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Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers

  1. Susan O'Meara1,*,
  2. Deyaa Al-Kurdi2,
  3. Yemisi Ologun3,
  4. Liza G Ovington4,
  5. Marrissa Martyn-St James5,
  6. Rachel Richardson6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Wounds Group

Published Online: 10 JAN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 MAY 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003557.pub5


How to Cite

O'Meara S, Al-Kurdi D, Ologun Y, Ovington LG, Martyn-St James M, Richardson R. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003557. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003557.pub5.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Leeds, School of Healthcare, Leeds, UK

  2. 2

    University of York, The Cochrane Wounds Group, York, North Yorkshire, UK

  3. 3

    Chesterfield Royal Hospital, Calow, Derbyshire, UK

  4. 4

    Ethicon, Inc, Somerville, New Jersey, USA

  5. 5

    University of Sheffield, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK

  6. 6

    University of York, Department of Health Sciences, York, UK

*Susan O'Meara, School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Room LG.12, Baines Wing, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. s.m.omeara@leeds.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 10 JAN 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Alinovi 1986 {published data only}
  • Alinovi A, Bassissi P, Pini M. Systemic administration of antibiotics in the management of venous ulcers: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1986;15(2):186-91.
  • Alinovi A, Bassissi P, Pini M, Talignani G. Systemic administration of antibiotics in the management of chronic venous ulcers. 14th World Congress International Union of Angiology, 6-11 July 1986, Munich, West Germany. 1986.
Beitner 1985a {published data only}
  • Beitner H. Treatment of chronic leg ulcers with topical application of benzoyl peroxide lotion. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(4):657-60.
Beitner 1985b {published data only}
  • Beitner H. Treatment of chronic leg ulcers with topical application of benzoyl peroxide lotion. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(4):657-60.
Belcaro 2003 {published data only}
  • Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Nicolaides AN, Geroulakos G, Di Renzo A, Milani M, et al. Improvement of microcirculation and healing of venous hypertension and ulcers with Crystacide Evaluation of free radicals, laser Doppler flux and PO2: a prospective-randomized-controlled study. Angiology 2003;54(4):325-30.
Belcaro 2007 {published data only}
  • Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Di Renzo A, Errichi S, Ricci A, et al. Improvement of microcirculation and healing of venous hypertension and ulcers with Crystacide: evaluation with a microcirculatory model, including free radicals, laser Doppler flux and PO2/PCO2 measurement. Angiology 2007;58(3):323-7.
Binić 2010 {published data only}
  • Binić I, Janković A, Janković D, Janković I, Vrucinić Z. Evaluation of healing and antimicrobiological effects of herbal therapy on venous leg ulcer: pilot study. Phytotherapy Research 2010;24(2):277-82.
Bishop 1992 {published data only}
  • Bishop JB, Phillips LG, Mustoe TA, VanderZee AJ, Wiersema L, Roach DE, et al. A prospective randomized evaluator-blinded trial of two potential wound healing agents for the treatment of venous stasis ulcers. Journal of Vascular Surgery 1992;16(2):251-7.
Blair 1988 {published data only}
  • Blair SD, Backhouse CM, Wright DDI, Riddle E, McCollum CN. Do dressings influence the healing of chronic venous ulcers?. Phlebology 1988;3:129-34.
Cameron 1991 {published data only}
  • Cameron J, Cherry GW, Poewll S, Ryan TJ. The efficacy of mupirocin (pseudomonic acid) in the management of venous leg ulcers (poster presentation). American Academy of Dermatology 50th Annual Meeting, 7-12 December 1991, Dallas, Texas, USA. 1991.
  • Cherry GW, Powell SM, Ryan T. The efficacy of mupirocin in the management of venous leg ulcers. 2nd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management, 20-23 October 1992, Harrogate. 1992.
Casoni 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Casoni P. Randomized trial using new topical colloids and bandages. 16th Annual Congress of the American College of Phlebology, 7-10 November 2002, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 2002.
Chaloner 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chaloner D. A comparative study of two silver containing dressings, Acticoat 7 and Avance in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 8-13 July 2004, Paris. 2004.
  • Chaloner D. A prospective, multi-centre, randomised, comparative study to compare the effects of Acticoat 7 antimicrobial barrier dressing to Avance silver impregnated foam film dressing in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers. Unpublished report.
Daroczy 2006 {published data only}
