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Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection

  1. James H Irlam1,*,
  2. Marianne ME Visser2,
  3. Nigel N Rollins3,
  4. Nandi Siegfried4

Editorial Group: Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group

Published Online: 8 DEC 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 25 FEB 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003650.pub3


How to Cite

Irlam JH, Visser MME, Rollins NN, Siegfried N. Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003650. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003650.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Cape Town, Primary Health Care Directorate, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

  2. 2

    Department of Dietetics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

  3. 3

    World Health Organization, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland

  4. 4

    University of Cape Town, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Cape Town, South Africa

*James H Irlam, Primary Health Care Directorate, University of Cape Town, E47 OMB, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, Western Cape, 7925, South Africa. James.Irlam@uct.ac.za.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 8 DEC 2010

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Allard 1998 {published data only}
  • Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Chau J, Tam C, Kovacs CM, Salit IE, et al. Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. AIDS 1998;12(13):1653-9.
Arpadi 2009 {published data only}
  • Arpadi SM, McMahon D, Abrams EJ, Bamji M, Purswani M, Engelson ES, et al. Effect of bimonthly supplementation with oral cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2009;123(1):e121-6.
Austin 2006 {published data only}
  • Austin, J, Singhal, N, Voigt, R, Smaill, F, Gill, M. J, Walmsley, S, et al. A community randomized controlled clinical trial of mixed carotenoids and micronutrient supplementation of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;60(11):1266-76.
Baeten 2002 {published data only}
  • Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Emery S, Lavreys L, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002;185(8):1187-91.
Bobat 2005 {published data only}
  • Bobat, R, Coovadia, H, Stephen, C, Naidoo, K. L, McKerrow, N, Black, R. E, et al. Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation for children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366(9500):1862-7.
Burbano 2002 {published data only}
  • Burbano X, Miguez-Burbano MJ, McCollister K, Zhang G, Rodriguez A, Ruiz P, et al. Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants. HIV Clinical Trials 2002;3(6):483-91.
Carcamo 2006 {published data only}
  • Carcamo, C, Hooton, T, Weiss, N. S, Gilman, R, Wener, M. H, Chavez, V, et al. Randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation for persistent diarrhea in adults with HIV-1 infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006;43(2):197-201.
Coodley 1993 {published data only}
Coodley 1996 {published data only}
Coutsoudis 1995 {published data only}
  • Coutsoudis A, Bobat RA, Coovadia HM, Kuhn L, Tsai WY, Stein ZA. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(8):1076-81.
Fawzi 1998 {published data only}
  • Baylin, A, Villamor, E, Rifai, N, Msamanga, G, & Fawzi, W. W. Effect of vitamin supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant women on the micronutrient status of their infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(8):960-8.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Renjifo B, Antelman G, Bang H, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS 2002;16(14):1935-42.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Urassa E, Renjifo B, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2000;23:246-54.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Urassa E, McGrath N, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. The Lancet 1998;351:1477-82.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Wei R, Kapiga S, Villamor E, et al. A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(1):23-32.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Wei R, Spiegelman D, Antelman G, Villamor E, et al. Effect of providing vitamin supplements to HIV-infected lactating mothers on the child's morbidity and CD4+ cell counts. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;36:1053-62.
  • Merchant, A. T, Msamanga, G, Villamor, E, Saathoff, E, O'brien, M, Hertzmark, E, et al. Multivitamin supplementation of HIV-positive women during pregnancy reduces hypertension. The Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(7):1776-81.
  • Smith Fawzi, M. C, Kaaya, S. F, Mbwambo, J, Msamanga, G. I, Antelman, G, Wei, R, et al. Multivitamin supplementation in HIV-positive pregnant women: Impact on depression and quality of life in a resource-poor setting. HIV Medicine 2007;8(4):203-12. [: MVS in Tanzania women]
