Intervention Review

Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people

  1. Eilin Ekeland1,*,
  2. Frode Heian2,
  3. Kåre Birger Hagen3,
  4. Jo M Abbott4,
  5. Lena Nordheim5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 26 JAN 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 29 APR 2003

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003683.pub2


How to Cite

Ekeland E, Heian F, Hagen KB, Abbott JM, Nordheim L. Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003683. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003683.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Norwegian Physiotherapist Association/ Norsk Fysioterapeutforbund, Oslo, Norway

  2. 2

    Molde Hospital, Child and Adolescence Psychiatric Dept, NO-6407 Molde, Norway

  3. 3

    Diakonhjemmet Hospital, National Resource Centre for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, 0319 Oslo, Norway

  4. 4

    La Trobe University, Clinical School of Midwifery and Neonatal Nursing Studies, Carlton, Victoria, Australia

  5. 5

    Bergen University College, Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Bergen, Norway

*Eilin Ekeland, Norwegian Physiotherapist Association/ Norsk Fysioterapeutforbund, P. O. B. 2704 St. Hanshaugen, Oslo, 0131, Norway. eilin.ekeland@fysio.no.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 26 JAN 2004

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要
  5. 概要
  6. 摘要

Background

Psychological and behavioural problems in children and adolescents are common, and improving self-esteem may help to prevent the development of such problems. There is strong evidence for the positive physical health outcomes of exercise, but the evidence of exercise on mental health is scarce.

Objectives

To determine if exercise alone or exercise as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self-esteem among children and young people.

Search methods

Computerised searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC were undertaken and reference lists from relevant articles were scanned. Relevant studies were also traced by contacting authors. Dates of most recent searches: May 2003 in (CENTRAL), all others: January 2002.

Selection criteria

Randomised controlled trials where the study population consisted of children and young people aged from 3 to 20 years, in which one intervention arm was gross motor activity for more than four weeks and the outcome measure was self-esteem.

Data collection and analysis

Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the validity of included trials and extracted data. Investigators were contacted to collect missing data or for clarification when necessary.

Main results

Twenty-three trials with a total of 1821 children and young people were included. Generally, the trials were small, and only one was assessed to have a low risk of bias. Thirteen trials compared exercise alone with no intervention. Eight were included in the meta-analysis, and overall the results were heteregeneous. One study with a low risk of bias showed a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 1.33 (95% CI 0.43 to 2.23), while the SMD's for the three studies with a moderate risk of bias and the four studies with a high risk of bias was 0.21 (95% CI -0.17 to 0.59) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.11 to 1.04), respectively. Twelve trials compared exercise as part of a comprehensive programme with no intervention. Only four provided data sufficient to calculate overall effects, and the results indicate a moderate short-term difference in self-esteem in favour of the intervention [SMD 0.51 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.88)].

Authors' conclusions

The results indicate that exercise has positive short-term effects on self-esteem in children and young people. Since there are no known negative effects of exercise and many positive effects on physical health, exercise may be an important measure in improving children's self-esteem.
These conclusions are based on several small low-quality trials.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要
  5. 概要
  6. 摘要

Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people

Improving self-esteem may help to prevent the development of psychological and behavioural problems which are common in children and adolescents. Strong evidence exists for the benefits of exercise on physical health, but evidence for the effects of exercise on mental health is scarce. This review of trials suggests that exercise has positive short-term effects on self-esteem in children and young people, and concludes that exercise may be an important measure in improving children's self-esteem. However, the reviewers note that the trials included in the review were small-scale, and recognise the need for further well-designed research in this area.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要
  5. 概要
  6. 摘要

以运动来提高儿童和青年人的自尊心

研究背景

儿童和青少年的心理和行为问题是一个常见问题,而提高自尊心可以有助于防止这些问题产生。有确切的证据支持,运动对身体健康有积极影响,而运动对心理健康影响的证据则比较缺乏。

研究目的

评估运动本身或运动作为整体干预方案的一部分,能否提高儿童和青年人的自尊心。

检索方法

计算机检索了MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), CINAHL,PsycINFO和ERIC等数据库,并浏览了相关文章的参考文献。另外,我们也联系相关研究的作者。CENTRAL数据库的检索截止日期为2003年5月,其他数据库则为2002年1月。

