainesville, FL, USA

  3. 3

    University of Cape Town, School of Child and Adolescent Health, and Department of Human Biology, Cape Town, South Africa

  4. 4

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

*Elizabeth R Moore, School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, 314 Godchaux Hall, 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee, 37240-0008, USA. elizabeth.moore@vanderbilt.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 16 MAY 2012

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 2003 {published data only}
  • Anderson GC, Chiu SH, Dombrowski MA, Swinth JY, Albert JM, Wada N. Mother-newborn contact in a randomized trial of kangaroo (skin-to-skin) care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 2003;32(5):604-11.
  • Chiu SH, Anderson GC. Effect of early skin-to-skin contact on mother-preterm infant interaction through 18 months: randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009;46(9):1168-80.
  • Hake-Brooks SJ, Anderson GC. Kangaroo care and breastfeeding of mother-preterm infant dyads 0-18 months: a randomized, controlled trial. Neonatal Network 2003;27(3):151-9.
Bergman 2004 {published data only}
  • Bergman N. Kangaroo mother care from birth compared to conventional incubator care. 22nd Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in South Africa; 2003 March 11-14; Free State, South Africa. 2003.
  • Bergman NJ, Linley LL, Fawcus SR. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization. Acta Paediatrica 2004;93(6):779-85.
  • Bigelow A, Littlejohn M, Bergman N, McDonald C. The relation between early mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and later maternal sensitivity in South African mothers of low birth weight infants. Infant Mental Health Journal 2010;31(3):358-77.
Bystrova 2003 {published data only}
  • Bystrova K, Ivanova V, Edhborg M, Matthiesen AS, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Mukhamedrakhimov R, et al. Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later. Birth 2009;36(2):97-109.
  • Bystrova K, Matthiesen AS, Vorontsov I, Widstrom AM, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Uvnas-Moberg K. Maternal axillar and breast temperature after giving birth: effects of delivery ward practices and relation to infant temperature. Birth 2007;34(4):291-300.
  • Bystrova K, Matthiesen AS, Widstrom AM, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystrom B, Vorontsov I, et al. The effect of Russian maternity home routines on breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss with special reference to swaddling. Early Human Development 2007;83(1):29-39.
  • Bystrova K, Widstrom AM, Matthiesen AS, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystrom B, Vorontsov I, et al. Early lactation performance in primiparous and multiparous women in relation to different maternity home practices. A randomised trial in St. Petersburg. International Breastfeeding Journal 2007;2(1):9.
  • Bystrova K, Widstrom AM, Matthiesen AS, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystrom B, Wassberg C, et al. Skin-to-skin contact may reduce negative consequences of "the stress of being born": a study on temperature in newborn infants, subjected to different ward routines in St. Petersburg. Acta Paediatrica 2003;92(3):320-6.
Carfoot 2004 {published data only}
Carfoot 2005 {published data only}
Carlsson 1978 {published data only}
  • Carlsson SG, Fagerberg H, Horneman G, Hwang CP, Larsson K, Rodholm M. Effects of various amounts of contact between mother and child on the mother's nursing behavior: a follow-up study. Infant Behaviour and Development 1979;2:209-14.
  • Carlsson SG, Fagerberg H, Horneman G, Hwang CP, Larsson K, Rodholm M, et al. Effects of amount of contact between mother and child on the mother's nursing behavior. Developmental Psychobiology 1978;11:143-50.
  • Carlsson SG, Larsson K, Schaller, J. Early mother-child contact and nursing. Reproduction, Nutrition and Development 1980;20:881-9.
  • Hwang CP. Aspects of the mother-infant relationship during nursing 1 and 6 weeks after early and extended postpartum contact. Early Human Development 1981;5:279-87.
  • Schaller J, Carlsson SG, Larsson K. Effects of extended post-partum mother-child contact on the mother's behavior during nursing. Infant Behavior and Development 1979;2:319-24.
Christensson 1992 {published data only}
  • Christensson K, Siles C, Moreno L, Belaustequi A, De La Fuente P, Lagercrantz H, et al. Temperature, metabolic adaptation and crying in healthy full-term newborns cared for skin-to-skin or in a cot. Acta Paediatrica 1992;81:488-93.
