Intervention Review

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Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease

  1. Lee Hooper1,*,
  2. Christopher Bartlett2,
  3. George Davey Smith3,
  4. Shah Ebrahim4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hypertension Group

Published Online: 26 JAN 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 25 NOV 2003

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003656.pub2


How to Cite

Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003656. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003656.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of East Anglia, School of Medicine, Health Policy & Practice, Norwich, UK

  2. 2

    North Swindon District Centre, Swindon Primary Care Trust, Swindon, Wiltshire, UK

  3. 3

    University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol, UK

  4. 4

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, London, UK

*Lee Hooper, School of Medicine, Health Policy & Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. l.hooper@uea.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 26 JAN 2004

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Alli 1992 {published data only}
  • Alli C, Avanzini F, Bettelli G, Bonati M, Colombo F, Corso R, Di Tullio M, Gentile MG, Sangalli L, Taioli E, Tognoni G. Feasibility of a long-term low-sodium diet in mild hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension 1992;6(4):281-286. [MEDLINE: 93059176]
Arroll 1995 {published and unpublished data}
Costa 1981 {published data only}
  • Costa FV, Ambrosioni E, Montebugnoli L, Paccaloni L, Vasconi L, Magnani B. Effects of low-salt diet and of acute salt loading on blood pressure and intralymphatic sodium concentration in young subjects with borderline hypertension. Clinical Science 1981;61(Supplement 7):21s-23s. [MEDLINE: 82094132]
HPT {published and unpublished data}
  • Borhani NO, Tonascia J, Schlundt DG, Prineas RJ, Jefferys JL. Recruitment in the Hypertension Prevention trial. Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. Controlled Clin Trials 1989;10(3 Suppl):30S-39S. [MEDLINE: 90031597]
  • Brown KM, Oberman A, Van Natta ML, Forster JL. Baseline characteristics in the hypertension prevention trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 1989;10(3 supplement):40S-64S. [MEDLINE: 90031598]
  • Forster JL, Jeffery RW, VanNatta M, Pirie P. Hypertension prevention trial: do 24-h food records capture usual eating behavior in a dietary study?. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51(2):253-257. [MEDLINE: 90164468]
  • Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1990;150(1):153-162. [MEDLINE: 90120838]
  • Jeffery RW, French SA, Schmid TL. Attributions for dietary failures: problems reported by participants in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Health Psychol 1990;9(3):315-329. [MEDLINE: 90255462]
  • Jeffery RW, Tonascia S, Bjornson BW, Schlundt DG, Sugars C for the Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. Treatment in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Controlled Clin Trials 1989;10(3 Suppl):65S-83S. [MEDLINE: 90031599]
  • Meinert CL, Borhani NO, Langford HG. Design, methods, and rationale in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. Controlled Clin Trials 1989;10(3 Suppl):1S-29S. [MEDLINE: 90031596]
  • Prud'homme GJ, Canner PL, Cutler JA. Quality assurance and monitoring in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. Controlled Clin Trials 1989;10(3 Suppl):84S-94S. [MEDLINE: 90031600]
  • Schmid TL, Jeffery RW, Onstad L, Corrigan SA. Demographic, knowledge, physiological, and behavioral variables as predictors of compliance with dietary treatment goals in hypertension. Addictive Behaviors 1991;16(3-4):151-160. [MEDLINE: 91289809]
  • Shah M, Jeffery RW, Laing B, Savre SG, Van NM, Strickland D. Hypertension Prevention Trial (HPT): food pattern changes resulting from intervention on sodium, potassium, and energy intake. Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. J Am Diet Assoc 1990;90(1):69-76. [MEDLINE: 90110778]
Morgan 1978 {published and unpublished data}
