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Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children

  1. Martin M Meremikwu1,*,
  2. Sarah Donegan2,
  3. Ekpereonne Esu3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 23 APR 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 NOV 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003756.pub3


How to Cite

Meremikwu MM, Donegan S, Esu E. Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003756. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003756.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

  2. 2

    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, International Health Group, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK

  3. 3

    University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Effective Health Care Research Programme - Nigeria, Calabar, Nigeria

*Martin M Meremikwu, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. mmeremiku@yahoo.co.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 APR 2008

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 FEB 2012)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alonso 1993 {published data only}
  • Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JR, Conteh M, Hill AG, David PH, et al. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet 1991;337(8756):1499-502.
  • Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, Keita K, Gomez P, Shenton FC, et al. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 6. The impact of the interventions on mortality and morbidity from malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87 Suppl 2:37-44.
  • Picard J, Aikins M, Alonso PL, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, Greenwood BM, Mills A. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 8. Cost-effectiveness of bed net impregnation alone or combined with chemoprophylaxis in preventing mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87 Suppl 2:53-7.
  • Picard J, Mills A, Greenwood B. The cost-effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis with Maloprim administered by primary health care workers in preventing death from malaria amongst rural Gambian children aged less than five years old. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1992;86(6):580-1.
Chandramohan 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chandramohan D, Owusu-Agyei S, Carneiro I, Awine T, Amponsa-Achiano K, Mensah N, et al. Cluster randomised trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in area of high, seasonal transmission in Ghana. BMJ 2005;331(7519):727-33.
Cissé 2006 {published data only}
  • Cissé B, Sokhna C, Boulanger D, Milet J, Bâ el H, Richardson K, et al. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet 2006;367(9511):659-67.
David 1997 {published data only}
  • David KP, Marbiah NT, Lovgren P, Greenwood BM, Petersen E. Hyperpigmented dermal macules in children following the administration of Maloprim for malaria chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1997;91(2):204-8.
  • Marbiah NT, Petersen E, David K, Magbity E, Lines J, Bradley DJ. A controlled trial of lambda-cyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets and/or dapsone/pyrimethamine for malaria control in Sierra Leone. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1998;58(1):1-6.
Desai 2003 {published data only}
  • Desai MR, Mei JV, Kariuki SK, Wannemuehler KA, Philips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of daily iron supplementation and intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of mild childhood anemia in western Kenya. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2003;187(4):658-66.
Greenwood 1988 {published data only}
  • Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Bradley AK, Snow RW, Byass P, Hayes RJ, et al. Comparison of two strategies for control of malaria within a primary health care programme in the Gambia. Lancet 1988;1(8595):1121-7.
Greenwood 1989 {published data only}
  • Fuller NJ, Bates CJ, Hayes RJ, Bradley AK, Greenwood AM, Tulloch S, et al. The effects of antimalarials and folate supplements on haematological indices and red cell folate levels in Gambian children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1988;8(2):61-7.
  • Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Smith AW, Menon A, Bradley AK, Snow RW, et al. A comparative study of Lapudrine (chlorproguanil) and Maloprim (pyrimethamine and dapsone) as chemoprophylactics against malaria in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989;83(2):182-8.
Greenwood 1995 {published data only}
  • Greenwood BM, David PH, Otoo-Forbes LN, Allen SJ, Alonso PL, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, et al. Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;89(6):629-33.
Hogh 1993 {published data only}
  • Hogh B, Marbiah NT, Petersen E, Dolopaye E, Willcox M, Bjorkman A, et al. Classification of clinical falciparum malaria and its use for the evaluation of chemosuppression in children under six years of age in Liberia, west Africa. Acta Tropica 1993;54(2):105-15.
Kobbe 2007 {published data only}
  • Kobbe R, Kreuzberg C, Adjei S, Thompson B, Langefeld I, Thompson PA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of extended intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment in infants. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007;45(1):16-25.
  • Marks F, von Kalckreuth V, Kobbe R, Adjei S, Adjei O, Horstmann RD, et al. Parasitological rebound effect and emergence of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum after single-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005;192(11):1962-5.