Christensson 1995 {published data only}
Chwo 1999 {published data only}
  • Chwo MJ. Early kangaroo care for 34-36 week preterm infants: effects on temperature, weight, cortisol, and behavior [dissertation]. Cleveland (OH): Case Western Reserve University, 1999.
  • Chwo MJ, Anderson GC, Good M, Dowling DA, Shiau SH, Chu DM. A randomized controlled trial of early kangaroo care for preterm infants: effects on temperature, weight, behavior, and acuity. Journal of Nursing Research 2002;10(2):129-42.
Craig 1982 {published data only}
Curry 1982 {published and unpublished data}
  • Curry MA. The effect of skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant during the first hour following delivery on the mother's maternal attachment behavior and self concept [dissertation]. San Francisco (CA): University of California, 1979.
  • Curry MA. Maternal attachment behaviour and the mother's self-concept: the effect of early skin-to-skin contact. Nursing Research 1982;31:73-8.
  • Curry MAH. Contact during the first hour with the wrapped or naked newborn: effect on maternal attachment behaviors at 36 hours and three months. Birth and the Family Journal 1979;6:227-35.
De Chateau 1977 {published data only}
  • De Chateau P. Early post-partum contact and later attitudes. International Journal of Behavioral Development 1980;3:273-86.
  • De Chateau P. The first hour after delivery - its impact on synchrony of the parent-infant relationship. Paediatrician 1980;9:151-68.
  • De Chateau P. The influence of early contact on maternal and infant behaviour in primiparae. Birth and the Family Journal 1976;3:149-55.
  • De Chateau P, Holmberg H, Jakobsson K, Winberg J. A study of factors promoting and inhibiting lactation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1977;19:575-84.
  • De Chateau P, Wiberg B. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. I. First observations at 36 hours. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1977;66:137-43.
  • De Chateau P, Wiberg P. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. II. A follow-up at three months. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1977;66:145-51.
  • De Chateau P, Wiberg P. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. III. Follow-up at one year. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 1984;12:91-103.
  • Wiberg B, Humble K, De Chateau P. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. V. Follow-up at three years. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 1989;17(2):181-91.
  • Winberg J, De Chateau P. Attempts to increase breastfeeding. Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Psychosomatic Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, "Emotion and Reproduction". Rome, Italy, 1979:851-4.
Fardig 1980 {published data only}
  • Fardig JA. A comparison of skin-to-skin contact and radiant heaters in promoting neonatal thermoregulation. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 1980;25:19-28.
Ferber 2004 {published data only}
  • Ferber SG, Makhoul IR. The effect of skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) shortly after birth on the neurobehavioral responses of the term newborn: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2004;113(4):858-65.
Gouchon 2010 {published data only}
Hales 1977 {published data only}
Huang 2006 {published data only}
  • Huang YY, Huang CY, Lin SM, Wu SC. Effect of very early kangaroo care on extrauterine temperature adaptation in newborn infants with hypothermia problem. Hu Li Za Zhi 2006;53(4):41-8.
Kastner 2005 {published data only}
  • Kastner R, Gingelmaier A, Langer B, Grubert TA, Hartl K, Stauber M. Mother-child relationship before, during and after birth [Die Mutter-Kind-Beziehung pranatal, unter der Geburt und postnatal]. Gynakologische Praxis 2005;29(1):109-14.
  • Kastner R, Gingelmaier A, Langer B, Grubert TA, Hartl K, Stauber M. Mother-child relationship before, during and after birth [Die Mutter-Kind-Beziehung pranatal, unter der Geburt und postnatal]. Padiatrische Praxis 2005-2006;67(1):13-8.
Khadivzadeh 2008 {published data only}
  • Karimi A, Khadivzadeh T, Tara F. The effect of mother-infant skin to skin contact on mother's attachment. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2009;107(Suppl 2):S668.
  • Khadivzadeh T, Karimi A. Randomized controlled trial of very early maternal infant skin-to-skin contact and successful breastfeeding. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2008;115(s1):248.
  • Khadivzadeh T, Karimi A. The effects of post-birth mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on first breastfeeding. International Journal of Nurse Midwifery Research 2009;14(3):111-6.
Mazurek 1999 {published data only}
  • Mazurek T, Mikiel-Kostyra K, Mazur J, Wieczorek P, Radwanska B, Pachuta-Wegier L. Influence of immediate newborn care on infant adaptation to the environment [Wplyw postepowania z noworodkiem bezposrednio po porodzie na cechy jego adaptacji do srodowiska]. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego 1999;3(2):215-24.