Morgan 1987 {published data only}
Silman 1983 {published data only}
Thaler men 1982 {published and unpublished data}
Thaler women 1982 {published and unpublished data}
TOHP phase I {published data only}
  • Cook NR, Kumanyika SK, Cutler JA. Effect of change in sodium excretion on change in blood pressure corrected for measurement error. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148(5):431-444. [MEDLINE: 98407573]
  • He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Klag MJ. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension.. Hypertension 2000;35(2):544-550. [MEDLINE: 20145848]
  • Kumanyika SK, Hebert PR, Cutler JA, Lasser VI, Sugars CP, Steffen BL, Brewer AA, Cameron M, Shepek LD, Cook NR, et a. Feasibility and efficacy of sodium reduction in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase I. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Hypertension 1993;22(4):502-512. [MEDLINE: 94011135]
  • Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, Borhani NO, Applegate WB, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Kirchner KA, Kuller LH, Roth KJ, et a. The effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. J Hypertens Suppl 1994;12(7):S23-S31. [MEDLINE: 95287279]
  • Satterfield S, Cutler JA, Langford HG, Applegate WB, Borhani NO, Brittain E, Cohen JD, Kuller LH, Lasser NL, Oberman A, Rosner B, Taylor JO, Vogt TM, Walker G, and Whelton PK for the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Trials of hypertension prevention. Phase I design. Ann Epidemiol 1991;1(5):455-471. [MEDLINE: 94093770]
  • Stevens VJ, Corrigan SA, Obarzanek E, Bernauer E, Cook NR, Hebert P, Mattfeldt BM, Oberman A, Sugars C, Dalcin AT, Whelton PK for the TOHP Collaborative Research Group. Weight loss intervention in phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Arch Intern Med 1993;153(7):849-858. [MEDLINE: 93221340]
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase I. JAMA 1992;267(9):1213-1220. [MEDLINE: 92167528]
  • Whelton PK, Buring J, Borhani NO, Cohen JD, Cook N, Cutler JA, Kiley JE, Kuller LH, Satterfield S, Sacks FM and Taylor JO for the Trials Of Hypertension Prevention (TOPH) Collaborative Research Group. The effect of potassium supplementation in persons with a high-normal blood pressure. Results from phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOPH) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):85-95. [MEDLINE: 95316194]
  • Whelton PK, Hebert PR, Cutler J, Applegate WB, Eberlein KA, Klag MJ, Keough ME, Hamill S, Borhani NO, Hollis J and Oberman A for the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group et a. Baseline characteristics of participants in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Ann Epidemiol 1992;2(3):295-310. [MEDLINE: 94101134]
  • Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, Borhani NO, Hennekens CH, Kuller LH, Langford H, Jones DW, Satterfield S, Lasser NL, Cohen JD. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(2 Suppl):652S-660S. [MEDLINE: 97174901]
  • Yamamoto ME, Applegate WB, Klag MJ, Borhani NO, Cohen JD, Kirchner KA, Lakatos E, Sacks FM, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH. Lack of blood pressure effect with calcium and magnesium supplementation in adults with high-normal blood pressure. Results from Phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):96-107. [MEDLINE: 95316195]
TOHP phase II {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Hebert PR, Cohen JD, Obarzanek E, Yamamoto M, Buring J, Stevens V, Kirchner K, Borhani NO. Baseline characteristics of participants in phase II of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP II). Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):149-155. [MEDLINE: 95316191]
  • Hebert PR, Bolt RJ, Borhani NO, Cook NR, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Hollis JF, Kuller LH, Lasser NL, Oberman A, Miller ST, Morris C, Whelton PK, Hennekens CH, for the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Design of a multicenter trial to evaluate long-term life-style intervention in adults with high-normal blood pressure levels. Trials of Hypertension Prevention (Phase II).. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):130-139. [MEDLINE: 95316189]
