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Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants

  1. Luc P Brion1,*,
  2. Edward F Bell2,
  3. Talkad S Raghuveer3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Neonatal Group

Published Online: 20 OCT 2003

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 MAR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003665

How to Cite

Brion LP, Bell EF, Raghuveer TS. Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003665. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003665.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Texas Southwestern at Dallas, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Dallas, Texas, USA

  2. 2

    University of Iowa, Department of Pediatrics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

  3. 3

    University of Kansas Medical Center, Pediatrics, Kansas City, USA

*Luc P Brion, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas, 75390-9063, USA. Luc.Brion@UTSouthwestern.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 20 OCT 2003

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Bonati 1991 {published data only}
  • Bonati M, Bortolotti A, Celardo A, Marchetti F, Pasinetti G, Teani M, Marraro G, Bertoletti A, Calo S, Bianchi P, Pagani G, Zanini R, Gagliardi L. Absorption of intramuscular vitamin E in premature babies. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1991;16:13-21.
Chiswick 1982 {published data only}
Chiswick 1983 {published data only}
  • Chiswick ML, Johnson M, Woodhall, C, Gowland M, Davies J, Toner N, et. al. Protective effect of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol) against intraventricular haemorrhage in premature babies. British Medical Journal 1983;287:81-4 [see also correction: Br Med J 1983; 287:383].
  • Chiswick ML, Johnson M, Woodhall C, Gowland M, Davies J, Toner N, et. al. Protective effect of vitamin E on intraventricular haemorrhage in the newborn. Ciba Foundation Symposium 1983;101:186-200.
Cruz 1983 {published data only}
Ehrenkranz 1982 {published data only}
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Ablow RC, Warshaw JB. Effect of vitamin E on the development of oxygen-induced lung injury in neonates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1982;393:452-66.
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Puklin JE. Lack of effect of vitamin E administration during respiratory distress syndrome in preventing retinopathy of prematurity. Conference on Retinopathy of Prematurity. Washington, DC, December 4-6, 1981.
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Puklin JE. Letter to the editor. Archives of Ophthalmology 1982;89:988-9.
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Puklin JE, Warshaw JB. Effectiveness of vitamin E administration during respiratory distress syndrome in preventing retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatric Research 1981;15:659.
  • Puklin JE, Simon RM, Ehrenkranz RA. Influence on retrolental fibroplasia of intramuscular vitamin E administration during respiratory distress syndrome. Archives of Ophthalmology 1982;89:96-103.
Ferlin 1998 {published data only}
Finer 1982 {published data only}
Fischer 1987 {published data only}
  • Fischer AF, Inguillo D, Martin DM, Ochikubo CG, Vreman HJ, Stevenson DK. Carboxyhemoglobin concentration as an index of bilirubin production in neonates with birth weights less than 1,500 grams: a randomized double-blind comparison of supplemental oral vitamin E and placebo. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1987;6:748-51.
  • Fischer AF, Inguillo DR, Martin DM, Yang CC, Stevenson DK. Carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) after randomized double-blind controlled trial of oral vitamin E or placebo in babies with birth weights < 1.5 kg. Pediatric Research 1986;20:347A.
Fish 1990 {published data only}
  • Fish WH, Cohen M, Franzek D, Williams JM, Lemons JA. Effect of intramuscular vitamin E on mortality and intracranial hemorrhage in neonates of 1000 grams or less. Pediatrics 1990;85:578-84.
Graeber 1977 {published data only}
Gross 1977 {published data only}
Gross 1979 {published data only}
Hittner 1981 {published data only}
  • Hittner HM. Retrolental fibroplasia and vitamin E. Archives of Ophthalmology 1982;89:987-8.