McClellan 1980 {published data only}
Mizuno 2004 {published data only}
Moore 2005 {published data only}
  • Moore E. Randomized controlled trial of early mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding success [dissertation]. Nashville (TN): Vanderbilt University, 2005.
  • Moore ER, Anderson GC. Randomized controlled trial of very early mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding status. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health 2007; Vol. 52, issue 2:116-24.
  • Moore ER, Anderson GC. Randomized controlled trial or early mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding success. Journal of Human Lactation 2005;21(4):488-9.
Nolan 2009 {published data only}
Punthmatharith 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • Punthmatharith B. Randomized controlled trial of early kangaroo care (skin-to-skin) care: effects on maternal feelings, maternal-infant interaction and breastfeeding success in Thailand [dissertation]. Cleveland (OH): Case Western Reserve University, 2001.
Shiau 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Shiau S-HH. Randomized controlled trial of kangaroo care with full-term infants: effects on maternal anxiety, breast-milk maturation, breast engorgement, and breastfeeding status [dissertation]. Cleveland (OH): Case Western Reserve University, 1997.
  • Shiau S-HH. Randomized controlled trial of kangaroo care with full term infants: effects on breastmilk maturation, breast engorgement, and breastfeeding status. International Breastfeeding Conference, Australia's Breastfeeding Association; 1997 October; Sydney, Australia. 1997.
Sosa 1976a {published data only}
  • Sosa R, Kennell, JH, Klaus M, Urrutia JJ. The effect of early mother-infant contact on breastfeeding, infection and growth. In: Elliott K, Fitzsimons DW editor(s). Breastfeeding and the mother: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Vol. 45, New York: Elsevier Excerpta Medica, 1976:179-93.
Sosa 1976b {published data only}
  • Sosa R, Kennell, JH, Klaus M, Urrutia JJ. The effect of early mother-infant contact on breastfeeding, infection and growth. In: Elliott K, Fitzsimons DW editor(s). Breastfeeding and the mother: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Vol. 45, New York: Elsevier Excerpta Medica, 1976:179-93.
Sosa 1976c {published data only}
  • Sosa R, Kennell, JH, Klaus M, Urrutia JJ. The effect of early mother-infant contact on breastfeeding, infection and growth. In: Elliott K, Fitzsimons DW editor(s). Breastfeeding and the mother: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Vol. 45, New York: Elsevier Excerpta Medica, 1976:179-93.
Svejda 1980 {published data only}
Syfrett 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Syfrett EB. Very early and virtually continuous kangaroo care for 34-36 week gestation preterm infants: effects on temperature, breastfeeding, supplementation and weight [thesis]. Gainesville (FL): University of Florida, 1993.
  • Syfrett EB, Anderson GC. Very early kangaroo care beginning at birth for healthy preterm infants and mothers who choose to breastfeed: effect on outcome. A workshop on the Kangaroo-mother method for low birthweight infants. World Health Organization; 1996 October; Trieste, Italy. 1996.
Thomson 1979 {published data only}
Vaidya 2005 {published data only}
  • Vaidya K, Sharma A, Dhungel S. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Nepal Medical College Journal: NMCJ 2005;7:138-40.
Villalon 1993 {published data only}
  • Villalon HU, Alvarez PC. Short term effects of early skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) on breastfeeding in healthy full-term newborns [Efecto a corto plazo del contacto precoz piel a piel sobre la lactancia materna en recien nacidos de termino sanos]. Revista Chilena de Pediatria 1993;64(2):124-8.
  • Villalon HU, Alvarez PC, Barria EH, Caneleo DH, Carrillo LM, Duran SG. Effect of early skin-to-skin contact on temperature regulation, heart rate, and respiratory rate in healthy, full-term newborns [Contacto precoz piel a piel: efecto sobre los parametros fisiologicos en las cuatro horas posteriores al parto en recien nacidos de termino sanos]. Revista Chilena de Pediatria 1992;63(3):140-4.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abdel Razek 2009 {published data only}
Ali 1981 {published data only}
Anisfeld 1983 {published data only}
Castral 2008 {published data only}
Cattaneo 1998 {published data only}
Christensson 1998 {published data only}
Darmstadt 2006 {published data only}
  • Darmstadt GL, Kumar V, Yadav R, Singh V, Singh P, Mohanty S, et al. Introduction of community-based skin-to-skin care in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Perinatology 2006;26(10):597-604.