  • Hollis JF, Satterfield S, Smith F, Fouad M, Allender PS, Borhani N, Charleston J, Hirlinger M, King N, Schultz R, Sousoulas BG, on behalf of Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Recruitment for phase II of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Effective strategies and predictors of randomization.. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):140-148. [MEDLINE: 95316190]
  • Hunt SC, Cook NR, Oberman A, Cutler JA, Hennekens CH, Allender PS, Walker WG, Whelton PK, Williams RR. Angiotensinogen genotype, sodium reduction, weight loss, and prevention of hypertension. Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Hypertension 1998;32(3):393-401. [MEDLINE: 98413188]
  • Lasser VI, Raczynski JM, Stevens VJ, Mattfeldt-Beman M, Kumanyika S, Evans M, Danielson E, Dalcin A, Batey DM, Belden LK and Brewer AA for the Trials Of Hypertension Prevention (TOPH) Collaborative Research Group. Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Structure and content of the weight loss and dietary sodium reduction interventions. Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):156-164. [MEDLINE: 95316192]
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med 1997;157(6):657-667. [MEDLINE: 97236001]
TONE {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Espeland M, Whelton PK, Dolecek T, Kumanyika S, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr, Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Lacy C, Miller ST. Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly (TONE). Design and rationale of a blood pressure control trial. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(2):119-129. [MEDLINE: 95316188]
  • Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of redcued sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals. Results from the Trial of Nonpharmacological Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Arch Intern Med 2001;161(5):685-693. [MEDLINE: 21152543]
  • Bahnson JL, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Wofford JL, Rosen R, Wilson AC, Lacey CR, Rutan G, Hogan P, Tayback M, Dolecek TA, Shindler D. Baseline characteristics of randomized participants in the trial of nonpharmacologic intervention in the elderly (TONE). Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes 1997;1(2):61-68. [: EMBASE Accession number is 1998019109]
  • Espeland MA, Whelton PK, Kostis JB, Bahnson JL, Ettinger WH, Cutler JA, Appel LJ, Kumanyika S, Farmer D, Elam J, Wilson AC, Applegate WB. Predictors and mediators of successful long-term withdrawal from antihypertensive medications. Arch Fam Med 1999;8(3):228-236. [MEDLINE: 99266360]
  • Kostis JB, Espeland MA, Appel LJ, Johnson KC, Pierce J, James L. Does withdrawal of antihypertensive medication increase the risk of cardiovascular events?. Am J Cardiol 1998;82(12):1501-1508. [MEDLINE: 99089451]
  • Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr, Kostis JB, Kumanyika S, Lacy CR, Johnson KC, Folmar S, Cutler JA for the TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA 1998;279(11):839-846. [MEDLINE: 98175759]
  • Whelton PK, Bahnson J, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Cosgrove N, Espeland MA, Folmar S, Hoagland D, Krieger S, Lacy C, Lichtermann L, Oates WF, Tayback M, Wilson AC. Recruitment in the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly (TONE). J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45(2):185-193. [MEDLINE: 97185836]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Aberg 1989 {published data only}
Ambard 1904 {published data only}
  • Ambard L. Causes de l'hypertension arterielle. Archives of General Medicine 1904;1:520-533.
Ambrosioni 1982 {published data only}
  • Ambrosioni E, Costa F, Borghi C, montebugnoli M, Giordani M, Vasconi L. Effects of moderate salt restriction and high potassium intake on intralymphocytic sodium content and pressor response to stress in borderline hypertension. Clinical Science 1982;63:231S-234S.
Anderson 1990 {published data only}
Berglund 1989 {published data only}