Lemnge 1997 {published data only}
  • Lemnge MM, Msangeni HA, Ronn AM, Salum FM, Jakobsen PH, Mhina JI, et al. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1997;91(1):68-73.
Macete 2006 {published data only}
  • Macete E, Aide P, Aponte JJ, Sanz S, Mandomando I, Espasa M, et al. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria control administered at the time of routine vaccination in Mozambican infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;194(3):276-85.
Massaga 2003 {published data only}
  • Massaga JJ, Kitua AY, Lemnge MM, Akida JA, Malle LN, Ronn AM, et al. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361(9372):1853-60.
Menendez 1997 {published data only}
  • Alonzo Gonzalez M, Menendez C, Font F, Kahigwa E, Kimario J, Mshinda H, et al. Cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of anaemia and malaria among Tanzanian infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000;78(1):97-107.
  • Beck HP, Felger I, Vounatsou P, Hirt R, Tanner M, Alonso P, et al. Effect of iron supplementation and malaria prophylaxis in infants on Plasmodium falciparum genotypes and multiplicity of infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93 Suppl 1:41-5.
  • Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Vounatsou P, Aponte JJ, Font F, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 1997;350(9081):844-50.
Menon 1990 {published data only}
  • Menon A, Snow RW, Byass P, Greenwood BM, Hayes RJ, N'Jie AB. Sustained protection against mortality and morbidity from malaria in rural Gambian children by chemoprophylaxis given by village health workers. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1990;84(6):768-72.
Otoo 1988a {published data only}
  • Otoo LN, Riley EM, Menon A, Byass P, Greenwood BM. Cellular immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children receiving long term anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989;83(6):778-782.
  • Otoo LN, Snow RW, Menon A, Byass P, Greenwood BM. Immunity to malaria in young Gambian children after a two-year period of chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988;82(1):59-65.
Schellenberg 2001 {published data only}
  • Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Vidal J, Tanner M, et al. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357(9267):1471-7.
Schellenberg 2005 {published data only}
  • Aponte J, Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Tanner M, Mshinda H, et al. Extended follow-up of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in Tanzanian infants. 4th MIM Malaria Conference; Yaounde, Cameroon. 2005.
  • Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Aponte JJ, Kahigwa E, Tanner M, Mshinda H, et al. Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment for Tanzanian infants: follow-up to age 2 years of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365(9469):1481-3.
Tomashek 2001 {published data only}
  • Tomashek KM, Woodruff BA, Gotway CA, Bloland P, Mbaruku G. Randomized intervention study comparing several regimens for the treatment of moderate anemia among refugee children in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001;64(3-4):164-71.
Verhoef 2002 {published data only}
  • Verhoef H, West CE, Nzyuko SM, de Vogel S, van der Valk R, Wanga MA, et al. Intermittent administration of iron and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control anaemia in Kenyan children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360(9337):908-14.
Wolde 1994 {published data only}
  • Wolde B, Pickering J, Wotton K. Chloroquine chemoprophylaxis in children during peak transmission period in Ethopia. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;97(4):215-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Akenzua 1985 {published data only}
  • Akenzua GI, Ihongbe JC, Imasuen IW. Haemopoietic response of Nigerian village children to iron, folate supplementation and malaria prophylaxis. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1985;31(1):59-62.
Allen 1990 {published data only}
  • Allen SJ, Otoo LN, Cooke GA, O'Donnell A, Greenwood BM. Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chlorproguanil in Gambian children after five years of continuous chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1990;84(2):218.
Archibald 1956 {published data only}
  • Archibald HM, Bruce-Chwatt LJ. Suppression of malaria with pyrimethamine in Nigerian schoolchildren. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1956;15(3-5):775-84.
Bjorkman 1985a {published data only}
  • Bjorkman A, Brohult J, Willcox M, Pehrson PO, Rombo L, Hedman P, et al. Malaria control by chlorproguanil. I. Clinical effects and susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in vivo after seven years of monthly chlorproguanil administration to children in a Liberian village. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):597-601.