Durand 1997 {published data only}
  • Durand R, Hodges S, LaRock S, Lund L, Schmid S, Swick D, et al. The effect of skin-to-skin breastfeeding in the immediate recovery period on newborn thermoregulation and blood glucose values. Neonatal Intensive Care 1997;3/4:23-9.
Erlandsson 2007 {published data only}
Feldman 2003 {published data only}
  • Feldman R, Weller A, Sirota L, Eidelman AI. Testing a family intervention hypothesis: the contribution of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) to family interaction, proximity, and touch. Journal of Family Psychology 2003;17(1):94-107.
Ferber 2008 {published data only}
Gardner 1979 {published data only}
  • Gardner S. The mother as incubator-after delivery. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 1979;8(3):174-6.
Gathwala 2008 {published data only}
Gomes-Pedro 1984 {published data only}
Gray 2000 {published data only}
Gray 2002 {published data only}
Grossman 1981 {published data only}
  • Grossman K, Thane K, Grossman KE. Maternal tactual contact of the newborn after various postpartum conditions of mother-infant contact. Developmental Psychobiology 1981;17:158-69.
Hill 1979 {published data only}
  • Hill ST, Shronk LK. The effect of early parent-infant contact on newborn body temperature. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 1979;8(5):287-90.
Ibe 2004 {published data only}
  • Ibe OE, Austin T, Sullivan K, Fabanwo O, Disu E, Costello AM. A comparison of kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care for thermal regulation of infants <2000g in Nigeria using continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring. Annals of Tropical Pediatrics 2004;24:245-51.
Johanson 1992 {published data only}
  • Johanson RB, Malla DS, Rolfe P, Spencer A. The effect of postdelivery care on neonatal body temperature. Early Human Development 1990;21:132-3.
  • Johanson RB, Spencer SA, Rolfe P, Jones P, Malla DS. Effect of post-delivery care on neonatal body temperature. Acta Paediatrica 1992;81:859-63.
Johnson 1976 {published data only}
  • Johnson NW. Breast-feeding at one hour of age. American Journal of Maternal-Child Nursing 1976;1:12-6.
Kadam 2005 {published data only}
  • Kadam S, Binoy S, Kanbur W, Mondkar JA, Fernandez A. Feasibility of kangaroo mother care in Mumbai. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2005;72(1):35-8.
Karlsson 1996 {published data only}
Klaus 1972 {published data only}
  • Kennell JH, Jerauld R, Wolfe H, Chesler D, Kreger NC, McAlpine W. Maternal behavior one year after early and extended post-partum contact. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1974;16:172-9.
  • Kennell JH, Trause MA, Klaus MH. Evidence for a sensitive period in the human mother. Parent infant interaction. CIBA Foundation Symposium 1975; Vol. 33:87-101.
  • Klaus M, Jerauld R, Kreger N, McAlpine W, Steffa M, Kennell J. Maternal attachment: importance of the first postpartum days. New England Journal of Medicine 1972;286:460-3.
  • Ringler N, Kennell JH, Klaus MH, Navojosky B. Mother to child speech at two years: the effects of increased post-natal contact. Pediatric Research 1974;8:345.
  • Ringler N, Trause MA, Klaus MH, Kennell JH. The effects of extra postpartum contact and maternal speech patterns on children's IQs, speech and language comprehension at five. Child Development 1978;49:862-5.
  • Ringler NM, Kennell JH, Jarvella R, Navojosky BJ, Klaus MH. Mother-to-child speech at 2 years: effect of early postnatal contact. Journal of Pediatrics 1975;86:141-4.
Kontos 1978 {published data only}
Lindenberg 1990 {published data only}
  • Lindenberg CS, Artola RC, Jimenez V. The effect of early postpartum mother-infant contact and breastfeeding promotion on the incidence and continuation of breastfeeding. International Journal of Nursing Studies 1990;27:179-86.
Ludington-Hoe 2004 {published data only}
  • Ludington-Hoe SM, Anderson GC, Swinth JY, Thompson C, Hadeed AJ. Randomized controlled trial of kangaroo care: cardiorespiratory and thermal effects on healthy preterm infants. Neonatal Network - Journal of Neonatal Nursing 2004;23(3):39-48.