Bompiani 1988 {published data only}
  • Bompiani GD, Cerasola G, Morici M, Condorelli M, Trimarco B, de Luca N, Leonetti G, Sampieri L, Cuspidi C, Cottone S, D'Ignoto G. Effects of moderate low sodium / high potassium diet on essential hypertension: results of a comparative study. Int Journal of Clinical Phrmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 1988;26(3):129-132. [MEDLINE: 88314399]
Cappuccio 1997 {published data only}
Carney 1975 {published data only}
Corcoran 1951 {published data only}
  • Corcoran AC, Taylor RD, Page IH. Controlled observations on the effect of low sodium dietotherapy in essential hypertension. Circulation 1951;III:1-16.
Dahl 1958 {published data only}
DASH {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336(16):1117-1124. [MEDLINE: 97238752]
  • Sacks FM, Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A dietary approach to prevent hypertension: a review of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) study. Clinical Cardiology 1999;22(7 Supplement):III 6-10. [MEDLINE: 99338488]
  • Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ERI, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin P-H, Aickin M, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Proschan MA, Cutler JA. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(1):3-10. [MEDLINE: 21012263]
  • Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton DG, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Conlin PR, Ryan DH, Ard J, Kennedy BM. Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159(3):285-293. [MEDLINE: 99142647]
DISH {published data only}
  • Blaufox MD, Langford HG, Oberman A, Hawkins CM, Wassertheil SS, Cutter GR. Effect of dietary change on the return of hypertension after withdrawal of prolonged antihypertensive therapy (DISH). Dietary Intervention Study of Hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl 1984;2(3):S179-S181. [MEDLINE: 86199066]
  • Langford HG, Blaufox MD, Oberman A, Hawkins CM, Curb JD, Cutter GR, Wassertheil SS, Pressel S, Babcock C, Abernethy JD, et a. Dietary therapy slows the return of hypertension after stopping prolonged medication. JAMA 1985;253(5):657-664. [MEDLINE: 85108285]
  • Wassertheil SS, Blaufox MD, Langford HG, Oberman A, Cutter G, Pressel S. Prediction of response to sodium intervention for blood pressure control. J Hypertens Suppl 1986;4(5):S343-S346. [MEDLINE: 87197751]
  • Wassertheil SS, Langford HG, Blaufox MD, Oberman A, Hawkins M, Levine B, Cameron M, Babcock C, Pressel S, Caggiula A, et a. Effective dietary intervention in hypertensives: sodium restriction and weight reduction. J Am Diet Assoc 1985;85(4):423-430. [MEDLINE: 85158652]
Dole 1951 {published data only}
  • Dole V, Dahl L, Cotzias G, Dziewiatkowski D, Harris C. Dietary treatment of hypertension. II Sodium depletion as related to the therapeutic effect. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1951;30:584-595.
Dubbert 1995 {published data only}
  • Dubbert PM, Cushman WC, Meydrech EF, Rowland AK, Maury P. Effects of dietary instruction and sodium excretion feedback in hypertension clinic patients. Behavior Therapy 1995;26(4):721-732. [MEDLINE: 1995342245]
Erwteman 1984 {published data only}
  • Erwteman TM, Nagelkerke N, Lubsen J, Koster M, Dunning AJ. Beta blockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the management of mild hypertension: a randomised double blind trial. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1984;289(6442):406-409. [MEDLINE: 84281599]
Evers 1987 {published data only}
Fagerberg 1984 {published data only}
  • Fagerberg B, Andersson OK, Isaksson B, Bjorntorp P. Blood pressure control during weight reduction in obese hypertensive men: separate effects of sodium and energy restriction. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1984;288(6410):11-14. [MEDLINE: 84081362]
Geleijnse 1995 {published data only}
  • Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Bak AA, den BJ, Grobbee DE. Long-term moderate sodium restriction does not adversely affect the serum HDL/total cholesterol ratio. J Hum Hypertens 1995;9(12):975-979. [MEDLINE: 96362947]
Gillum 1983 {published data only}