Dimakakos 2009 {published data only}
  • Dimakakos E, Katsenis K, Kalemikerakis J, Arkadopoulos N, Mylonas S, Arapoglou V, et al. Infected venous leg ulcers: management with silver-releasing foam dressing. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 2009;21(1):4-8.
Fischer 1984 {published data only}
  • Fischer H, Gilliet F, Hornemann M, Leyh F, Lindemayr H, Stegmann W, et al. Enzymatic debridement in venous ulcus cruris. Report of a multicenter clinical comparative study with various enzyme preparations [Enzymatische wundreinigung beim venösen ulcus cruris. Beritch uber eine multizentrische klinische vergleichsstudie mit verschiedenen enzympräparaten]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1984;102(10):281-3.
Fumal 2002a {published data only}
  • Fumal I, Braham C, Paquet P, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE. The beneficial toxicity paradox of antimicrobials in leg ulcer healing impaired by a polymicrobial flora: a proof-of-concept study. Dermatology 2002;204(Suppl 1):70-4.
Fumal 2002b {published data only}
  • Fumal I, Braham C, Paquet P, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE. The beneficial toxicity paradox of antimicrobials in leg ulcer healing impaired by a polymicrobial flora: a proof-of-concept study. Dermatology 2002;204(Suppl 1):70-4.
Fumal 2002c {published data only}
  • Fumal I, Braham C, Paquet P, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE. The beneficial toxicity paradox of antimicrobials in leg ulcer healing impaired by a polymicrobial flora: a proof-of-concept study. Dermatology 2002;204(Suppl 1):70-4.
Geske 2005 {published data only}
  • Geske T, Hachmann E, Effendy I. Wound treatment with ethacridine lactate in venous leg ulcers: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study. Vasomed 2005;17(3):99-103.
Gethin 2008 {published data only}
  • Gethin G, Cowman S. Bacteriological changes in sloughy venous leg ulcers treated with manuka honey or hydrogel: an RCT. Journal of Wound Care 2008;17(6):241-7.
  • Gethin G, Cowman S. Manuka honey versus hydrogel to deslough venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. 17th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2007 May 2-4, Glasgow. 2007.
  • Gethin G, Cowman S. Manuka honey versus hydrogel to deslough venous ulcers—a randomised controlled trial. 3rd Congress of the World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2008 June 4-8, Toronto. 2008.
  • Gethin G, Cowman S. Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2008;18(3):466-74.
Groenewald 1981 {published data only}
Hansson 1998 {published data only}
  • Hansson C. The effects of cadexomer iodine paste in the treatment of venous leg ulcers compared with hydrocolloid dressing and paraffin gauze dressing. Cadexomer Iodine Study Group. International Journal of Dermatology 1998;37(5):390-6.
  • Månsson T. Effect of Iodosorb dressing, Duoderm E and Jelonet on symptomatic parameters in exudative venous leg ulcers. 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management, November 1995. 1996.
Harcup 1986 {published data only}
Holloway 1989 {published data only}
  • Holloway GA, Johansen KH, Barnes RW, Pierce GE. Multicenter trial of cadexomer iodine to treat venous stasis ulcer. Western Journal of Medicine 1989;151(1):35-8.
Huovinen 1994 {published data only}
  • Huovinen S, Kotilainen P, Jarvinen H, Malanin K, Sarna S, Helander I, et al. Comparison of ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim therapy for venous leg ulcers: results of a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1994;31(2):279-81.
Ishibashi 1996 {published data only}
  • Ishibashi Y, Soeda S, Oura T, Nishikawa T, Niimura M, Nakajima H, et al. Clinical effects of KCB-1, a solution of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor, on skin ulcers: a phase III study comparing with sugar and povidone iodine ointment. Rinsho Iyaku 1996;12(10):2159-87.
Jull 2008 {published data only}
  • Jull A. Honey and venous leg ulceration: a systematic review & randomised controlled trial. PhD thesis. University of Aukland, New Zealand, 2007.
  • Jull A, Walker N, Parag V, Molan P, Arroll B, Waters J, et al. Honey as adjuvant therapy for leg ulcers (HALT) trial: a randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN 06161544). 16th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2006 May 18-20, Prague, Czech Republic. 2006.
  • Jull A, Walker N, Parag V, Molan P, Rodgers A on behalf of the Honey as Adjuvant Leg Ulcer Therapy trial collaborators. Randomized clinical trial of honey-impregnated dressings for venous leg ulcers. British Journal of Surgery 2008;95(2):175-82.
  • Jull A, Walker N, Rodgers A, Bennett D, Molan P, Arroll B, et al. Honey for leg ulcers—The HALT trial. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2004 July 8-13, Paris. 2004.
Jørgensen 2005 {published data only}