Bjorkman 1985b {published data only}
  • Bjorkman A, Rombo L, Hetland G, Willcox M, Hanson AP. Susceptibilty of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in northern Liberia after 20 years of chemosuppression and therapy. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):603-6.
Bjorkman 1986 {published data only}
  • Bjorkman A, Brohult J, Pehrson PO, Willcox M, Rombo L, Hedman P, et al. Monthly antimalarial chemotherapy to children in a holoendemic area of Liberia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1986;80(2):155-167.
Bradley-Moore 1985 {published data only}
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Akintunde A, Attai ED, Fleming AF, et al. A comparison of chloroquine and pyrimethamine as malaria chemoprophylactics in young Nigerian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1985;79(5):722-7.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Akintunde A, Attai ED, Fleming AF, et al. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. IV. Its effect on haematological measurements. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):585-95.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Bartlett A, Bidwell DE, Voller A, et al. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. I. Its effect on mortality, morbidity and the prevalence of malaria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):549-62.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Bartlett A, Bidwell DE, Voller A, et al. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. II. Effect on the immune response to vaccination. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):563-73.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Kirkwood BR, Gilles HM. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. III. Its effect on nutrition. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1985;79(6):575-84.
Charles 1961 {published data only}
Colbourne 1955 {published data only}
  • Colbourne MJ. The effect of malaria suppression in a group of Accra school children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1955;49(4):556-69.
Coosemans 1987 {published data only}
  • Coosemans MH, Barutwanayo M, Onori E, Otoul C, Gryseels B, Wery M. Double-blind study to assess the efficacy of chlorproguanil given alone or in combination with chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in an area with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1987;81(1):151-6.
Coulibaly 2002 {published data only}
  • Coulibaly D, Diallo DA, Thera MA, Dicko A, Guindo AB, Kone AK, et al. Impact of preseason treatment on incidence of falciparum malaria and parasite density at a site for testing malaria vaccines in Bandiagara, Mali. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2002;67(6):604-10.
Delmont 1981 {published data only}
  • Delmont J, Ranque P, Balique H, Tounkara A, Soula G, Quilici M, et al. The influence of malaria chemoprophylaxis on health of a rural community in West Africa (author's transl) [Influence d'une chimiprophylaxie antipaludique sur l'etat de sante d'une communaute rurale en Afrique de l'ouest. Resultats preliminaires]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1981;74(6):600-10.
Escudie 1961 {published data only}
  • Escudie A, Hamon J, Ricosse JH, Chartol A. Results of 2 years of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in the rural African area in the pilot zone of Bobo Dioulasso (Haute Volta) [Resultats de deux annees de chimioprophylaxie antipaludique en milieur rural africain dans la zone pilote de Bobo Dioulasso (Haute Volta)]. Medicine Tropicale 1961;21 Special:689-728.
Fasan 1970 {published data only}
  • Fasan PO. Field trial of cycloguanil pamoate in the treatment and suppression of malaria in Nigerian schoolchildren: a preliminary report. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1970;64(6):839-49.
Fasan 1971 {published data only}
  • Fasan PO. Trimethoprim plus sulphamethoxazole compared with chloroquine in the treatment and suppression of malaria in African schoolchildren. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1971;65(1):117-21.
Fernando 2006 {published data only}
  • Fernando D, De Silva D, Carter R, Mendis KN, Wickremasinghe R. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the impact of malaria prevention on the educational attainment of school children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006;74(3):386-93.
Harland 1975 {published data only}
  • Harland PS, Frood JD, Parkin JM. Some effects of partial malaria suppression in Ugandan children during the first 3 years of life. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1975;69(2):261-2.
Hogh 1994 {published data only}
  • Hogh B, Thompson R, Lobo V, Dgedge M, Dziegiel M, Borre M, et al. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. Acta Tropica 1994;57(4):265-77.
Karunakaran 1980 {published data only}
  • Karunakaran CS. A clinical trial of malaria prophylaxis using a single dose of chloroquine at different intervals in an endemic malarious area. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1980;83(5):195-201.