纳入标准

纳入了随机对照试验,其研究人群为3∼20岁的儿童和青年人,其中一个干预组实施为期四周以上的大动作活动,主要结果指标为自尊心。

数据收集与分析

两位评价者独立筛选试验,评价纳入试验的有效性并提取数据。另外,如有需要,也联系原始研究作者以收集缺失的数据或澄清问题。

主要结果

共纳入23个试验,包括1821名儿童和青年人。总的来说,这些试验大多是小型试验,且只有1个试验偏倚风险较低。13个试验比较了单独运动与无任何干预;8个试验被纳入Meta分析,但结果呈现异质性。偏倚风险较低的1项研究显示,SMD(标准化均数差)为1.33(95%CI: 0.43–2.23),而偏倚风险中等的3个研究和偏倚风险较高的4个研究的SMD分别为0.21(95%CI: ﹣0.17∼0.59 )和 0.57(95%CI: 0.11∼1.04)。12个试验把运动作为整体干预方案的一部分,并将其与无任何干预相比较。只有4个试验提供了足够的数据可以用来计算总体效应,其结果显示,两组的自尊心在短期具有中等程度差异,且干预组效果更好(SMD: 0.51,95 %CI: 0.15–0.88)。

作者结论

结果显示,运动对儿童和青少年的自尊心具有积极的短期效果。目前为止,由于运动尚没有已知的负面影响,同时对身体健康却有许多积极作用,因此它可以作为提升儿童自尊的一项重要措施。

这些结论是基于几个小样本低质量的试验获得的。

 

概要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要
  5. 概要
  6. 摘要

以运动来提高儿童和青年人的自尊心

以运动来提高儿童和青年人的自尊心

提升自尊心有助于预防儿童和青少年常见的心理和行为问题的产生。强有力的证据支持运动对身体健康有益处,然而运动对心理健康影响的证据却很缺乏。本篇系统评价结果显示,运动对儿童及青年人的自尊心具有积极的短期效果,并且运动可以作为提升儿童自尊心的一项重要措施。然而,评价者指出,本研究纳入的试验都是小型的,在这个领域仍需要进一步开展设计完善的研究。

翻译注解

本摘要由重庆医科大学中国循证卫生保健协作网(China Effective Health Care Network)翻译。

翻译注解":本摘要由重庆医科大学中国循证卫生保健协作网(China Effective Health Care Network)翻译。: China Effective Health Care Network

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要
  5. 概要
  6. 摘要

背景

以運動來提高兒童以及青年人之自尊

兒童和青少年的心理和行為問題是常見的,提高自尊可能有助於防止這些問題產生。有確切的證據支持運動對身體健康有正向影響,而運動對心理健康影響的證據則相當稀少。

目標

要決定運動本身或是以運動作為完整介入的一部份,是否可以提高兒童和青年人的自尊。

搜尋策略

我們以電腦檢索MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC等資料庫,並搜尋了相關文章的參考文。另外,我們也聯繫相關研究的作者。資料搜尋最後的日期: 2003年5月(CENTRAL資料庫),其他資料庫則為2002年1月。

選擇標準

研究族群為3至20歲的兒童和青年人,其中一項介入組別為大於四週的粗動作活動,且評估結果項目為自尊的隨機對照試驗。

資料收集與分析

兩位作者分別篩選符合收納的試驗,並評估收納試驗及萃取數據的效度。另外,如果有需要,也會聯繫研究人員來收集缺少的數據或澄清問題。

主要結論

此篇回顧收納了23個試驗,總計有1821位兒童和青年人。這些試驗大多很小型,只有1個被評定為誤差風險低。 13個試驗把運動和無介入相比較;8個試驗被納入統合分析 (metaanalysis) ,結果呈現異質性。誤差低風險的1項研究的標準化均數差 (SMD) 為 1.33(95%CI為 0.43 – 2.23),而具有中風險誤差的3個研究和具有誤差高風險的4個研究的標準化均數差分別為0.21(95%CI為 −0.17 – 0.59)和 0.57(95%CI為 0.11 – 1.04)。12個試驗把運動做為整體介入方案的一部份,並和沒有任何介入來相比較,只有4個試驗提供足夠的數據可以計算總體影響,而其結果顯示,兩組的自尊有中度的短期差異,有介入組較高 [SMD 0.51(95%CI為 0.15 – 0.88)]。

作者結論

結果顯示在兒童和青少年,運動對自尊具有短期的正向影響。由於運對至今沒有已知的負面影響,且有許多對身體健康的正向影響,運動可以作為一項提升兒童的自尊的重要方法,此結論是基於數個小型且品質較低的研究。

翻譯人

本摘要由成功大學附設醫院黃惠群翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院 (National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan) 統籌。

總結

有部分證據支持運動對兒童和青少年的自尊有短期的正向影響。提升自尊可能有助於防止兒童和青少年常見的心理和行為問題產生。強而有力的證據支持運動對身體健康有好處,然而運動對心理健康的影響的證據卻很稀少。本篇研究回顧推測,運動對於兒童及青年人的自尊有正向的短期影響自尊,並且運動可以作為提升兒童自尊的一項重要的方法。然而,作者指出,這些納入的試驗都是小型的,並且在這個領域仍需要進一步有完善設計的研究。