  • Villamor E, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Antelman G, Peterson KE, Hunter DJ, et al. Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(5):1082-90.
  • Villamor E, Saathoff E, Manji K, Msamanga G, Hunter DJ, Fawzi WW. Vitamin supplements, socioeconomic status, and morbidity events as predictors of wasting in HIV-infected women from Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82:857-65.
  • Villamor, E, Msamanga, G, Saathoff, E, Fataki, M, Manji, K, & Fawzi, W. W. Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2007;76(6):1066-71.
  • Villamor, E, Mugusi, F, Urassa, W, Bosch, R. J, Saathoff, E, Matsumoto, K, et al. A trial of the effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcome, T cell counts, morbidity, and mortality in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197(11):1499-1505.
  • Villamor, E, Saathoff, E, Bosch, R. J, Hertzmark, E, Baylin, A, Manji, K, et al. Vitamin supplementation of HIV-infected women improves postnatal child growth. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81(4):880-8.
Fawzi 1999 {published data only}
  • Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Hertzmark E, Fataki MR, Herrera MG, Ndossi G, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1999;18(2):127-33.
  • Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Fataki M, Hertzmark E, Ndossi G. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Journal of Pediatrics 2000;137(5):660-7.
  • Villamor E, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Fataki M, Peterson KE, et al. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. Pediatrics 2002;109(1 (E6)):1-10.
Fawzi 2005 {published data only}
  • Fawzi WW, Villamor E, Msamanga GI, Antelman G, Aboud S, Urassa W, et al. Trial of zinc supplements in relation to pregnancy outcomes, hematologic indicators, and T cell counts among HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81(1):161-7.
  • Villamor E, Aboud S, Koulinska IN, Kupka R, Urassa W, Chaplin B, et al. Zinc supplementation to HIV-1-infected pregnant women: Effects on maternal anthropometry, viral load, and early mother-to-child transmission. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;60:862-9.
Hanekom 2000 {published data only}
  • Hanekom WA, Yogev R, Heald LM, Edwards KM, Hussey GD, Chadwick EG. Effect of vitamin A therapy on serologic responses and viral load changes after influenza vaccination in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The Journal of Pediatrics 2000;36(4):550-2.
Humphrey 1999 {published data only}
  • Humphrey JH, Quinn T, Fine D, Lederman H, Yamini-Roodsari S, Wu LS, et al. Short-term effects of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on viral load and immune response in HIV-infected women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1999;20(1):44-51.
Hurwitz 2007 {published data only}
  • Hurwitz, B. E, Klaus, J. R, Llabre, M. M, Gonzalez, A, Lawrence, P. J, Maher, K. J, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007;167(2):148-54.
Hussey 1996 {published data only}
  • Hussey G, Hughes J, Potgieter S, Kessow G, Burgess J, Beatty D, et al. Vitamin A status and supplementation and its effect on immunity in children with AIDS. XVII International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG) Meeting, Guatemala City. 1996:81.
Jiamton 2003 {published data only}
  • Jiamton S, Pepin J, Suttent R, Filteau S, Mahakkanukrauh B, Hanshaoworakul W, et al. A randomized trial of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation on mortality among HIV-infected individuals living in Bangkok. AIDS 2003;17:2461-9.
Kaiser 2006 {published data only}
  • Kaiser, J. D, Campa, A. M, Ondercin, J. P, Leoung, G. S, Pless, R. F, & Baum, M. K. Micronutrient supplementation increases CD4 count in HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006;42(5):523-8.
Kelly 1999 {published data only}
  • Kelly P, Musonda R, Kafwembe E, Kaetano L, Keane E, Farthing M. Micronutrient supplementation in the AIDS diarrhoea-wasting syndrome in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS 1999;13(4):495-500.
Kupka 2008 {published data only}
  • Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Effect of selenium supplements on hemoglobin concentration and morbidity among HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;48:1475-8..
  • Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Msamanga GI, Finkelstein JL, Spiegelman D. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplements among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania: effects on maternal and child outcomes.. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2008;87:1802-8..
Luabeya 2007 {published data only}
  • Chhagan MK, Van den Broeck J, Lubaeya KK, Mpontshane N, Tucker KL, Bennish ML. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on diarrhoeal disease among stunted children in rural South Africa. European journal of clinical nutrition 2009;63(7):850-7.
  • Luabeya, K. K, Mpontshane, N, Mackay, M, Ward, H, Elson, I, Chhagan, M, et al. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2007;2(6):e541.