  • Hittner HM. Vitamin E in retrolental fibroplasia (letter). New England Journal of Medicine 1982;306:867-8.
  • Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudolph AJ, Adams JM, Garcia-Prats JA, Friedman Z, Kautz JA, Monaco WA. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. New England Journal of Medicine 1981;305:1365-71.
  • Hittner HM, Kretzer FL, Rudolph AJ. Prevention and management of retrolental fibroplasia. Hospital Practice 1984;19:85-94,99.
  • Kretzer FL, Hittner HM, Johnson AT, Mehta RS, Godio LB. Vitamin E and retrolental fibroplasia: ultrastructural support of clinical efficacy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1982;393:145-66.
Hittner 1984 {published data only}
  • Hittner HM, Rudolph AJ, Kretzer FL. Suppression of severe retinopathy of prematurity with vitamin E supplementation. Ultrastructural mechanism of clinical efficacy. Archives of Ophthalmology 1984;91:1512-23.
  • Hittner HM, Speer ME, Rudolph AJ, Blifeld C, Chadda P, Holbein MEB, et. al. Retrolental fibroplasia and vitamin E in the preterm infant--comparison of oral versus intramuscular:oral administration. Pediatrics 1984;73:238-49.
  • Speer ME, Blifeld C, Rudolph AJ, Chadda P, Holbein MEB, Hittner HM. Intraventricular hemorrhage and vitamin E in the very low-birth-weight infant: evidence for efficacy of early intramuscular vitamin E administration. Pediatrics 1984;74:1107-12.
Jansson 1978 {published data only}
Johnson 1989 {published data only}
  • Abbasi S, Fong E, Johnson L, Boggs T, Grous M. Effect of vitamin E therapy in hyperbilirubinemia of preterm infants. Pediatric Research 1980;14:588.
  • Abbasi S, Johnson L, Boggs T. Effect of vit E by infusion in sick small premature infants at risk for BPD. Pediatric Research 1980;14:638.
  • Johnson L, Bowen FW Jr, Abbasi S, Herrmann N, Weston M, Sacks L, et. al. Relationship of prolonged pharmacologic serum levels of vitamin E to incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight 1,500 grams or less. Pediatrics 1985;75:619-38.
  • Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, Otis C, Goldstein D, Sacks L, et. al. Effect of sustained pharmacologic vitamin E levels on incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity: a controlled clinical trial. Journal of Pediatrics 1989;114:827-38.
  • Quinn GE, Johnson L, Abbasi S. Onset of retinopathy of prematurity as related to postnatal and postconceptional age. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1992;76:284-8.
  • Quinn GE, Johnson L, Otis C, Schaffer DB, Bowen FW. Incidence, severity and time course of ROP in a randomized clinical trial of vitamin E prophylaxis. Documenta Ophthalmologica 1990;74:223-8.
  • Schaffer DB, Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, Otis C, Bowen FW. Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity: the ophthalmologist's perspective. Birth Defects 1988;24:219-35.
  • Schaffer DB, Johnson L, Quinn GE, Weston M, Bowen FW Jr. Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity. Follow-up at one year. Archives of Ophthalmology 1985;92:1005-11.
Melhorn 1971 {published data only}
Pathak 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Pathak A, Roth P, Piscitelli J, Johnson L. Role of vitamin E supplementation during erythropoietin treatment of the anemia of prematurity. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2003; Vol. 88:F324-28.
Phelps 1987a {published data only}
  • Phelps DE. Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity. In: Silvermann WA, Flynn JT editor(s). Contemporary Issues in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Vol. 2. Retinopathy of prematurity, Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1985:181-205.
  • Phelps DL, Rosenbaum AL, Isenberg SJ, Leake RD, Dorey FJ. Tocopherol efficacy and safety for preventing retinopathy of prematurity: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Pediatrics 1987;79:489-500.
  • Rosenbaum AL, Phelps DL, Isenberg SJ, Leake RD, Dorey F. Retinal hemorrhage in retinopathy of prematurity associated with tocopherol treatment. Archives of Ophthalmology 1985;92:1012-4.
Rudolph 1989 {published data only}
  • Rudolph N, Schiller MS, Wong SL. Vitamin E and selenium in preterm infants: lack of effect on clinical patency of ductus arteriosus. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1989;59:140-6.
Rönnholm 1989 {published data only}
