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Modification of the home environment for the reduction of injuries

  1. Samantha Turner1,*,
  2. Geri Arthur2,
  3. Ronan A Lyons1,
  4. Alison L Weightman3,
  5. Mala K Mann3,
  6. Sarah J Jones4,
  7. Ann John2,
  8. Simon Lannon5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 16 FEB 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 NOV 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003600.pub3

How to Cite

Turner S, Arthur G, Lyons RA, Weightman AL, Mann MK, Jones SJ, John A, Lannon S. Modification of the home environment for the reduction of injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003600. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003600.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Swansea University, School of Medicine, Swansea, UK

  2. 2

    School of Medicine, Public Health Wales; Swansea University, Swansea, UK

  3. 3

    Information Services, Cardiff University, Support Unit for Research Evidence (SURE), Cardiff, Wales, UK

  4. 4

    Cardiff University, Public Health Wales; Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff, UK

  5. 5

    Cardiff University, Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff, UK

*Samantha Turner, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Grove Building, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 16 FEB 2011



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Babul 2007 {published data only}
  • Babul S, Olsen L, Janssen P, McIntee P, Raina P, Babul S, et al. A randomized trial to assess the effectiveness of an infant home safety programme. International Journal of Injury Control & Safety Promotion 2007;14(2):109-17.
Becker 2003 {published data only}
Campbell 2005 {published data only}
  • Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, La Grow SJ, Kerse NM, Sanderson GF, Jacobs RJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged greater than or equal to 75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial. BMJ 2005;331(7520):817-20.
  • La Grow SJ, Robertson MC, Cambell AJ, Clarke GA, Kerse NM. Reducing hazard related falls in people 75 years and older with significant visual impairment: how did a successful program work?. Injury Prevention 2006;12:296-301.
Carter unpublished {unpublished data only}
  • Carter S, Campbell E, Sanson-Fisher R, Corkrey R, Gillespie W. A trial of two strategies aimed at reducing falls through home hazard modification and medication review. Unpublished (permission to quote granted).
Clamp 1998 {published data only}
Close 1999 {published data only}
Cumming 1999 {published data only}
  • Cumming RG, Thomas M, Szonyi G, Salkeld G, O'Neill E, Westbury C, et al. Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards:a randomized trial of falls prevention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999;47:1397-402.
Day 2002 {published data only}
Elley 2008 {published data only}
Gielen 2002 {published data only}
  • Gielen AC, McDonald EM, Wilson MEH, Hwang WT, Serwint J, Andrews JS, et al. Effects of improved access to safety counselling, products and home visits on parents' safety practices: Results of a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2002;156:33-40.
  • Gielen AC, Wilson ME, McDonald EM, Serwint JR, Andrews JS, Hwang WT, et al. Randomized trial of enhanced anticipatory guidance for injury prevention. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2001;155:42-9.
Gitlin 2006 {published data only}
Hendrickson 2005 {published data only}
Hendriks 2008 {published data only}
Hogan 2001 {published data only}
  • Hogan DB, MacDonald FA, Betts J, Bricker S, Ebly EM, Delarue B, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a community-based consultation service to prevent falls. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2001;165(5):537-43.
Jenson 2002 {published data only}
Kendrick 1999 {published data only}
King 2005 {published data only}
  • King WJ, Klassen TP, LeBlanc J, Bernard-Bonnin AC, Robitaille Y, Pham B, et al. The effectiveness of a home visit to prevent childhood injury. Pediatrics 2001;108(2):382-8.
  • King WJ, LeBlanc JC, Barrowman NJ, Klassen TP, Bernard-Bonnin A-C, Robitaille Y, et al. Long term effects of a home visit to prevent childhood injury: three year follow up of a randomized trial. Injury Prevention 2005;11:106-9.
Mahoney 2007 {published data only}
Nikolaus 2003 {published data only}
Pardessus 2002 {published data only}
  • Pardessus V, Parieux F, Di P, Gaudefroy C, Thevenon A, Dewailly P. Benifits of home visits for falls and autonomy in the elderly: a randomised study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002;81(4):247-52.
Posner 2004 {published data only}
  • Posner JC, Hawkins LA, Garcia-Espana F, Durbin DR. A randomized, clinical trial of a home safety intervention based in an emergency department setting. Pediatrics 2004;113:1603-8.
Salminen 2009 {published data only}
Sangvai 2007 {published data only}