Karwacki 1990 {published data only}
Kollaritsch 1988 {published data only}
  • Kollaritsch H, Stemberger H, Mailer H, Kremsner P, Kollaritsch R, Leimer R, et al. Tolerability of long-term malaria prophylaxis with the combination mefloquine + sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine (Fansimef): results of a double blind field trial versus chloroquine in Nigeria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988;82(4):524-9.
Laing ABG 1970 {published data only}
  • Laing AB. Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1970;43(4):513-20.
Lell 1998 {published data only}
Lell 2000 {published data only}
Lewis 1975 {published data only}
  • Lewiw AN, Ponnampalam JT. Suppression of malaria with monthly administration of combined sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1975;69(1):1-12.
Limsomwong 1988 {published data only}
  • Limsomwong N, Pang LW, Singharaj P. Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil in children living in a malaria-endemic area. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988;38(2):231-6.
  • Pang LW, Limsomwong N, Singharaj P, Canfield CJ. Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 1989;67(1):51-58.
Lucas 1969 {published data only}
  • Lucas AO, Hendrickse RG, Okubadejo OA, Richards WH, Neal RA, Kofie BA. The suppression of malarial parasitaemia by pyrimethamine in combination with dapsone or sulphormethoxine. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1969;63(2):216-229.
Lwin 1997 {published data only}
  • Lwin M, Lin H, Linn N, Kyaw MP, Ohn M, Maung NS, et al. The use of personal protective measures in control of malaria in a defined community. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1997;28(2):254-8.
MacCormack 1983 {published data only}
  • MacCormack CP, Lwihula G. Failure to participate in a malaria chemosuppression programme: North Mara, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1983;86(3):99-107.
McGregor 1966 {published data only}
  • McGregor IA, Williams K, Walker GH, Rahman AK. Cycloguanil pamoate in the treatment and suppression of malaria in the Gambia, West Africa. British Medical Journal 1966;5489:695-701.
Miller 1954 {published data only}
  • Miller MJ. A comparison of the antimalarial effects of suppressive doses of chloroquine amodiaquin and pyrimethamine. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1954;3(3):458-63.
Murphy 1993 {published data only}
Nevill 1988 {published data only}
Nevill 1994 {published data only}
  • Nevill CG, Lury JD, Mosobo MK, Watkins HM, Watkins WM. Daily chlorproguanil is an effective alternative to daily proguanil in the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(3):319-20.
Nwokolo 2001 {published data only}
  • Nwokolo C, Wambebe C, Akinyanju O, Raji AA, Audu BS, Emordi IJ, et al. Mefloquine versus proguanil in short-term malaria chemoprophylaxis in sickle cell anaemia. Clinical Drug Investigation 2001;21(8):537-44.
Onori 1982 {published data only}
  • Onori E, Grab B, Ambroise-Thomas P, Thelu J. Incipient resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine among a semi-immune population of the United Republic of Tanzania. 2. The impact of chloroquine used as a chemosuppressant on the immune status of the population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982;60(6):899-906.
Oyediran 1993 {published data only}
  • Oyediran AB, Topley E, Osunkoya BO, Bamgboye A, Williams AI, Ogunba EO, et al. Severe morbidity among children in a trial malaria chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine or chloroquine in Ibarapa, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 1993;22(1):55-63.
Pang 1989 {published data only}
  • Pang LW, Limsomwong N, Singharaj P, Canfield CJ. Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1989;67(1):51-8.
Panton 1985 {published data only}
  • Panton LJ, Tulloch S, Bradley AK, Greenwood BM. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in the Gambia to pyrimethamine, Maloprim and chloroquine. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1985;79(4):484-90.
Pividal 1992 {published data only}
  • Pividal J, Viktinski V, Streat E, Schapira A. Efficacy of dapsone with pyrimethamine (Maloprim) for malaria prophylaxis in Maputo, Mozambique. East African Medical Journal 1992;69(6):303-5.