  • Ivins N, Harding KG, Price P, Jurgensen B, Lohmann M, Gottrup F, et al. Safety and efficacy in long-term use of a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing: a randomized, controlled trial on venous leg ulcers. Symposium on Advanced Wound Care (SAWC) & Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair, 2006 April 30 - May 3, San Antonio, Texas. 2006.
  • Ivins N, Jørgensen B, Lohmann M, Harding KG, Price P, Gottrup F, et al. Safety and efficacy in long term use of a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing: a randomised, controlled trial on venous leg ulcers. 15th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2005 September 15-17, Stuttgart, Germany. 2005:Poster abstracts P180 284.
  • Jørgensen B, Price P,   Andersen KE, Gottrup F, Bech-Thomsen N, Scanlon E, et al. The silver-releasing foam dressing, Contreet Foam, promotes faster healing of critically colonised venous leg ulcers: a randomised, controlled trial. International Wound Journal 2005;2(1):64-73.
  • Price P, CONTREET Study Group. Health-related quality of life aspects after treatment with a foam dressing and a silver containing foam dressing in chronic leg ulcers. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2004 July 8-13, Paris. 2004:161.
  • Sibbald RG, CONTREET Study Group. Wound bed preparation properties of a foam dressing and a silver containing foam dressing. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2004 July 8-13, Paris. 2004:35.
Kerihuel 2010 {published data only}
  • Kerihuel JC. Effect of activated charcoal dressings on healing outcomes of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care 2010;19(5):208-15.
Kero 1987 {published data only}
  • Kero M, Tarvainen K, Hollmen A, Pekanmaki K. A comparison of cadexomer iodine with dextranomer in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;42(5):761-7.
  • Tarvainen K. Cadexomer iodine (Iodosorb) compared with dextranomer (Debrisan) in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica (Supplementum) 1988;544:57-9.
Kuznetsov 2009 {published data only}
  • Kuznetsov NA, Rodoman GV, Nikitin VG, Karev MA, Shalayeva TI. The use of current bandages in the treatment of patients with venous trophic ulcers of the skin: clinical and economic aspects. Khirurgiia 2009;11:63-9.
Laudanska 1988 {published data only}
  • Laudanska H, Gustavson B. In-patient treatment of chronic varicose venous ulcers: a randomized trial of cadexomer iodine versus standard dressings. Journal of International Medical Research 1988;16(6):428-35.
Lazareth 2008 {published data only}
  • Lazareth I, Meaume S, Sigal-Grinberg ML, Combemale P, Le Guyadec T, Zagnoli A, et al. The role of a silver releasing lipido-colloid contact layer in venous leg ulcers presenting inflammatory signs suggesting heavy bacterial colonization: results of a randomized controlled study. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 2008;20(6):158-66.
  • Sigal-Grinberg M, Senet P, Lazareth I, Sauvadet A, Bohbot S. Evaluation of a new contact layer impregnated with silver salts in the management of critically colonized venous leg ulcers. Results of a randomized clinical trial. 17th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2007 May 2-4, Glasgow, Scotland. 2007:31.
Lindsay 1986 {published data only}
  • Lindsay G, Latta D, Lyons KGB, Livingstone ED, Thomson W. A study in general practice of the efficacy of cadexomer iodine in venous leg ulcers treated on alternate days. Acta Therapeutica 1986;12:141-7.
Meaume 2005 {published data only}
  • Meaume S, Vallet D, Morere MN, Téot L. Evaluation of a silver-releasing hydroalginate dressing in chronic wounds with signs of local infection. Journal of Wound Care 2005;14(9):411-19.
  • Meaume S, Vallet D, Morere MN, Téot L. Evaluation of a silver-releasing hydroalginate dressing in chronic wounds with signs of local infection [Evaluation einer silberionen-freisetzenden hydroalinat-wundauflage bei chronischen wunden mit anzeichen einer lokalen infektion]. Zeitschrift fur Wundheilung 2006;11(5):236-45.
Michaels 2009 {published data only}
  • Michaels JA, Campbell B, King B, Palfreyman SJ, Shackley P, Stevenson M. Randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis of silver-donating antimicrobial dressings for venous leg ulcers (VULCAN trial). British Journal of Surgery 2009;96(10):1147-56.
  • Michaels JA, Campbell WB, King BM, MacIntyre J, Palfreyman SJ, Shackley P, et al. A prospective randomised controlled trial and economic modelling of antimicrobial silver dressings versus non-adherent control dressings for venous leg ulcers: the VULCAN trial. Health Technology Assessment 2009;13(56):1-138.
  • Palfreyman S, King B, Turner B, Sears N, Carmody SE, Michaels J. An update on the progress of the VULCAN trial. Wounds UK 2006;2(2):35-44.
  • Palfreyman S, Walker N. Venous leg ulcers and the VULCAN trial. British Journal of Nursing 2007;16(8):442-3.
Miller 2010 {published data only}
  • Carville K, Kapp S, Newall N, Saflekas S, Lewin G, Gliddon T, et al. Predicting covert and overt infection in venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Wound Management Association 7th National Conference: Dreams, Diversity, Disasters, 2008 May 7-10, Darwin, Australia. 2008.