  • Rönnholm KAR, Dostálová L, Siimes MA. Vitamin E supplementation in very-low-birth-weight infants: long-term follow-up at two different levels of vitamin E supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;49:121-6.
Saldanha 1982 {published data only}
  • Saldanha RL, Cepeda EE, Poland RL. Effect of prophylactic vitamin E on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in high-risk neonates. Pediatric Research 1980;14:650.
  • Saldanha RL, Cepeda EE, Poland RL. The effect of vitamin E prophylaxis on the incidence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Pediatrics 1982;101:89-93.
Schiller 1980 {published data only}
  • Schiller MS, Rudolph M, Kim MH, Thangavel M, Rivera LM, Kassner EG. Vitamin E and the ductus arteriosus (DA) in premature infants. Pediatric Research 1980;14:611.
Sinha 1987 {published data only}
Smith 1985 {published data only}
  • Smith DW, Cohen RS, Vreman HJ, Yeh A, Sharron S, Stevenson DK. Bilirubin production after supplemental oral vitamin E therapy in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1985;4:38-44.
Zipursky 1987 {published data only}
  • Bell EF, Brown EJ, Milner R, Sinclair JC, Zipursky A. Vitamin E absorption in small premature infants. Pediatrics 1979;63:830-2.
  • Blanchette V, Bell E, Nahmias C, Garnett S, Milner R, Zipursky A. A randomized control trial of vitamin E therapy in the prevention of anemia in low birth weight infants. Pediatric Research 1980;14:591.
  • Milner RA, Bell E, Blanchette V, Ling E, Watts JL, Zipursky A. Vitamin E supplement in under 1500 gram neonates. Pediatric Research 1979;13:501.
  • Milner RA, Watts JL, Paes B, Zipursky A. RLF in < 1500 gram neonates. Part of a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of vitamin E. Retinopathy of Prematurity Conference. Columbus (OH): Ross Laboratories 1981:703-16.
  • Watts JL, Milner R, Zipursky A, Paes B, Ling E, Gill G, Fletcher B, Rand C. Failure of supplementation with vitamin E to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants < 1,500 g birth weight. European Respiratory Journal 1991;4:188-90.
  • Watts JL, Paes BA, Milner RA, Zipursky A, Gill GJ, Fletcher BD. Randomized controlled trial of vit. E and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatric Research 1981;15:686.
  • Zipursky A, Brown EJ, Watts J, Milner R, Rand C, Blanchette VS, et. al. Oral vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of anemia in premature infants: a controlled trial. Pediatrics 1987;79:61-8.
  • Zipursky A, Milner RA, Blanchette VS, Johnston MA. Effect of vitamin E therapy on blood coagulation tests in newborn infants. Pediatrics 1980;66:547-50.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Barness 1968 {published data only}
  • Barness LA, Oski FA, Williams ML, Morrow G III, Arnaud SB. Vitamin E response in infants fed a low-fat formula. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1968;21:40-4.
Chadd 1970 {published data only}
  • Chadd MA, Fraser AJ. A controlled trial of vitamin E therapy in infancy. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1970;40:610-6.
Chirico 1983 {published data only}
Conway 1986 {published data only}
  • Conway SP, Rawson I, Dear PRF, Shires SE, Kelleher J. The early anaemia of the premature infant: is there a place for vitamin E supplementation?. British Journal of Nutrition 1986;56:105-14.
Curran 1979 {published data only}
  • Curran JS, Cantolino SJ. Vitamin E (injectable) administration in the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity: evaluation with fluorescein angiography and fundus photography. Pediatric Research 1978;12:404.
Dyggve 1963 {published data only}
  • Dyggve HV, Probst JH. Vitamin E to premature infants. Influence on serum bilirubin, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Supplementum 1963;146:48-56.
Ehrenkranz 1978 {published data only}
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Ablow RC, Warshaw JB. Prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with vitamin E administration during the acute stages of respiratory distress syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics 1979;95:873-8.
  • Ehrenkranz RA, Bonta BW, Ablow RC, Warshaw JB. Amelioration of bronchopulmonary dysplasia after vitamin E administration. A preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine 1978;299:564-9.
Fermanian 1976 {published data only}