Shaw 2003 {published data only}
  • Shaw FE, Bond J, Richardson DA, Dawson P, Steen IN, McKeith IG. Multifactorial intervention after a fall in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:73-9.
Stevens 2001 {published data only}
Tinetti 1994 {published data only}
  • Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Blaus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331(13):821-7.
Van Haastregt 2000b {published data only}
  • Van Haastregt JCM, Diederiks JPM, Van Rossum E, De Witte LP, Woorhoeve PM, Crebolder HF. Effects of a programme of multifactorial home visits on falls and mobility impairments in elderly people at risk: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000;321:994-8.
Vetter 1992 {published data only}
Watson 2005 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Assantachai 2002 {published data only}
  • Assantachi P, Chatthanaearee W, Thamlikitkul V, Praditsuwan R, Pisalsarakij D. Strategy to prevent falls in the Thai elderly: a controlled study integrated health research program for the Thai elderly. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2002;85:215-22.
Barnes 2004 {published data only}
  • Barnes BR, Mathee A, Krieger L, Shafritz L, Favin M, Sherburne L, et al. Testing selected behaviors to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in young children. Health Education Research 2004;19(5):543-50.
Binns 2004 {published data only}
  • Binns HJ, Gray KA, Chen T, Finster ME, Peneff N, Schaefer P, et al. Evaluation of landscape coverings to reduce soil lead hazards in urban residential yards: The Safer Yards Project. Environmental Research 2004;96(2):127-38.
Boreland 2006 {published data only}
Bouwen 2008 {published data only}
  • Bouwen A, De Lepeleire J, Buntinx F, Bouwen A, De Lepeleire J, Buntinx F. Rate of accidental falls in institutionalised older people with and without cognitive impairment halved as a result of a staff-oriented intervention. Age & Ageing 2008;37(3):306-10.
Caplan 2004 {published data only}
Carman 2006 {published data only}
  • Carman J, Friedman E, Lamb D, Lennon K. Evaluating the impact of a child injury prevention project. Community Practitioner 2006;79(6):188-92.
Casteel 2004 {published data only}
Ciaschini 2009 {published data only}
  • Ciaschini PM, Straus SE, Dolovich LR, Goeree RA, Leung KM, Woods CR, et al. Community-based intervention to optimise falls risk management: a randomised controlled trial. Age & Ageing 2009;38(6):724-30.
Clemson 1996 {published data only}
Colver 1982 {published data only}
Conn 2005 {published data only}
  • Conn L. Mind your Step! A falls prevention programme designed to reduce falls in those over 75 years. Quality in Ageing 2005;8(1):10-22.
Dershewitz 1979 {published data only}
  • Dershewtiz RA. Will mothers use free household safety devices?. American Journal of Diseases in Childhood 1979;133:61-4.
Diener 2005 {published data only}
  • Diener DD, Mitchel JM. Impact of a multifactorial fall prevention program upon falls of older frail adults attending an adult health day care center. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 2005;21(3):247-57.
Dixon 2009 {published data only}
  • Dixon SL, Fowler C, Harris J, Moffat S, Martinez Y, Walton H, et al. An examination of interventions to reduce respiratory health and injury hazards in homes of low-income families. Environmental Research 2009;109(1):123-30.
Duff 2002 {published data only}
  • Duff S, Ryan M, Mullan C, O'Keefe B, Nicholson AJ. The use of local accident and emergency injury surveillance to monitor the impact of a lay safety community programme. Irish Medical Journal 2002;95(5):143-5.
Durongritichai 2003 {published data only}
  • Durogritichai V, Tongvichean S, Silapasuwan P, Plitponkarnpim A, Nontapatamadul K. Caregiver self-help group development for preschooler home injury prevention: community-action research perspective. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2003;7(1):23-36.
Fergusson 2005 {published data only}
Filiatrault 2007 {published data only}
  • Filiatrault J, Parisien M, Laforest S, Genest C, Gauvin L, Fournier M, et al. Implementing a community-based falls-prevention program: from drawing board to reality. Canadian Journal on Aging 2007;26(3):213-25.
Gerson 2005 {published data only}
Gillespie-Bennett 2008 {published data only}
Ginnelly 2005 {published data only}
  • Ginnelly L, Sculpher M, Bojke C, Roberts I, Wade A, Diguiseppi C, et al. Determining the cost effectiveness of a smoke alarm give-away program using data from a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Public Health 2005;15(5):448-53.
Haynes 2003 {published data only}
Hermann 1999 {published data only}
  • Hermann R, Meier-Baumgartner HP. Hip-fracture in the elderly caused by a fall - etiology and rehabilitation [Die sturzbedingte, proximale Femurfraktur alterer Menschen - Atiologie und Rehabilitation]. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie 1999;32:52-7.
Hornbrook 1994 {published data only}