  • Kapp S, Carville K, Saflekas S, Newall N, Lewin G, Flowers C, et al. The Angior initiative: results of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two antimicrobials. 3rd Congress of the World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2008 June 4-8, Toronto, Canada. 2008.
  • Kapp S, Carville K, Saflekas S, Newall N, Lewin G, Flowers C, et al. The Angior Initiative: results of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two antimicrobials. Australian Wound Management Association 7th National Conference: Dreams, Diversity, Disasters, 2008 May 7-10, Darwin, Australia. 2008.
  • Miller C, Kapp S, Newall N, Lewin G, Karimi L, Carville K, et al. Predicting concordance with multilayer compression bandaging. Journal of Wound Care 2011;20(2):101-12.
  • Miller C, Karimi L, Kapp S, Newall N, Lewin G, Carville K, et al. Client perceptions of two types of antimicrobial dressings and compression bandaging. Wound Practice and Research 2010;18(3):124-32.
  • Miller CN, Carville K, Newall N, Kapp S, Lewin G, Karimi L, et al. Assessing bacterial burden in wounds: comparing clinical observation and wound swabs. International Wound Journal 2011;8(1):45-55.
  • Miller CN, Newall N, Kapp SE, Lewin G, Karimi L, Carville K, et al. A randomized-controlled trial comparing cadexomer iodine and nanocrystalline silver on the healing of leg ulcers. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2010;18(4):359-67.
Morias 1979 {published data only}
  • Morias J, Peremans W, Campaert H, Mertens RL. Levamisole treatment in ulcus cruris. A double-blind placebo-controlled. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1979;29(7):1050-2.
Moss 1987 {published data only}
  • Moss C, Taylor A, Shuster S. Controlled trial of Iodosorb in chronic venous ulcers. BMJ 1985;297(6499):902.
  • Moss C, Taylor AEM, Shuster S. Comparison of cadexomer iodine and dextranomer for chronic venous ulcers. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 1987;12(6):413-8.
  • Moss C, Taylow A, Shuster S. Comparative study of cadexomer iodine and dextranomer in chronic leg ulcers. Scottish Medical Journal 1984;25:54.
Münter 2006 {published data only}
  • Münter K-C, Beele H, Russell L, Basse PB, Groechenig E, Crespi A, et al. The CONTOP Study: a large-scale, comparative, randomised study in patients treated with a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing. European Wound Management Association Conference, 2005 September 15-17, Stuttgart, Germany. 2005:Poster abstracts P193 292.
  • Münter KC, Beele H, Russell L, Basse PB, Groechenig E, Crespi A, et al. The CONTOP Study: a large-scale, comparative, randomized study in patients treated with a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing. Symposium on Advanced Wound Care & Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair, 2006 April 30 - May 3, San Antonio, Texas. 2006:Poster 11.
  • Münter KC, Beele H, Russell L, Basse PB, Gröchenig E, Crespi A, et al. The CONTOP Study: improved healing of delayed healing ulcers with sustained silver-releasing foam dressing versus other silver dressings. 16th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2006 May 18-20, Prague, Czech Republic. 2006:210, Abstract No.P068.
  • Münter KC, Beele H,   Russell L, Crespi A, Gröchenig E, Basse P, et al. Effect of a sustained silver-releasing dressing on ulcers with delayed healing: the CONTOP study. Journal of Wound Care 2005;15(5):199-206.
  • Russell L (on behalf of the UK investigators). The CONTOP multinational study: preliminary data from the UK arm. Wounds UK 2005;1(1):44-54.
  • Russell L, Nebbioso G, Münter KC, Beele H, Basse PB, Dienst H. The CONTOP Study: a hydro-activated silver containing foam dressing versus standard care. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2004 July 8-13, Paris, France. 2004.
  • Scalise A, Forma O, Happe M, Hahn TW. The CONTOP study: real life experiences from an international study comparing a silver containing hydro-activated foam dressing with standard wound care. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2003 May 22-24, Pisa, Italy. 2003.
Ormiston 1985 {published data only}
  • Ormiston MC, Seymour MT, Venn GE, Cohen RI, Fox JA. A randomised comparison of cadexomer iodine and a standard treatment in out-patients with chronic venous ulcers. Cadexomer Iodine. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag, 1983:63-9.
  • Ormiston MC, Seymour MT, Venn GE, Cohen RI, Fox JA. Controlled trial of Iodosorb in chronic venous ulcers. BMJ 1985;291(6491):308-10.
Skog 1983 {published data only}
  • Hillstrom L. Iodosorb compared to standard treatment in chronic venous leg ulcers--a multicenter study. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica - Supplementum 1988;544:53-6.