  • Fermanian J, Salmon D, Olive G, Zambrowski S, Rossier A, Caldera R. Double blind study of vitamin E compared to placebo in the prevention of anemia in the low birth weight infant during the 7th week of life; therapeutic study. Nouvelle Revue Française d'hématologie; Blood Cells 1976;16:245-54.
Finer 1983 {published data only}
  • Finer NN, Peters KL, Schindler RF, Grant GD. Vitamin E and retrolental fibroplasia: prevention of serious ocular sequelae. Ciba Foundation Symposium 1983;101:147-64.
Gerlóczy 1949 {published data only}
  • Gerlóczy F. Clinical and pathological role of d,l-alpha- tocopherol in premature infants (studies on the treatment of scleroedema). Annales Paediatrici (Basel) 1949;173:171-86.
Goldbloom 1963 {published data only}
González-Corbella 98 {published data only}
  • González-Corbella MJ, López-Sabater MC, Castellote-Bargalló AI, Campoy-Folgoso C, Rivero-Urgell M. Plasma and erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol and plasma retinol concentrations in term infants fed formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;52:813-8.
Gross 1974 {published data only}
  • Gross S, Melhorn DK. Vitamin E-dependent anemia in the premature infant. III. Comparative hemoglobin, vitamin E, and erythrocyte phospholipid responses following absorption of either water-soluble or fat-soluble d-alpha tocopheryl. Journal of Pediatrics 1974;85:753-9.
Gutcher 1985 {published data only}
Hashim 1968 {published data only}
Hassan 1966 {published data only}
  • Hassan H, Hashim SA, Van Itallie TB, Sebrell WH. Syndrome in premature infants associated with low plasma vitamin E levels and high polyunusaturated fatty acid diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1966;19:147-57.
Hervei 1983 {published data only}
  • Hervei S, Bors Z, Ugrai M, Malik T, Czappán P, Bohár A, Véli M. Prevention of retrolental fibroplasia by administration of water soluble vitamin E (preliminary report). Orvosi Hetilap 1983;124:811-2.
Hittner 1983 {published data only}
  • Hittner HM, Godio LB, Speer ME, Rudolph AJ, Taylor MM, Blifeld C, et. al. Retrolental fibroplasia: further clinical evidence and ultrastructural support for efficacy of vitamin E in the premature infant. Pediatrics 1983;71:423-32.
Huston 1982 {published data only}
  • Huston RK, Benda GJ, Carlson CV, Shearer TR, Reynolds JW, Neerhout RC. Selenium and vitamin E sufficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1982;6:507-10.
Jansson 1984 {published data only}
Johnson 1974 {published data only}
  • Johnson L, Schaffer D, Boggs TR Jr. The premature infant, vitamin E deficiency and retrolental fibroplasia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1974;27:1158-73.
  • Johnson L, Schaffer D, Quinn G, Goldstein D, Mathis MJ, Otis C, Boggs TR Jr. Vitamin E supplementation and the retinopathy of prematurity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1982;393:473-95.
  • Johnson LH, Schaffer DB, Rubinstein D, Crawford CS, Boggs TR. The role of vitamin E in retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatric Research 1976;10:425.
Johnson 1982 {published data only}
  • Johnson L, Schaffer D, Boggs T, Quinn G, Mathis M. Vitamin E therapy of retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) grade III or worse. Pediatric Research 1980;14:601.
  • Johnson LH, Schaffer DB, Goldstein DE, Boggs TR. Influence of vit. E treatment and adult blood transfusions on mean severity of retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatric Research 1977;11:535.
Johnson 1995 {published data only}
  • Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, Gerdes J, Bowen FW, Bhutani V. Severe retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 grams: incidence and outcome of treatment with pharmacologic serum levels of vitamin E in addition to cryotherapy from 1985 to 1991. Journal of Pediatrics 1995;127:632-9; Comment in: J Pediatr 1996:129:618-9.
Kinsey 1951 {published data only}
  • Kinsey VE, Chilsholm JF. Retrolental fibroplasia. Evaluation of several changes in dietary supplements of premature infants with respect to the incidence of the disease. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1951;34:1259-68.
Levene 1979 {published data only}
Lo 1973 {published data only}
MacDonald 1987 {published data only}