Ludington-Hoe 2006 {published data only}
  • Ludington-Hoe SM, Johnson MW, Morgan K, Lewis T, Gutman J, Wilson PD, et al. Neurophysiologic assessment of neonatal sleep organization: preliminary results of a randomized, controlled trial of skin contact with preterm infants. Pediatrics 2006;117(5):e909-23.
Marin 2010 {published data only}
  • Marin Gabriel MA, Llana Martin I, Lopez Escobar A, Fernandez Villalba E, Romero Blanco I, Touza Pol P. Randomized controlled trial of early skin-to-skin contact: effects on the mother and the newborn. Acta Paediatrica 2010; Vol. 99, issue 11:1630-4.
Mikiel-Kostyra 2002 {published data only}
  • Mikiel-Kostyra K, Boltruszko I, Mazur J. Skin-to-skin contact after birth as a factor determining breastfeeding duration [Kontakt skora-do-skory po porodzie jako czynnik warunkujacy czas trwania karmienia piersia]. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego 2001;5(2):179-89.
  • Mikiel-Kostyra K, Mazur J, Boltruszko I. Effect of early skin-to-skin contact after delivery on duration of breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study. Acta Paediatrica 2002;91(12):1301-6.
Miles 2006 {published data only}
Nagai 2010 {published data only}
Neu 2010 {published data only}
Ohgi 2002 {published data only}
  • Ohgi S, Fukuda M, Moriuchi H, Kusumoto T, Akiyama T, Nugent JK, et al. Comparison of kangaroo care and standard care: behavioral organization, development, and temperament in healthy, low-birth-weight infants through 1 year. Journal of Perinatology 2002;22(5):374-9.
Okan 2010 {published data only}
  • Okan F, Ozdil A, Bulbul A, Yapici Z, Nuhoglu A. Analgesic effects of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding in procedural pain in healthy term neonates. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 2010;30(2):119-28.
Ottaviano 1979 {published data only}
  • Ottaviano CM, Campbell SBG, Taylor PM. The effects of extra postpartum contact on infant-mother attachment at one year. Pediatric Research 1979;13:336.
Ramanathan 2001 {published data only}
  • Ramanathan K, Paul VK, Deorari AK, Taneja U, George G. Kangaroo mother care in very low birth weight infants. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2001;68(11):1019-23.
Roberts 2000 {published data only}
  • Roberts KL, Paynter C, McEwan B. A comparison of kangaroo mother care and conventional cuddling care. Neonatal Network - Journal of Neonatal Nursing 2000;19(4):31-5.
Rojas 2001 {published data only}
  • Rojas MA, Kaplan M, Mayes L, Quevedo ME, Foster LB, Sherwonit E, et al. Traditional holding (TH) and skin-to-skin care (SSC) for newborn infants <= 1500 grams. A randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Pediatric Research 2001;49(4):360A.
Salariya 1978 {published data only}
Sloan 2008 {published data only}
  • Ahmed S, Mitra SN, Chowdhury AM, Camacho LL, Winikoff B, Sloan NL. Community Kangaroo Mother Care: implementation and potential for neonatal survival and health in very low-income settings. Journal of Perinatology 2011;31(5):361-7.
  • Sloan NL, Ahmed S, Chowdhury N, Mitra S, Chowdhury M, Rob U. Community-based kangaroo mother care to prevent neonatal mortality [abstract]. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2006 April 29-May 2; San Francisco, CA, USA. 2006.
  • Sloan NL, Ahmed S, Mitra SN, Choudhury N, Chowdhury M, Rob U, et al. Community-based kangaroo mother care to prevent neonatal and infant mortality: a randomized, controlled cluster trial. Pediatrics 2008;121(5):e1047-59.
Suman 2008 {published data only}
Taylor 1979 {published data only}
  • Taylor PM, Campbell SBG, Taylor FH, Maloni J, Dickey D, Rubenstein G. Short-term effects of extra mother-first born contact. Pediatric Research 1979;13:338.
Taylor 1985 {published data only}
  • Taylor PM, Maloni JA, Taylor FH, Campbell SB. Extra early mother-infant contact and duration of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Supplement 1985;316:15-22.