  • Skog E, Arnesjö B, Troëng T, Gjöres JE, Bergljung L, Gundersen J, et al. A randomized trial comparing cadexomer iodine and standard treatment in the out-patient management of chronic venous ulcers. British Journal of Dermatology 1983;109(1):77-83.
  • Troëng T, Skog E, Arnesjö B, Gjöres JE, Bergljung L, Gundersen J, et al. A randomised multicentre trial to compare the efficacy of cadexomer iodine and standard treatment in the management of chronic venous ulcers in out-patients. Unpublished report 43-50.
Smith 1992 {published data only}
  • Smith JM, Dore CJ, Charlett A, Lewis JD. A randomized trial of biofilm dressing for venous leg ulcers. Phlebology 1992;7(3):108-13.
Steele 1986 {published data only}
Valtonen 1989 {published data only}
  • Valtonen V, Karppinen L, Kariniemi AL. A comparative study of Ciprofloxacin and conventional therapy in the treatment of patients with chronic lower leg ulcers infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other gram-negative rods. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases Supplement 1989;60:79-83.
Wunderlich 1991 {published data only}
  • Wunderlich U, Orfanos CE. Treatment of venous ulcera cruris with dry wound dressings. Phase overlapping use of silver impregnated activated charcoal xero-dressing [Bedhandlung der ulcera cruris venosa mit trockenen wundauflagen. Phasenübergreifende anwendung eines silber-imprägnierten aktivkohle-xerodressings]. Der Hautarzt 1991;42(7):446-50.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Allen 1980 {published data only}
  • Allen S, Cooper J. The effect of an antibacterial on pain ulcerated legs. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1980;10:284-5.
Allen 1996 {published data only}
  • Allen RB, Kerstein M, Klassen H, Friedmann PS, Pryce DW, Lawrence JC, et al. Prospective study of clinical infections in wounds dressed with occlusive versus conventional dressings. 9th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and 6th Annual Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair, 20-24 April 1996, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 1996.
  • Hermans M. A prospective clinical trial of wound dressings to investigate the rate of infection under occlusion. First World Wound Healing Congress, 10-13 September 2000, Melbourne, Australia. 2000.
Altman 1976 {published data only}
  • Altman MA, Richter IH, Kaplan LH. Use of an aqueous triple iodine solution in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers and gangrene. Angiology 1976;76(27):181-7.
Anonymous 1982 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Does metronidazole help leg ulcers and pressure sores?. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 1982;20(3):9-10.
Bazzigaluppi 1991 {published data only}
  • Bazzigaluppi F, Biraghi MG, Fano M, Moschin AM, Toscani P, Cervone C, et al. Cadexomer iodine in the treatment of cutaneous ulcers: open, multicentric trial. Gazetta Medica Italiana - Archivo per le Scienze Mediche 1991;150(11):471-80.
Beele 2010 {published data only}
Beitner 1985c {published data only}
  • Beitner H. Treatment of chronic leg ulcers with topical application of benzoyl peroxide lotion. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(4):657-60.
Bender 1982 {published data only}
  • Bender E. Local treatment of leg ulcers with silver sulfadiazine in ambulatory practice [Die lokale behandlung von unterschenkelgeschwüren mit sulfadiazin-silber in der ambulanten praxis]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1982;100(29):1372-3.
Bourgeois 1963 {published data only}
  • Bourgeois P. Clinical trials of Kitasamycin. Gazette Medicale de France 1963;70:22-5.
Brauman 2008 {published data only}
  • Braumann C, Pirlich M, Menenakos C, Lochs H, Mueller JM. Implementation of the clean and close concept for treatment of surgical and chronic wounds in three university centres in Berlin - Germany. Abstract number 44. EWMA Journal 2008;8(2 Suppl):41.
Brzeziska 1990 {published data only}
  • Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Krauze E, Suwała-Jurczyk B. Levamisole in the treatment of crural ulcers [Levamisol w leczeniu owrzodzen podudzi]. Przeglad Dermatologiczny 1990;77(1):51-5.
Castellano 2007 {published data only}
Chaparro 2003 {published data only}
  • Chaparro M, Alvarez de los Heros F, Novo E, Rodriguez-Alvarez J, Stolle D, Losada A. Effectiveness of topical treatment of chronic varicose ulcers with sterile single-dose ciprofloxacin ampoules versus physiologic serum. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia 2003;38(3):145-52.
Chaudhary 2008 {published data only}
  • Chaudhary M, Kumar Dwivedi V, Naithani V. Clinical trial survey report of ampucare done on patients with different wounds. Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health 2008;8(1-2):89-97.
Cherry 2003 {published data only}
  • Cherry GW. Comparison of Syerilox with tap water in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the leg. National Research Register 2003.
Chirwa 2010 {published data only}
  • Chirwa Z, Bhengu T, Litiane K. The cost effectiveness of using calcium alginate silver matrix in the treatment of wounds. EWMA Journal 2010;10(2):257.