  • MacDonald MG, Fletcher AB, Johnson EL, Boeckx RL, Getson PR, Miller MK. The potential toxicity to neonates of multivitamin preparations used in parenteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1987;11:169-71.
McWhirter 1974 {published data only}
Nishida 1986 {published data only}
  • Nishida A, Togari H. Effect of vitamin E administration on alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the retina, choroid and vitreous body of human neonates. Journal of Pediatrics 1986;108:150-3.
Oski 1967 {published data only}
Owens 1949 {published data only}
  • Owens WC, Owens EH. Retrolental fibroplasia in premature infants. II. Studies on the prophylaxis of the disease: the use of alpha tocopheryl acetate. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1949;32:1631-7.
Panos 1968 {published data only}
  • Panos TC, Stinnett B, Zapata G, Eminians J, Marasigan BV, Beard AG. Vitamin E and linoleic acid in the feeding of premature infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1968;21:15-39.
Sartain 1967 {published data only}
  • Sartain P, Kay JL, Dorn PM. The effect of vitamin E on the early anemia of prematurity. Southern Medical Journal 1967;60:1371.
Schwalbe 1992 {published data only}
  • Schwalbe P, Büttner P, Elmadfa I. Development of vitamin-E-status of premature infants after intravenous application of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1992;62:9-14.
Stone 2003 {published data only}
  • Stone WL, LeClair I, Ponder T, Baggs G, Reis BB. Infants discriminate between natural and synthetic vitamin E. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77:899-906.
Zöberlein 1982 {published data only}
  • Zöberlein HG, Freudenberg V, Wehinger H. Influence of vitamin E on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates with artificial ventilation. A prospective randomized study. Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde 1982;130:706-9.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Alade 1986
Altman 1991
  • Altman DG. Comparing groups - continuous data. In: Altman DG editor(s). Practical Statistics for Medical Research. First Edition. London: Chapman & Hall, 1991:192.
Amorde-Spalding 1992
  • Amorde-Spalding K, D'Harlingue AE, Phillips BL, Byrne WJ, Cheng KS, Cook NE, et. al. Tocopherol levels in infants < or = 1000 grams receiving MVI Pediatric. Pediatrics 1992;90:992-4.
Arrowsmith 1989
  • Arrowsmith JB, Faich GA, Tomita DK, Kuritsky JN, Rosa FW. Morbidity and mortality among low birth weight infants exposed to an intravenous vitamin E product, E-Ferol. Pediatrics 1989;83:244-9.
Baeckert 1988
  • Baeckert PA, Greene HL, Fritz I, Oelberg DG, Adcock EW. Vitamin concentrations in very low birth weight infants given vitamins intravenously in a lipid emulsion: Measurement of vitamins A, D and E and riboflavin. Journal of Pediatrics 1988;113:1057-65.
Baley 1992
  • Baley JE, Fanaroff AA. Neonatal infections, Part 1: Infection related to nursery care practices. In: Sinclair JC, Bracken MB editor(s). Effective Care of the Newborn Infant. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992:454-76.
Balistreri 1986
Barak 1986
Baydas 2002
  • Baydas G, Karatas F, Gursu MF, Bozkurt HA, Ilhan N, Yasar A, et. al. Antioxidant vitamin levels in term and preterm infants and their relation to maternal vitamin status. Archives of Medical Research 2002;33:276-80.
Bell 1981
Bell 1987
Bell 1989
Bell 1992
  • Bell EF. Vitamin E and iron deficiency in preterm infants. In: Fomon SJ, Zlotkin S editor(s). Nutritional Anemias. New York: Raven Press, 1992:137-46.
Bolisetty 2002
  • Bolisetty S, Naidoo D, Lui K, Koh THHG, Watson D, Montgomery R, et. al. Postnatal changes in maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant vitamins and the influence of smoking. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2002;86:F36-40.
Bove 1985
  • Bove KE, Kosmetatos N, Wedig KE, Frank DJ, Whitlatch S, Saldivar V, et. al. Vasculopathic hepatotoxicity associated with E-Ferol syndrome in low-birth-weight infants. The Journal of the American Medical Association 1985;254:2422-30.
Brigelius-Flohé 2002
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Brion 1990
Cachia 1995
  • Cachia O, Léger CL, Boulot P, Vernet MH, Michel F, Crastes de Paulet A, Descomps B. Red blood cell vitamin E concentrations in fetuses are related to but lower than those in mothers during gestation. A possible association with maternal lipoprotein (a) plasma levels. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:42-51.