  • Hornbrook MC, Stevens VJ, Wingfield DJ, Hollis JF, Greenlick MR, Ory MG. Preventing falls among community-dwelling older persons: results from a randomized trial. Gerontologist 1994;34(1):16-23.
Huang 2003 {published data only}
Huang 2004 {published data only}
Iwarsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Iwarsson S, Horstmann V, Carlsson G, Oswald F, Wahl H. Person-environment fit predicts falls in older adults better than the consideration of environmental hazards only. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23(6):558-67.
Johnston 2000 {published data only}
  • Johnston BD, Britt J, D'Ambrosio L, Mueller BA, Rivara FP. A preschool program for safety ad injury prevention delivered by home visitors. Injury Prevention 2000;6:305-09.
Katcher 1989 {published data only}
  • Katcher ML, Landry GL, Shapiro MM. Liquid-crystal thermometer use in pediatric office counseling about tap water burn prevention. Pediatrics 1989;83(5):766-71.
Kelly 1987 {published data only}
Kendrick 2008 {published data only}
  • Kendrick D, Stewart J, Coupland C, Hayes M, Hopkins N, McCabe D, et al. Randomised controlled trial of thermostatic mixer valves in reducing bath hot tap water temperature in families with young children in social housing: a protocol. Trials [Electronic Resource] 2008;9:14.
Kerse 2004 {published data only}
Laffoy 1997 {published data only}
Lamb 2008 {published data only}
  • Lamb SE, Fisher JD, Gates S, Potter R, Cooke MW, Carter YH. A national survey of services for the prevention and management of falls in the UK. BMC Health Services Research 2008;8:233.
Lannin 2007 {published data only}
  • Lannin NA, Clemson L, McCluskey A, Lin CW, Cameron ID, Barras S, et al. Feasibility and results of a randomised pilot-study of pre-discharge occupational therapy home visits. BMC Health Services Research 2007;7:42.
Lightbody 2002 {published data only}
  • Lightbody E, Watkins C, Leathley M, Sharma A, Lye M. Evaluation of a nurse-led falls prevention programme versus usual care: a randomized controlled trial. Age and Aging 2002;31(3):203-10.
Lin 2007 {published data only}
Llewellyn 2003 {published data only}
  • Llewellyn G, McConnell D, Honey A, Mayes R, Russo D. Promoting health and home safety for children of parents with intellectual disability: a randomized control trial.. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2003;24:405-31.
McLean 1996 {published data only}
  • McLean D, Lord S. Falling in older people at home: transfer limitations and environmental risk factors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 1996;43:13-8.
McMurdo 2000 {published data only}
Minkovitz 2010 {published data only}
Morgan 2005 {published data only}
  • Morgan RO, Devito CA, Stevens JA, Branche CM, Virnig BA, Wingo PA, et al. A self-assessment tool was reliable in identifying hazards in the homes of elders. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2005;58(12):1252-9.
Morgenstern 2000 {published data only}
Nelson 2005 {published data only}
  • Nelson CS, Higman SM, Sia C, McFarlane E, Fuddy L, Duggan AK, et al. Medical homes for at-risk children: parental reports of clinician-parent relationships, anticipatory guidance, and behavior changes. Pediatrics 2005;115(1):48-56.
Neno 2008 {published data only}
  • Neno R. The rise of falls research. Nursing Older People 2008;20(6):8-9.
Neyens 2009 {published data only}
  • Neyens JC, Dijcks BP, Twisk J, Schols JM, Van Haastregt JC, Van den Heuvel WJ, et al. A multifactorial intervention for the prevention of falls in psychogeriatric nursing home patients, a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Age & Ageing 2009;38(2):194-9.
Northridge 1995 {published data only}
Odendaal 2009 {published data only}
  • Odendaal W, Van Niekerk A, Jordaan E, Seedat M. The impact of a home visitation programme on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries: a randomised controlled trial. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2009;41(1):183-90.
Ozanne-Smith 2002 {published data only}
Paul 1994 {published data only}
  • Paul CL, Sanson-Fisher RW, Redman S. Preventing accidental injury to young children in the home using volunteers. Health Promotion International 1994;9(4):241-9.
Peel 2000 {published data only}
Peeters 2007 {published data only}
  • Peeters GM, De Vries OJ, Elders PJ, Pluijm SM, Bouter LM, Lips P, et al. Prevention of fall incidents in patients with a high risk of falling: design of a randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation of the effect of multidisciplinary transmural care. BMC Geriatrics 2007;7:15.
Petridou 1996 {published data only}
  • Petridou E, Polychronopoulou A, Dounis E, Tsampira P, Revinthi K, Trichopoulos D. Risk factors for injuries among the elderly in Greece. Accident Analysis and Prevention 1996;28(3):333-8.
Petridou 1997 {published data only}
  • Petridou E, Tolma E, Dessypris N, Trichopoulos D. A controlled evaluation of a community injury prevention project in two Greek islands. International Journal of Epidemiology 1997;26(1):173-9.