Colombo 1993 {published data only}
  • Colombo P. Topical chloroxidating solution in wounds treatment: a controlled trial. Acta Toxicologica Therapeutica 1993;24:65-71.
Colonna 2004 {published data only}
  • Colonna MR, Amadeo G, Giofre C, Strano A, Stagno D'Alcontres F. Are nanocristalline silver dressings effective in reducing both secretions and bacterial colonization in necrotic infected wounds. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 8-13 July 2004, Paris. 2004:91.
Contretas-Ruiz 2004 {published data only}
  • Contretas-Ruiz J, Fuentes-Suarez S, Arroyo-Escalante S, Sosa-De-Martinez C, Maravilla-Franco E, Dominguez-Cherit J. Larval debridement therapy to control infection in venous leg ulcers. A comparative study. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 8-13 July 2004, Paris. 2004:103.
Coutts 2005 {published data only}
Daltrey 1981 {published data only}
  • Daltrey DC, Cunliffe WJ. A double-blind study of the effects of benzoyl peroxide 20% and eusol and liquid paraffin on the microbial flora of leg ulcers. Acta Dermatologica Venereologica 1981;61(6):575-7.
Danielsen 1997 {published data only}
  • Danielsen L, Cherry GW, Harding K, Rollman O. Cadexomer iodine in ulcers colonised by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Wound Care 1997;6(4):169-72.
Dharap 2008 {published data only}
  • Dharap SB, Ghag GS, Kulkarni KP, Venkatesh V. Efficacy and safety of oxum in treatment of the venous ulcer. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 2008;106(5):326-9.
Ferra 2007 {published data only}
  • Ferrara F, Meli F, Raimondi F, Amato C, Bonura F, Mulè G. The treatment of venous leg ulcers, a new therapeutic use of iloprost. Annals of Surgery 2007;246(5):860-4.
Fox 1966 {published data only}
  • Fox DB. Trial of betamethasone 17-valerate with neomycin tulle in the treatment of gravitational eczema and ulceration of the leg. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1966;20:183-9.
Friedman 1984 {published data only}
  • Friedman SJ, Su WP. Management of leg ulcers with hydrocolloid occlusive dressing. Archives of Dermatology 1984;120(10):1329-36.
Garcia 1984 {published data only}
  • Garcia HGG, Cobian RR, Martin JR, Konaizeh S, Rahola JG. The effect on the reparation process of dextranomer (Debrisan) in perimalleolar ulcers due to chronic venous insufficiency. Clinical Trials Journal 1984;21(3):121-34.
Gottrup 2003 {published data only}
  • Gottrup F, Aabenhus A, Holt R and the Contreet Study Group. Evaluation of clinical results from 4 studies on two new antibacterial silver containing dressings. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 22-24 May 2003, Pisa, Italy. 2003.
Haler 1964 {published data only}
  • Haler D. Polynoxylin: a new antiseptic. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1964;May 18:267-9.
Hanft 2006 {published data only}
  • Hanft J, Serena T, Snyder R. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of a collagen-orc antimicrobial matrix in venous leg ulcers. 16th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 18-20 May 2006, Prague, Czech Republic. 2006.
  • Hanft JR, Serena T, Snyder R. A study to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a Collagen-ORC Antimicrobial Matrix in venous leg ulcers. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2006;14(2):A64.
Heggers 2003 {published data only}
Howell-Jones 2005 {published data only}
  • Howell Jones RS, Wilson MJ, Hill KE, Howard AJ, Price PE, Thomas DW. A review of the microbiology, antibiotic usage and resistance in chronic skin wounds. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2005;55(2):143-9.
Hutchinson 1993 {published data only}
  • Hutchinson JJ. A prospective clinical trial of wound dressings to investigate the rate of infection under occlusion. 3rd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management, 19-22 October 1993, Harrogate, UK. 1993.
  • Hutchinson JJ. Influence of occlusive dressings on wound microbiology—interim results of a multi-centre clinical trial of an occlusive hydrocolloid dressing. 1st European Conference on Advances in Wound Management, 4-6 September 1991, Cardiff, UK. 1991.
Ivins 2006 {published data only}
  • Ivins N, Harding KG, Price P, Jørgensen B, Lohmann M, Gottrup F, et al. Safety and efficacy in long-term use of a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing: a randomized, controlled trial on venous leg ulcers. SAWC 2006, April 30 - May 3, 2006, San Antonio, Texas. 2006.
  • Ivins N, Jørgensen B, Lohmann M. Safety and efficacy in long term use of a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing: a randomised, controlled trial on venous leg ulcers. European Wound Management Association Conference, 15-17 September 2005, Stuttgart, Germany. 2005.
Karap 2008 {published data only}
  • Karap Z. Significant difference in pain levels of delayed-healing wounds during applying an ionic silver hydrofibre dressing. Poster 281. EWMA Journal. Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2008, Lisbon, Portugal. 2008.