  • Gillum RF, Prineas RJ, Jeffery RW, Jacobs DR, Elmer PJ, Gomez O, Blackburn H. Nonpharmacologic therapy of hypertension: the independent effects of weight reduction and sodium restriction in overweight borderline hypertensive patients. Am Heart J 1983;105(1):128-133. [MEDLINE: 83097284]
Grimm 1990 {published data only}
  • Grimm RH Jr, Neaton JD, Elmer PJ, Svendsen KH, Levin J, Segal M, Holland L, Witte LJ, Clearman DR, Kofron P, La Bounty RK, Crow R, Prineas RJ. The influence of oral potassium chloride on blood pressure in hypertensive men on a low-sodium diet. N Engl J Med 1990;322(9):569-574. [MEDLINE: 90158725]
HCP {published data only}
  • Stamler R, Grimm RH Jr, Dyer AR, Talano JV, Prineas R, Crow R, Berman R, Gosch FC, Elmer P, Stamler J. Cardiac status after four years in a trial on nutritional therapy for high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1989;149(3):661-665. [MEDLINE: 89149275]
  • Stamler R, Stamler J, Grimm R, Dyer A, Gosch FC, Berman R, Elmer P, Fishman J, Van Heel N, Civinelli J, Hoeksema R. Nonpharmacological control of hypertension. Prev Med 1985;14(3):336-345. [MEDLINE: 86042572]
  • Stamler R, Stamler J, Grimm R, Gosch F, Dyer A, Berman R, Civinelli J, Elmer P, Fishman J, Van Heel N, McDonald A, McKeever P. Trial on control of hypertension by nutritional means: three-year results. J Hypertens Suppl 1984;2(3):S167-S170. [MEDLINE: 87141518]
  • Stamler R, Stamler J, Grimm R, Gosch FC, Elmer P, Dyer A, Berman R, Fishman J, Van Heel N, Civinelli J, McDonald A. Nutritional therapy for high blood pressure. Final report of a four-year randomized controlled trial--the Hypertension Control Program. JAMA 1987;257(11):1484-1491. [MEDLINE: 87141518]
  • Stamler R, Stamler J, Grimm R, Gosch FC, Elmer P, Dyer A, Berman R, Fishman J, Van Heel N, Civinelli J, McDonald A. Nutritional therapy for high blood pressure. Final report of a four-year randomized controlled trial--the Hypertension Control Program. JAMA 1987;257(11):1484-1491. [MEDLINE: 86199063]
Henningsen 1980 {published data only}
  • Henningsen NC. Salt and essential hypertension. [Swedish]. Var Foda 1980;32(6/7):345-354.
Holly 1981 {published data only}
Iwaoka 1994 {published data only}
  • Iwaoka T, Umeda T, Inoue J, Naomi S, Sasaki M, Fujimoto Y, Gui C, Ideguchi Y, Sato T. Dietary NaCl restriction deteriorates oral glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients with impairment of glucose tolerance. Am J Hypertens 1994;7(5):460-463. [MEDLINE: 94338640]
Jula 1990 {published data only}
Jula 1992a {published data only}
Jula 1992b {published data only}
  • Jula AM, Ronnemaa TE, Piha SJ, Maki JP. Response of diastolic blood pressure to long-term sodium restriction is posture related. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 1992;52(3):159-167. [MEDLINE: 9303401]
Jula 1994 {published data only}
Koopman 1990 {published data only}
  • Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJ. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: a pilot intervention study (2). Beyond three months. J Hum Hypertens 1990;4(4):372-374. [MEDLINE: 91080076]
  • Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJM. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: a pilot intervention study. (2) Beyond 3 months. Journal of Human Hypertension 1990;4(4):372-374. [MEDLINE: 91080076]
Korhonen 1999 {published data only}
  • Korhonen MH, Litmanen H, Rauramaa R, Vaisanen SB, Niskanen L, Uusitupa J. Adherence to the salt restriction diet among people with mildly elevated blood pressure. European Jouranl of Clinical Nutrition 1999;53(11):880-885. [MEDLINE: 20025972]
Logan 1986 {published and unpublished data}
  • Logan AG. Sodium manipulation in the management of hypertension. The view against its general use. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1986;64(6):793-802. [MEDLINE: 87001697]
  • Logan AG, Flanagan PT, Haynes RB. Effect of dietary sodium restriction alone in the treatment of mild hypertension. unpublished.
MacGregor 1982a {published data only}
  • MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA. Dietary sodium restriction in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci 1982;63:399S-402S.