Plautz 1996 {published data only}
  • Plautz B, Beck DE, Selmar C, Radetsky M. Modifying the environment: a community-based injury-reduction program for elderly residents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1996;12(suppl.1):33-8.
Poulstrop 2000 {published data only}
  • Poulstrop A, Jeune B. Prevention of fall injuries requiring hospital treatment among community-dwelling elderly. European Journal of Public Health 2000;10:45-50.
Pressley 2009 {published data only}
  • Pressley JC, Kiragu A, Lapidus G, Pomerantz WJ, Ford H, Barlow B, et al. Race and ethnic differences in a multicenter study of home safety with vouchers redeemable for free safety devices. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2009;67(1 Suppl):S3-11.
Ramsey 2003 {published data only}
  • Ramsay LJ, Moreton G, Gorman DR, Blake E, Goh D, Elton RA, et al. Unintentional home injury in preschool-aged children: Looking for the key - an exploration of the inter-relationship and relative importance of potential risk factors. Public Health 2003;117(6):404-11.
Rizawati 2008 {published data only}
  • Rizawati M Mas Ayu. Home environment and fall at home among the elderly in Masjid Tanah Province. Journal of the University of Malaya Medical Centre 2008;11(2):72-82.
Roberts 2004 {published data only}
  • Roberts H, Curtis K, Liabo K, Rowland D, Diguiseppi C, Roberts I, et al. Putting public health evidence into practice: increasing the prevalence of working smoke alarms in disadvantaged inner city housing. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58(4):280-5.
Robertson 2005 {published data only}
Robson 2003 {published data only}
  • Robson E, Edwards J, Gallagher E, Baker D. Steady as you go (SAYGO): A falls-prevention program for seniors living in the community. Canadian Journal on Aging 2003;22(2):207-16.
Runyan 1992 {published data only}
Sattin 1998 {published data only}
  • Sattin RW, Rodriguez JG, DeVito CA, Wingo PA. Home environmental hazards and the risk of fall injury events among community-dwelling older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998;46:669-76.
Schwarz 1993 {published data only}
Schwebel 2009 {published data only}
  • Schwebel DC, Swart D, Hui SK, Simpson J, Hobe P. Paraffin-related injury in low-income South African communities: knowledge, practice and perceived risk. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009;87(9):700-6.
Spiegel 1977 {published data only}
Steinberg 2000 {published data only}
  • Steinberg M, Cartwright C, Peel N, Williams G. A sustainable programme to prevent falls and near falls in community dwelling older people: results of a randomised trial. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2000;54:227-32.
Stone 2007 {published data only}
  • Stone KE, Eastman EM, Gielen AC, Squires B, Hicks G, Kaplin D, et al. Home safety in inner cities: prevalence and feasibility of home safety-product use in inner-city housing. Pediatrics 2007;120(2):E346-53.
Studenski 1994 {published data only}
  • Studenski S, Duncan PW, Chandler J, Samsa G, Prescott B, Hogue C, et al. Predicting falls: the role of mobility and nonphysical factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1994;42:297-302.
Swart 2008 {published data only}
  • Swart L, Van Niekerk A, Seedat M, Jordaan E. Paraprofessional home visitation program to prevent childhood unintentional injuries in low-income communities: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention 2008;14(3):164-9.
Sznajder 2003 {published data only}
  • Sznajder M, Leduc S, Janvrin MP, Bonnin MH, Aegerter P, Baudier F, et al. Home delivery of an injury prevention kit for children in four French cities: a controlled randomized trial. Injury Prevention 2003;9(3):261-5.
Tanner 2003 {published data only}
Thomas 1984 {published data only}
  • Thomas KA, Hassanein RS, Christophersen ER. Evaluation of group well-child care for improving burn prevention practices in the home. Pediatrics 1984;74(5):879-82.
Thompson 1996 {published data only}
Tideiksaar 1990 {published data only}
  • Tideiksaar R. The biomedical and environmental characteristics of slips, stumbles and falls in the elderly. In: Gray, BE editor(s). Slips, Stumbles and Falls: pedestrian footwear and surfaces. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990:17-27.
Van Rijn 1991 {published data only}
Vind 2009 {published data only}
Wagner 1994 {published data only}
  • Wagner EH, LaCroix AZ, Grothaus L, Leveille SG, Hecht JA, Artz K, et al. Preventing disability and falls in older adults:a population-based randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84(11):1800-6.
Waller 1993 {published data only}
Weatherall 2004 {published data only}
  • Weatherall M. A targeted falls prevention programme plus usual care significantly reduces falls in elderly people during hospital stays. Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health 2004;8(5):Oct.
Wyman 2007 {published data only}
Xia 2009 {published data only}