Karas 1984 {published data only}
  • Karas Z, Zabel J, Erenski P. Treatment of chronic crural ulcers with Pseudomonilia. Przeglad Dermatologiczny 1984;71(1):78-9.
Katelaris 1987 {published data only}
Kordestani 2008 {published data only}
  • Kordestani S, Shahrezaee M, Tahmasebi MN, Hajimahmodi H, Haji Ghasemali D, Abyaneh MS. A randomised control trial on the effectiveness of an advanced wound dressing used in Iran. Journal of wound care July 2008;17(7):323-7.
Kosicek 2004 {published data only}
  • Kosicek M, Planinsek Rucigaj T. A comparative clinical trial: microbial colonisation of venous leg ulcers treated with hydrofibre dressings or with ointments. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 8-13 July 2004, Paris. 2004.
Lanzara 2008 {published data only}
  • Lanzara S, Tacconi G, Gianesini S, Menegatti E, Federici F, Liboni A, et al. A pilot randomized trial to determine the effects of a new active dressing on wound healing of venous leg ulcers. EWMA Journal 2008;8(2 Suppl):76.
Lischka 1980 {published data only}
  • Lischka G, Wolff HH. Benzoyl peroxide for the treatment of badly healing leg ulcers: a double-blind study. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1980;122(49):1781-4.
Locati 1994 {published data only}
  • Locati F, Rozzoni M, Reseghetti A, Sena P. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of a new cutaneous antiseptic combination. Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia 1994;129(5):XXVII-XXX.
Magana Lozano 1980 {published data only}
  • Magana Lozano M. Ulcer leg complex: double blind study of bromelins alone or associated to tetracyclines. Compendium de Investigaciones Clinicas Latinoamericanas 1980;1(2):6-12.
Maiques Nadal 1976 {published data only}
  • Maiques Nadal V, Zambrano Zambrano A. Trial of an enzymatic preparation in the treatment of various ulcerative processes. Revista Clinica Espanola 1976;141(1):67-72.
Mancuso 1994 {published data only}
  • Mancuso G, Staffa M, Errani A. Acetic acid in the treatment of superficial dermic burns and venous leg ulcers infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chronica Dermatologica 1994;4(3):473-8.
Markoishvili 2002 {published data only}
  • Markoishvili K, Tsitlanadze G, Katsarava R, Morris JG Jr, Sulakvelidze A. A novel sustained-release matrix based on biodegradable poly(ester amide)s and impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic shows promise in management of infected venous stasis ulcers and other poorly healing wounds. International Journal of Dermatology 2002;41(7):453-8.
Marzin 1982 {published data only}
McKnight 1965 {published data only}
Mehtar S 1988 {published data only}
  • Mehtar S, Fox D. A double-blind comparative study with Mupirocin vs placebo base in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1988;42(8):324-8.
Mogabgab 1984 {published data only}
  • Mogabgab WJ. Treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections with cefsulodin. Reviews of Infectious Diseases  1984;6(Suppl 3):S721-7.
Morely de Benzaquen 1990 {published data only}
  • Morely de Benzaquen S, Cirelli N, Halmai O, Sanjuan E, Piquero Martín J, Arbona J, et al. Argentic sulfadiazine in lower limbs ulcers: double-blinded study. Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica 1990;9(2):116-9.
Motta 2004 {published data only}
  • Motta GJ, Milne CT, Corbett LQ. Impact of antimicrobial gauze on bacterial colonies in wounds that require packing. Ostomy/Wound Management 2004;50(8):48-62.
Nakagawa 1997 {published data only}
  • Nakagawa K, Kobayashi H, Kono T, Hayashi A, Tsuruta D, Ishii M. Evaluation of the effects of cadexomer iodine ointment (Decrat(TM) ointment) in the treatment of skin Ulcer. Skin Research 1997;39(3):364-78.
Ouvry 1989 {published data only}
  • Ouvry PA. A trial of silver sulfadiazine in the local treatment of venous ulcer [Essai de la sulfadiazine argentique dans le traitement local de l'ulcѐre veineux]. Phlebologie 1989;42(4):673-9.
Pardes 1993 {published data only}
  • Pardes JB, Carson PA, Eaglstein WH, Falanga V. Mupirocin treatment of exudative venous ulcers. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1993;29(3):497-8.
Paul 1990 {published data only}
  • Paul E. Wound healing with Iruxol. Results of a multicenter study. Fortschritte der Medizin 1990;108(35):679-81.
Pegum 1968 {published data only}
  • Pegum JM, Fegan WG. Polynoxylin in the treatment of varicose ulcers. Irish Journal of Medical Science 1968;7(7):299-302.
Pereira 2004 {published data only}
  • Pereira M, Baudrier T, Cotta F, Mota A, Fonseca C. Influence of 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution on bacterial countings in leg ulcers. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 8-13 July 2004, Paris. 2004.
Pierard-Franchimont 1997 {published data only}
  • Pierard-Franchimont C, Paquet P, Arrese JE, Pierard GE. Healing rate and bacterial necrotizing vasculitis in venous leg ulcers. Dermatology 1997;194(4):383-7.