Range 2006 {published data only}
  • Range, N, Changalucha, J, Krarup, H, Magnussen, P, Andersen, A. B, & Friis, H. The effect of multi-vitamin/mineral supplementation on mortality during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: A randomised two-by-two factorial trial in Mwanza, Tanzania. The British Journal of Nutrition 2006;95(4):762-70.
Semba 1998 {published data only}
  • Semba RD, Lyles CM, Margolick JB, Caiaffa WT, Farzadegan H, Cohn S, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus load in injection drug users. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998;177(3):611-6.
Semba 2005 {published data only}
  • Semba RD, Ndugwa C, Perry RT, Clark TD, Jackson JB, Melikian G, et al. Effect of periodic vitamin A supplementation on mortality and morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Uganda: A controlled clinical trial. Nutrition 2005;21(1):25-31.
Semba 2007a {published data only}
  • Semba, R. D, Ricketts, E. P, Mehta, S, Netski, D, Thomas, D, Kirk, G, et al. Effect of micronutrients and ironsupplementation on hemoglobin, iron status, and plasma hepatitis C and HIV RNA levels in female injection drug users: A controlled clinical trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007;45(3):298-303.
Semba 2007b {published data only}
  • Semba, R. D, Kumwenda, J, Zijlstra, E, Ricks, M. O, van Lettow, M, Whalen, C, et al. Micronutrient supplements and mortality of HIV-infected adults with pulmonary TB: A controlled clinical trial. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2007;11(8):854-9.
Villamor 2008 {published data only}
  • Villamor E, Mugusi F, Urassa W, Bosch RJ, Saathoff E, Matsumoto K, et al. A trial of the effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcome, T cell counts, morbidity, and mortality in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. The Journal of infectious diseases 2008;197(11):1499-505.
Wejse 2009 {published data only}
  • Wejse C, Gomes VF, Rabna P, Gustafson P, Aaby P, Lisse IM, et al. Vitamin D as supplementary treatment for tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2009;179:843-50.
ZVITAMBO 2006 {published data only}
  • Humphrey, J. H, Iliff, P. J, Marinda, E. T, Mutasa, K, Moulton, L. H, Chidawanyika, H, et al. Effects of a single large dose of vitamin A, given during the postpartum period to HIV-positive women and their infants, on child HIV infection, HIV-free survival, and mortality. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;193(6):860-71. [: ZVITAMBO]
  • Zvandasara, P, Hargrove, J. W, Ntozini, R, Chidawanyika, H, Mutasa, K, Iliff, P. J, et al. Mortality and morbidity among postpartum HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in zimbabwe: Risk factors, causes, and impact of single-dose postpartum vitamin A supplementation. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006;43(1):107-16. [: ZVITAMBO]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Austin 2003 {published data only}
  • Austin J, Voigt R, Smaill F, Gill J, Walmsley S, Gilmour J, et al. A randomised controlled trial of daily multivitamin with or without mixed carotenoid supplementtation in advanced HIV disease. International Conference on AIDS. 2000.
Constans 1996 {published data only}
  • Constans J, Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Sergeant C, Peuchant E, Pellegrin JL, Pellegrin I, et al. One-year antioxidant supplementation with beta-carotene or selenium for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pilot study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996; Vol. 23, issue 3:654-6.
Kennedy 2000 {published data only}
  • Kennedy CM, Coutsoudis A, Kuhn L, PIllay K, Mburu A, Stein Z, et al. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2000;24(1):37-44.
Kumwenda 2002 {published data only}
  • Kumwenda N, Miotti PG, Taha TE, Broadhead R, Biggar RJ, Jackson JB, et al. Antenatal vitamin A supplementation increases birth weight and decreases anemia among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35(5):618-24.
Mehta 2009 {published data only}
  • Mehta S, Hunter DJ, Mugusi FM, Speigelman D, Manji KP, Giovannucci EL, et al. Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania. The Journal of infectious diseases 2009;200(7):1022-30.
Shor-Posner 2003 {published data only}
  • Shor-Posner G, Lecusay R, Miguez MJ, Moreno-Black G, Zhang G, Rodriguez N, et al. Psychological burden in the era of HAART: impact of selenium therapy. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 2003;33(1):55-69.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Baum 2010 {published data only}
  • Baum MK, Lai S, Sales S, Page JB, Campa A. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation to prevent immunological failure in HIV-infected adults. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2010;50(12):1653-60. [PUBMED: 20455705]
CIGNIS 2010 {published data only}
  • The Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection (CIGNIS) Study Team. Micronutrient fortification to improve growth and health of maternally HIV-unexposed and exposed Zambian infants: a randomised controlled trial. PloS one 2010;5(6):e11165. [PUBMED: 20567511]