  • Xia QH, Jiang Y, Niu CJ, Tang CX, Xia ZL, Xia QH, et al. Effectiveness of a community-based multifaceted fall-prevention intervention in active and independent older Chinese adults. Injury Prevention 2009;15(4):248-51.
Yang 2008 {published data only}
  • Yang J, Peek-Asa C, Jones MP, Nordstrom DL, Taylor C, Young TL, et al. Smoke alarms by type and battery life in rural households: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008;35(1):20-4.
Yates 2001 {published data only}
  • Yates SM, Dunnagan TA. Evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based fall risk reduction program for rural community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Gerontology 2001;56A(4):M226-30.
Ytterstad 1996 {published data only}
  • Ytterstad B. The Harstad injury prevention study:community based prevention of fall-fractures in the elderly evaluated by means of a hospital based injury recording system in Norway. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1996;50:551-8.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Campbell 1997
  • Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Tilyard MW, Buchner DM. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. BMJ 1997;315(7115):1065-9.
Campbell 2007
  • Campbell AJ, Robertson MC. Rethinking individual and community fall prevention strategies: a meta-regression comparing single and multifactorial interventions. Age Ageing 2007;36(6):656-62.
Chang 2004
  • Chang JT, Morton SC, Rubenstein LZ, Mojica WA, Maglione M, Suttorp MJ, et al. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 2004;328(7441):680-7.
Coleman 1996
  • Munro J, Coleman P, Nicholl J, Harper R. The effectiveness of interventions to prevent accidental injury to young persons aged 15-24 years: a review of the evidence. Sheffield: University of Sheffield Medical Care Research Unit, 1996.
DH 2009
  • Department of Health. Effective interventions in health and social care. London: DH, 2009.
DiGuiseppi 2001
  • DiGuiseppi C, Higgins JPT. Interventions for promoting smoke alarm ownership and function. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002246]
DoH 2001
  • Department of Health. National Service Framework for older people. London: Department of Health, 2001.
DTI 1997
  • Department of Trade and Industry. Home accident surveillance system. Accident data and safety research - home, garden and leisure. Vol. Annual Report 21, London: DTI, 1997.
Elkan 2000
  • Elkan R, Kendrick D, Hewitt M, National Coordinating Centre for HTA. The effectiveness of domiciliary health visiting: a systematic review of international studies and a selective review of the British literature. Vol. 4(13), Alton: Core Research, 2000.
EU 2006
  • Council of the European Union. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Actions for a Safer Europe. Brussels: Council of the European Union, 2006.
Gates 2007
  • Gates S, Lamb SE, Fisher JD, Cooke MW, Carter YH. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention for preventing falls and injuries among older people in community and emergency care settings: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007;336:130-3. [: bmj.39412.525243.BE]
Health Development Agency 2003
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Hewitt 2008
Jensen 2003
Johansen 1999
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King 2001
Lilley 1995
Lyons 1998
  • Lyons R, Payne C, Sheppard S, Tomlinson J. Health Evidence Bulletins - Wales: Injury Prevention. Cardiff: Welsh Office, 1998.
Lyons 2002
  • Lyons RA, Jones S, Palmer SR, Kemp A, Sibert JR, Shepherd J, et al. Data from All Wales Injury Surveillance System. The development and use of a low-cost injury surveillance system: the All Wales Injury Surveillance System (AWISS). Injury Prevention 2002;8:83-6.
Moher 1998
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NHS CRD 1996
  • NHS Centre for Reviews & Dissemination. Preventing falls and subsequent injury in older people. Effective Health Care 1996;2(4):1-16.
NICE 2004
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The assessment and prevention of falls in older people. London: NICE, 2004.
Parker 2005
Purdue 2003
  • Perdue C. Falls in older people - taking a multi-disciplinary approach. Nursing Times 2003;99:28-30.
Rehmani 2005
RevMan 2008
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Robertson 2001
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Robertson 2001a
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Rubenstein 2001
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Scheidt 1995
Schulz 1995
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Schulz 2000
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Thomson 2001
Towner 2001
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Van Haastregt 2000a
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WHO 2006
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Yardley 2005
  • Yardley L, Todd C. Encouraging positive attitudes to falls prevention in later life. London: Help the Aged, 2005.