Pribadi 1986 {published data only}
  • Pribadi W, Muzaham F, Santoso T, Rasidi R, Rukmono B, Soeharto. The implementation of community participation in the control of malaria in rural Tanjung Pinang, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1986;17(3):371-8.
Pringle 1966 {published data only}
  • Pringle G, Avery-Jones S. Observations on the early course of untreated falciparum malaria in semi-immune African children following a short period of protection. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1966;34(2):269-72.
Ringwald 1989 {published data only}
  • Ringwald P, Le Bras J, Havermann K, Flachs H. A study of the efficacy of the chemoprevention of malaria using chlorproguanil alone or in combination with chloroquine in French expatriates in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania [Etude de l'efficacite d'une chimioprophylaxie du paludisme par le chlorproguanil associe ou non a la chloroquine chez des expatries francais a Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzanie]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1989;82(1):124-9.
Robert 1989 {published data only}
  • Robert V, Hervy JP, Baudon D, Roux J, Legros F, Carnevale P. The effect of 2 chloroquine-based drug strategies (prevention and therapy of febrile cases] on malaria transmission [Influence de deux strategies medicamenteuses par chloroquine (prophylaxie et therape des acces febriles) sur la transmission du paludisme]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1989;82(2):243-7.
Rooth 1991 {published data only}
  • Rooth I, Sinani HM, Bjorkman A. Proguanil daily or chlorproguanil twice weekly are efficacious against falciparum malaria in a holoendemic area of Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1991;94(1):45-9.
Rosen 2005 {published data only}
  • Rosen JB, Breman JG, Manclark CR, Meade BD, Collins WE, Lobel HO, et al. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Malaria Journal 2005;4:53.
Saarinen 1988 {published data only}
  • Saarinen M, Thoren E, Iyambo N, Caristedt A, Shinyafa L, Fernanda M, et al. Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil to Namibian refugee children in Angola. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1988;39(1):40-2.
Schapira 1988 {published data only}
  • Schapira A, Da Costa F. Studies on malaria prophylaxis with chlorproguanil or chloroquine in Mozambique. Central African Medical Journal of Medicine 1988;34(3):44-9.
Schellenberg 2004 {published data only}
  • Schellenberg D, Kahigwa E, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Mshinda H, Alonso P, et al. A randomized comparison of two anemia treatment regimens in Tanzanian children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2004;71(4):428-33.
Schneider 1962 {published data only}
  • Schneider J, Escudie A, Ouedraogo A, Sales P. Chemioprophylaxis of malaria by weekly distributions of chloroquine or a chloroquine-primaquine-pyrimethamine combination [Chimioprophylaxie du paludisme par distributions herbomadaires de chloroquine ou d'une association chloroquine-primaquine-pyrimethamine]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et des ses Filiales 1962;55:280-90.
Stace 1981 {published data only}
  • Stace JD, Pariwa S. Reduction in malaria parasite rate in young children by distribution of prophylactic amodiaquine through voluntary village workers. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal 1981;24(4):254-60.
Sukwa 1999 {published data only}
  • Sukwa TY, Mulenga M, Chisdaka N, Roskell NS, Scott TR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial to determine the efficacy and safety of Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) for the prophylaxis of malaria in Zambia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;60(4):521-5.
Thera 2005 {published data only}
  • Thera MA, Sehdev PS, Coulibaly D, Traore K, Garba MN, Cissoko Y, et al. Impact of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on falciparum malaria infection and disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005;192(10):1823-9.
von Seidlein 2003 {published data only}
  • von Seidlein L, Walraven G, Milligan PJ, Alexander N, Manneh F, Deen JL, et al. The effect of mass administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combined with artesunate on malaria incidence: a double-blind, community-randomized, placebo-controlled trial in The Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;97(2):217-25.
Vrbova 1992 {published data only}
  • Vrbova H, Gibney S, Gibson FD, Jolley D, Heywood PF, Stace J, et al. Chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Papua New Guinea: trial of amodiaquine and a combination of dapsone and pyrimethamine. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal 1992;35(4):275-84.