  • Taylor PM, Taylor FH, Campbell SB, Maloni JA, Cannon M. Extra early physical contact and aspects of the early mother-infant relationship. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Supplement 1985;316:3-14.
Taylor 1986 {published data only}
Tessier 2009 {published data only}
Thukral 2010 {published data only}
  • Thukral A, Sankar J, Agarwal R, Deorari A, Paul V. Effect of early skin to skin (STS) contact on breastfeeding behavior in term neonates: a randomized trial. Pediatric Academic Societies 2010 Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1-4; Vancouver, Canada. 2010.
Velandia 2010 {published data only}
Wimmer 1982 {published data only}
  • Wimmer-Puchinger B, Nagel M. The importance of attitudes during pregnancy and early mother-child contact for breastfeeding behavior: an empirical study. In: Prill HJ, Stauber M editor(s). Advances in Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology. Springer-Verlag, 1982:482-4.
Worku 2005 {published data only}
  • Worku B, Kassie A. Kangaroo mother care: a randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of early kangaroo mother care for the low birthweight infants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2005;51(2):93-7.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Keshavarz 2010 {published data only}
  • Keshavarz M. Comparison the effect of skin to skin contact and music during skin to skin contact on maternal state anxiety in cesarean section unit. IRCT Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (accessed 6 December 2010) 2010.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Affonso 1989
  • Affonso D, Wahlberg V, Persson B. Exploration of mother's reactions to the kangaroo method of prematurity care. Neonatal Network 1989;7(6):43-51.
Alberts 1994
American Academy of Pediatrics 2005
Anderson 1989
  • Anderson GC. Risk in mother-infant separation postbirth. Image 1989;21:196-9.
Anderson 1995
  • Anderson GC, Chang H-P, Behnke M, Conlon M, Eyler FD. Self- regulatory mothering (SR) postbirth: effect on, and correlation between, infant crying and salivary cortisol. Pediatric Research 1995;37(4 Pt 2):12A.
Anderson 2004a
  • Anderson GC, Chiu SH, Morrison B, Burkhammer M, Ludington-Hoe S. Skin-to-skin care for breastfeeding difficulties postbirth. In: Field T editor(s). Touch and Massage Therapy in Early Development. New Brunswick: Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute, 2004:115-36.
Anderson 2004b
  • Anderson GC, Radjenovic D, Chiu SH, Conlon M, Lane AE. Development of an observational instrument to measure mother-infant separation post birth. Journal of Nursing Measurement 2004;12(3):215-34.
Bernard-Bonnin 1989
Bramson 2010
  • Bramson L, Lee JW, Moore E, Montgomery S, Neish C, Bahjri K. Effect of early skin-to-skin mother-infant contact during the first 3 hours following birth on exclusive breastfeeding during the maternity hospital stay. Journal of Human Lactation 2010;26(2):130-7.
Bystrova 2007a
  • Bystrova K, Matthiesen AS, Widstrom AM, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystrom B, Vorontsov I, et al. The effect of Russian maternity home routines on breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss with special reference to swaddling. Early Human Development 2007;83(1):29-39.
Bystrova 2007b
  • Bystrova K, Widstrom AM, Matthiesen AS, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystrom B, Vorontsov I, et al. Early lactation performance in primiparous and multiparous women in relation to different maternity home practices. A randomised trial in St. Petersburg. International Breastfeeding Journal 2007;2(1):9.
Bystrova 2007c
Bystrova 2009
Chiu 2005
Chiu 2008
  • Chiu SH, Anderson GC, Burkhammer MD. Can skin-to-skin contact help reduce racial disparities in postpartum women having breastfeeding difficulties?. Breastfeeding Medicine 2008;3(4):231-7.
Chiu 2009
  • Chiu SH, Anderson GC. Effect of early skin-to-skin contact on mother-preterm infant interaction through 18 months: randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009;46(9):1168-80.
Christidis 2003
  • Christidis I, Zotter H, Rosegger H, Engele H, Kurz R, Kerbl R. Infrared thermography in newborns: the first hour after birth. Gynakologisch Geburtschilfliche Rundschau 2003; Vol. 43:31-5.
Clark 1985
  • Clark R. The parent-child early relational assessment: instrument and manual. Madison, Wisconsin: Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1985.
Clark 1999
Conde-Agudelo 2011
Dageville 2008
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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