MacGregor 1982b {published data only}
MacGregor 1989 {published data only}
Magnani 1976 {published data only}
  • Magnani B, Ambrosioni E, Agosta R, Racco F. Comparison of the effects of pharmacological therapy anda low-sodium diet on mild hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med Suppl 1976;3:625S-626S. [MEDLINE: 77161090]
McDonald 1988 {published data only}
  • McDonald AM, Dyer AR, Liu K, Stamler R, Gosch FC, Grimm R, Berman R, Stamler J. Sodium, lithium-countertransport and blood pressure control by nutritional intervention in 'mild' hypertension. J Hypertens 1988;6(4):283-291. [MEDLINE: 88244364]
Morgan 1988 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Anderson A. Interaction in hypertensive men between sodium intake, converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril), plasma renin and blood pressure control. Journal of Human Hypertension 1988;1(4):311-315. [MEDLINE: 89125550]
Muhlhauser 1993 {published data only}
  • Muhlhauser I, Sawicki PT, Didjurgeit U, Jorgens V, Trampisch HJ, Berger M. Evaluation of a structured treatment and teaching programme on hypertension in general practice. Clin Exp Hypertens 1993;15(1):125-142. [MEDLINE: 93222829]
Myers 1989 {published data only}
Nestel 1993 {published data only}
  • Nestel PJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, McArthur R, Howe PR. Enhanced blood pressure response to dietary salt in elderly women, especially those with small waist:hip ratio. Journal of Hypertension 1993;11(12):1387-1394. [MEDLINE: 94179778]
Neyses 1985 {published data only}
  • Neyses L, Dorst K, Michaelis J, Berres M, Philipp T, Distler A, Losse H, Vetter H, Epstein FH, Vetter W. Compliance with salt restriction as a limiting factor in the primary prevention of hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl 1985;3(1):S87-S90. [MEDLINE: 87253502]
Nicholson 1986 {published data only}
  • Nicholson JP, Resnick LM, Laragh JA. The impact of dietary sodium intake on the hypotensive response of verapamil in essential hypertension. J Clin Hypertens 1986;2(3 Suppl):143S-147S. [MEDLINE: 87085718]
Nicholson 1987 {published data only}
Nowson 1988 {published data only}
Nugent 1984 {published data only}
ODES {published data only}
  • Anderssen S, Holme I, Urdal P, Hjermann I. Diet and exercise intervention have favourable effects on blood pressure in mild hypertensives: the Oslo Diet and Exercise Study. (ODES). Blood Pressure 1995;4(6):343-349. [MEDLINE: 96356286]
Omvik 1986 {published data only}
  • Omvik P, Lund-Johansen P. Is sodium restriction effective treatment of borderline and mild essential hypertension? A long-term haemodynamic study at rest and during exercise.. Journal of Hypertension 1986;4(5):535-541. [MEDLINE: 87084739]
Omvik 1995 {published data only}
  • Omvik P, Myking OL. Unchanged central hemodynamics after six months of moderate sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement in essential hypertension. Blood Press 1995;4(1):32-41. [MEDLINE: 95253445]
Parijs 1973 {published data only}
Perera 1947 {published data only}
Priddle 1962 {published data only}
Rissanen 1985 {published data only}
Roca-Cusachs 1991 {published data only}
  • Roca-Cusachs A, Sort D, Altimira J, Bonet R, Guilera E, Monmany J, Nolla J. The impact of a patient education programme in the control of hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 1991;5(5):437-441. [MEDLINE: 92122169]
Sagnella 1987 {published data only}
  • Sagnella GA, Markandu ND, Buckley MG, Singer DR, Sugden AL, Shore AC, MacGregor GA. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension: effects of changes in dietary sodium. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1987;295(6595):417-418. [MEDLINE: 88001459]
Shibata 1979 {published data only}
  • Shibata H, Hatano S. A salt restriction trial in Japan. In: Gross F, Strasser T editor(s). Mild hypertension: natural history and management. Bath: Pitman Medical, 1979.
Singer 1984 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Sagnella GA, Skrabal F, Gasser RW, Finkenstedt G, Rhomberg HP, Lochs A. Low-sodium diet versus low-sodium/high-potassium diet for treatment of hypertension. Klinische.Wochenschrift 1984;62(3):124-128. [MEDLINE: 84165933]