Watkins 1987 {published data only}
  • Watkins WM, Brandling-Bennet AD, Oloo AJ, Howells RE, Gilles HM, Koech DK. Inadequacy of chlorproguanil 20 mg per week as chemoprophylaxis for falciparum malaria in Kenya. Lancet 1987;1(8525):125-8.
Weiss 1995 {published data only}
  • Weiss WR, Oloo AJ, Johnson A, Koech D, Hoffman SL. Daily primaquine is effective for prophylaxis against falciparum malaria in Kenya: comparison with mefloquine doxycycline and chloroquine plus proguanil. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171(6):1569-75.
Win 1985 {published data only}
  • Win K, Lwin TT, Thwe Y, Win K. Combination of mefloquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine compared with two sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations in malaria chemoprophylaxis. Lancet 1985;2(8457):694-5.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Kremsner ongoing {published data only}
  • Kremsner P, Grobusch M. Intermittent sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine administration to infants to reduce malaria morbidity in Gabon: assessment of efficacy, safety, and potential for malaria rebound. www.ipti-malaria.org (accessed 10 August 2005).
Lemnge ongoing {published data only}
  • Lemnge M, Greenwood B, Theander TG. Drug options for intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria in infants in an area with high resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine: an evaluation of short and long-acting antimalarial drugs. www.ipti-malaria.org (accessed 10 August 2005).
Menendez ongoing {published data only}
  • Menendez C. Intermittent preventive treatment in infants delivered through the EPI scheme in Mozambique: community response and cost effectiveness, and impact on morbidity and development of malaria immunity. www.ipti-malaria.org (accessed 10 August 2005).
NCT00111163 {published data only}
  • NCT00111163. Efficacy and safety of pediatric immunization-linked preventive intermittent treatment with antimalarials in decreasing anemia and malaria morbidity in rural western Kenya [Intermittent preventive treatment with antimalarials in Kenyan infants]. www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00111163?order=1 (accessed 10 August 2005).
NCT00119132 {published data only}
  • NCT00119132. Study of impact of intermittent preventive treatment in children with amodiaquine plus artesunate versus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on hemoglobin levels and malaria morbidity in Hohoe District of Ghana. clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00119132 (accessed 10 August 2005).
Schellenberg ongoing {published data only}
  • Schellenberg D, Tanner M. Community effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunisation for malaria and anaemia control in Tanzanian infants. www.ipti-malaria.org (accessed 10 August 2005).
Slutsker ongoing {published data only}
  • Slutsker L, Newman R. Efficacy and safety of paediatric, immunization-linked, intermittent preventive treatment with antimalarials in decreasing anaemia and malaria morbidity in rural western Kenya. www.ipti-malaria.org (accessed 10 August 2005).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alexander 2007
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Branch 1998
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Croft 2000
Egan 2005
Gamble 2006
Garner 2006
Gilles 2000
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Greenwood 2004
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Greenwood 2006
Higgins 2006
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Jüni 2001
Lengeler 2004
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RBM 2005
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Review Manager 5
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Rosen 2004
Schulz 1995
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Snow 1999
  • Snow RW, Craig M, Deichmann U, Marsh K. Estimating mortality and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1999;77(8):624-40.
UNICEF 2007
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Warrell 2001
White 2005
WHO 1990
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WHO 1993
  • WHO Study Group on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Malaria Control. Implementation of the global malaria control strategy: report of a WHO Study Group on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Malaria Control 1993-2000 [meeting held in Geneva from 8 to 12 February 1993]. WHO Technical Report Series; no. 839. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.
WHO 2000
  • WHO Expert Committee on Malaria (1998: Geneva, Switzerland). WHO Expert Committee on Malaria: twentieth report. WHO Technical Report Series 2000;892.
WHO 2006
  • World Health Organization. Malaria vector control and personal protection: report of a WHO study group. WHO Technical Report Series 2006;936.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Meremikwu 2002
  • Meremikwu M, Omari AAA. Antimalarial drugs given at regular intervals for preventing clinical malaria and severe anaemia in preschool children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003756]
Meremikwu 2005