Chan 1999
Chow 2003
  • Chow LC, Wright KW, Sola A, and the CSMC Oxygen Administration Study Group. Can changes in clinical practice decrease the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants?. Pediatrics 2003;111:339-45.
Committee FN 1985
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Committee N 1985
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Committee N 1998
  • Committee on Nutrition. Nutritional needs of preterm infans. In: William J. Klish editor(s). Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. Fourth. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1998:55-87.
Corrigan 1979
  • Corrigan JJ Jr. Coagulation problems relating to vitamin E. The American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 1979;1:169-73.
DeVito 1986
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Doyle 1992
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Ehrenkranz 1980
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Finer 1984
Friedman 1988
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Greene 1988
  • Greene HL, Hambidge M, Schanler R, Tsang RC. Guidelines for the use of vitamins, trace elements, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in infants and chidren receiving total parenteral nutrition: report of the Subcommittee on Pediatric Parenteral Nutrient Requirements from the Committee on Clinical Practice Issues of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;48:1324-42.
Greer 2000
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Gross 1985
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Hassan 1966
  • Hassan H, Hashim SA, Van Itallie TB, Sebrell WH. Syndrome in premature infants associated with low plasma vitamin E levels and high polyunsaturated fatty acid diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1966;19:147-57.
Jain 1996
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Law 1990
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Lorch 1985
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Léger 1998
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Martone 1986
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Mathias 1981
  • Mathias PM, Harries JT, Peters TJ, Muller DPR. Studies on the in vivo absorption of micellar solutions of tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate in the rat: demonstration and partial characterization of a mucosal esterase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of the enterocyte. Journal of Lipid Research 1981;22:829-37.
Minkowski 1949
  • Minkowski A. Essai de prévention des hémorragies cérébro-méningées des prématurés par l'administration à la mère, pendant le travail, de substances "anti-fragilité vasculaire". Archives Françaises de Pédiatrie 1949;6:276-80.
Moran 1983
  • Moran JR, Vaughan R, Stroop S, Coy S, Johnston H, Greene HL. Concentrations and total daily output of micronutrients in breast milk of mothers delivering preterm: a longitudinal study. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1983;2:629-34.
Muller 1992
Navarro 1984
Newmark 1975
Ostrea 1986
  • Ostrea EM Jr, Balun JE, Winkler R, Porter T. Influence of breast-feeding on the restoration of the low serum concentration of vitamin E and beta-carotene in the newborn infant. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1986;154:1014-7.
Pedraz 1989
Phelps 1985
  • Phelps DL. Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity. In: Silverman WA, Flynn JT editor(s). Contemporary Issues in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 2. Retinopathy of prematurity. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 181-205.
Phelps 1987
  • Phelps DL. Current perspectives on vitamin E in infant nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1987;46 (Suppl 1):187-91.
Phelps 1987b
Phelps 1988
  • Phelps DL. Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity: The clinical investigator's perspective on antioxidant therapy: Side effects and balancing risks and benefits. Birth Defects: Original Article Series 1988;24:209-18.
Phillips 1987
Raju 1997
Ritchie 1968
Roberts 1987
Scholl 2006
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Stuart 1979
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Brion 2003
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