Singer 1995 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Sagnella GA, MacGregor GA. Reduction of salt intake during converting enzyme inhibitor treatment compared with addition of a thiazide. Hypertension 1995;25(5):1042-1044. [MEDLINE: 95255896]
Stamler 1989 {published data only}
  • Stamler R, Stamler J, Gosch FC, Civinelli J, Fishman J, McKeever P, McDonald A, Dyer AR. Primary prevention of hypertension by nutritional-hygienic means. Final report of a randomized, controlled trial [published erratum appears in JAMA 1989 Dec 8;262(22):3132]. JAMA 1989;262(13):1801-1807. [MEDLINE: 89382841]
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TAIM {published data only}
  • Blaufox MD, Lee HB, Davis B, Oberman A, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Langford H. Renin predicts diastolic blood pressure response to nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. JAMA 1992;267(9):1221-1225. [MEDLINE: 92167529]
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  • Davis BR, Oberman A, Blaufox MD, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hawkins CM, Cutler JA, Zimbaldi N, Langford HG. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on weight loss. The Trial of Antihypertensive Interventions and Management Research Group. Hypertension 1992;19(4):393-399. [MEDLINE: 92210170]
  • Davis BR, Oberman A, Blaufox MD, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Zimbaldi N, Kirchner K, Wylie-Rosett J, Langford HG. Lack of effectiveness of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in reducing antihypertensive medication requirements in overweight persons with mild hypertension. TAIM Research Group. Trial of Antihypertensive Interventions and Management. Am J Hypertens 1994;7(10 Pt 1):926-932. [MEDLINE: 95127141]
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  • Oberman A, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Langford HG, Blaufox MD, Davis BR, Blaszkowski T, Zimbaldi N, Hawkins CM. Pharmacologic and nutritional treatment of mild hypertension: changes in cardiovascular risk status [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 1990;112(2):89-95. [MEDLINE: 90103317]
  • Wassertheil-Smoller S, Davis BR, Breuer B, Chee JC, Oberman A, Blaufox MD. Differences in precision of dietary estimates among different population subgroups. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3(6):619-628. [MEDLINE: 95005518]
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TOMHS {published data only}
  • Elmer PJ, Grimm R Jr, Laing B, Grandits G, Svendsen K, Van Heel N, Betz E, Raines J, Link M, Stamler J and Neaton J for the TOMHS Research Group. Lifestyle intervention: results of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Prev Med 1995;24(4):378-388. [MEDLINE: 96076094]
  • Neaton JD, Grimm RH Jr, Prineas RJ, et al. Treatment of mild hypertension study: final results. Journal of the American Medical Association 1993;270(6):713-724. [MEDLINE: 93329754]
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  • Treatment of Mild Hypertension Research Group. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygienic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Archives of Internal Medicine 1991;151(7):1413-1423. [MEDLINE: 91290967]
Velloso 1991 {published data only}
  • Velloso LG, Alonso RR, Ciscato CM, Barretto AC, Bellotti G, Pileggi F. [Diet with usual quantity of salt in hospital treatment of congestive heart insufficiency]. Arq Bras Cardiol 1991;57(6):465-468. [MEDLINE: 92398510]
Watt 1983 {published data only}
Watt 1986 {published data only}
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Weinberger 1988 {published data only}
Wing 1984 {published data only}
  • Wing RR, Caggiula AW, Nowalk MP, Koeske R, Lee S, Langford H. Dietary approaches to the reduction of blood pressure: the independence of weight and sodium/potassium interventions. Preventive Medicine 1984;13(3):233-244. [MEDLINE: 85038455]
Zoccali 1993 {published data only}
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Hooper 2002
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