Mda 2010 {published data only}
  • Mda S, van Raaij JM, de Villiers FP, MacIntyre UE, Kok FJ. Short-term micronutrient supplementation reduces the duration of pneumonia and diarrheal episodes in HIV-infected children. The Journal of nutrition 2010;140(5):969-74. [PUBMED: 20335632]
Ndeezi 2010 {published data only}
  • Ndeezi G, Tylleskar T, Ndugwa CM, Tumwine JK. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on survival of HIV-infected children in Uganda: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2010;13(1):18. [PUBMED: 20525230]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ASSAf 2007
  • Irlam J, Hussey G, Dhansay M. The effects of nutritional interventions in HIV/AIDS: Micronutrients. In: ASSAf Study Panel, editor(s). HIV/AIDS, TB and Nutrition: Scientific inquiry into the nutritional influences on human immunity with special reference to HIV infection and active TB in South Africa. Pretoria: Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf), 2007:143-51.
ATBC 1994
  • The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The New England Journal of Medicine 1994;330(15):1029-35.
ATBC 1996
  • The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. Alpha-Tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1996;88(21):1560-70.
Baeten 1993
  • Beaton G, Martorell R, Aronson KJ, Edmonston B, McCabe G, Ross AC, Harvey B. Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. ACC/SCN State of the Art Series, Nutrition Policy Paper No 13 1993.
Baeten 2002b
  • Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Wener MH, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response among HIV-1-infected and -uninfected women in Kenya. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2002;31(2):243-9.
Baqui 2002
  • Baqui AH, Black RE, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Chakraborty J, Ahmed S, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. British Medical Journal 2002;325(7372):1059.
Baum 1994
  • Baum M, Cassetti L, Bonvehi P, Shor-Posner G, Lu Y, Sauberlich H. Inadequate dietary intake and altered nutrition status in early HIV-1 infection. Nutrition 1994;10(1):16-20.
Baum 1997
  • Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Lai S, Zhang G, Lai H, Fletcher MA, et al. High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1997;15(5):370-4.
Baum 2003
  • Baum MK, Campa A, Lai S, Lai H, Page JB. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and illicit drug use. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2003;37 Suppl 2:S117-23. [PUBMED: 12942385]
Baylin 2005
  • Baylin, A, Villamor, E, Rifai, N, Msamanga, G, & Fawzi, W. W. Effect of vitamin supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant women on the micronutrient status of their infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(8):960-8.
Bhandari 2002
  • Bhandari N, Bahl R, Taneja S, Strand T, Molbak K, Ulvik RJ, et al. Substantial reduction in severe diarrheal morbidity by daily zinc supplementation in young north Indian children. Pediatrics June 2002;109(6):e86.
Bhutta 1999
  • Bhutta ZA, Black RE, Brown KH, Gardner JM, Gore S, Hidayat A, et al. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. The Journal of pediatrics 1999;135(6):689-97. [PUBMED: 10586170]
Bhutta 2000
  • Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, Brown KH, Gardner JM, Hidayat A, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2000;72(6):1516-22. [PUBMED: 11101480]
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Christian 2003
  • Christian P, Shrestha J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Jiang T, Wagner T, et al. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal. The Journal of nutrition 2003;133(11):3492-8. [PUBMED: 14608063]
Fawzi 2002
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Renjifo B, Antelman G, Bang H, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS 2002;16(14):1935-42.
Fawzi 2003
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Wei R, Spiegelman D, Antelman G, Villamor E, et al. Effect of providing vitamin supplements to HIV-infected lactating mothers on the child's morbidity and CD4+ cell counts. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;36:1053-62.
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  • Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Effect of selenium supplements on hemoglobin concentration and morbidity among HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;48:1475-8..
Merchant 2005
  • Merchant AT, Msamanga G, Villamor E, Saathoff E, O'brien M, Hertzmark E, et al. Multivitamin supplementation of HIV-positive women during pregnancy reduces hypertension. The Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(7):1776-81.
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Semba 1999
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Shapiro 2007
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Smith Fawzi 2007
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Irlam 2005