Planinsek 2006 {published data only}
  • Planinsek TR. Treatment of venous leg ulcers with different alginate dressings: their effects on healing rate and pain. 16th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 18-20 May 2006, Prague, Czech Republic. 2006:154.
Pollice 1989 {published data only}
  • Pollice F, D'Agostino D, Mirizzi F. Treatment of varicose ulcer with iodine cadexomere in powder form. Phlebologie 1989:1184-7.
Privat 1979 {published data only}
Robson 2009 {published data only}
Rogers 2000 {published data only}
  • Rogers RR, Alvarez OM, Patel M. Effect of a silver ion-containing wound dressing on the bacterial burden of chronic venous ulcers. 13th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and 10th Annual Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair, 1-4 April 2000, Dallas, Texas. 2000:D35-D36.
Romanelli 2010 {published data only}
  • Romanelli M, Dini V, Barbanera S, Bertone MS. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of a solution containing propyl betaine and polihexanide for wound irrigation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 2010;23(Suppl 1):41-4.
  • Romanelli M, Dini V, Bertone MS. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of a cleansing solution with propil betaine and polyhexanide in reducing the bacterial load of venous wounds in lower limbs (poster presentation). 17th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2-4 May 2007, Glasgow, Scotland. 2007.
Rubisz Brzeziska 87 {published data only}
  • Rubisz-Brzezińska J, Szarmach H, Filipiuk J, Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Wilkowska A. Benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of crural ulcerations [Nadtlenek benzoilu w leczeniu owrzodzeń podudzi]. Przeglad Dermatologiczny 1987;74(4-5):363-9.
Rucigaj 2007a {published data only}
  • Rucigaj TP. Comparative effects of honey based and silver/charcoal based dressings on the healing of venous leg ulcers: a randomized clinical study. 17th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2-4 May 2007, Glasgow, Scotland. 2007.
Rucigaj 2007b {published data only}
  • Rucigaj TP. Effectiveness of non alcohol film forming skin protector on skins isles inside the ulcers and the healing rate of venous leg ulcers. EWMA Journal 2007;7(1):23-5.
Salim 1991 {published data only}
  • Salim AS. The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in the management of venous (varicose) ulceration: a new approach. World Journal of Surgery 1991;15(2):264-9.
Sanchez-Vasquez 2008 {published data only}
  • Sánchez-Vázquez R, Briseño-Rodríguez G, Cardona-Muñoz EG, Gálvez-Gastélum FJ, Totsuka-Sutto SE, Garcia-Benavides L. Isosorbide dinitrate spray as therapeutic strategy for treatment of chronic venous ulcers. Angiology 2008;59(1):64-71.
Serra 2005 {published data only}
  • Serra N, Torres OG, Romo MI, Llovera JM, Vigil-Escalera LJ, Soto MA, et al. Hydro-colloidal dressings which liberate hydro-active silver [Apósitos hidrocoloides liberadores de plata hidroactiva: estudio clínico comparativo en el tratamiento de úlceras crónicas]. Revista de Enfermeria 2005;28(2):13-8.
Sibbald 2007 {published data only}
  • Sibbald RG, Coutts P, Fierheller M, Woo K. A pilot (real-life) randomised clinical evaluation of a pain-relieving foam dressing: (Ibuprofen-foam versus local best practice). International Wound Journal 2007;4(Suppl 1):16-23.
Sibbald 2011 {published data only}
  • Sibbald RG, Coutts P, Woo KY. Reduction of bacterial burden and pain in chronic wounds using a new polyhexamethylene biguanide antimicrobial foam dressing-clinical trial results. Advances in Skin and Wound Care 2011;24(2):78-84.
  • Woo K, Sibbald G, Coutts P. Reduction of infection and pain in chronic wounds using a new antimicrobial foam dressing. EWMA Journal 2010;10(2):59, Abstract 78.
Steenvoorde 2007 {published data only}
  • Steenvoorde P, van Doorn LP, Jacobi CE, Oskam J. An unexpected effect of Dermacyn on infected leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 2007;16(2):60-1.
Subrahmanyam 1993 {published data only}
  • Subrahmanyam M. Honey as a surgical dressing for burns and ulcers. Indian Journal of Surgery 1993;55(9):468-73.
Thebbe 1996 {published data only}
  • Thebbe B, Orfanos CE. Therapy of leg ulcers and decubitus ulcers with a xerodressing: modern wound dressing with anti-bacterial activity. Zeitschrift fur Hautkrankheiten 1996;71(9):697-702.
Thorne 1965 {published data only}
  • Thorne N, Fox D. A trial of povidone-iodine ointment in the treatment of leg ulcers. The Practitioner 1965;Feb:250-3.
Wuite 1974 {published data only}
  • Wuite J, van der Meer BJ. Local silver nitrate therapy in leg ulcer associated with aPseudomonas aeruginosa super infection [Silbernitrat-lokaltherapie bei ulcus cruris mit pseudomonas aeruginosa-superinfektion]. Der Hautarzt 1974;25(8):388-91.

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
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