Intervention Review

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Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients

  1. Elisabeth M Hodson1,2,*,
  2. Maleeka Ladhani1,
  3. Angela C Webster2,3,4,
  4. Giovanni FM Strippoli2,4,5,6,7,
  5. Jonathan C Craig2,4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Renal Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 11 JUL 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003774.pub4


How to Cite

Hodson EM, Ladhani M, Webster AC, Strippoli GFM, Craig JC. Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003774. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003774.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Centre for Kidney Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia

  3. 3

    The University of Sydney at Westmead, Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  4. 4

    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Cochrane Renal Group, Centre for Kidney Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  5. 5

    University of Bari, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Bari, Italy

  6. 6

    Mario Negri Sud Consortium, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy

  7. 7

    Diaverum, Medical-Scientific Office, Lund, Sweden

*Elisabeth M Hodson, elisabeth.hodson@health.nsw.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
2VAL Study 2010 Kidney {published data only}
  • Randomized trial comparing valacyclovir versus valganciclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12610000016033 Registered 26/9/2007.
  • Reischig T, Prucha M, Sedlackova L, Jindra P, Bouda M, Matejovic M. Lymphocyte function during valacyclovir and valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):143.
  • Reischig T, Prucha M, Sedlackova L, Lysak D, Bouda M, Matejovic M. Valganciclovir prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus impairs lymphocyte proliferation and activation in renal transplant recipients. Antiviral Therapy 2011;16(8):1227-35. [MEDLINE: 22155904]
Ahsan 1997 Kidney {published data only}
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Dhilon S, Ream L, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir (CytoveneR) effectively prevents cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in renal transplant patients [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1929.
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Yang HC. Efficacy of oral ganciclovir in prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in post-kidney transplant patients. Clinical Transplantation 1997;11(6):633-9. [MEDLINE: 9408699]
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir is effective in preventing CMV infection in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. Nephrology 1997;3(Suppl 1):S70.
Badley 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Badley AD, Seaberg EC, Porayko MK, Wiesner RH, Keating MR, Wilhelm MP, et al. Prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplantation: A randomized trial comparing a combination of ganciclovir and acyclovir to acyclovir. Transplantation 1997;64(1):66-73. [MEDLINE: 9233703]
  • Paya CV, Marin E, Keating M, Dickson R, Porayko M, Wiesner R. Solid organ transplantation: results and implications of acyclovir use in liver transplants. Journal of Medical Virology 1993;Suppl 1:123-7. [MEDLINE: 8245877]
Balfour 1989 Kidney {published data only}
  • Balfour HH. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Supplement 1991;80:88-93. [MEDLINE: 1725064]
  • Balfour HH, Bean B, Mitchell CD, Sachs GW, Boen JR, Edelman CK. Acyclovir in immunocompromised patients with cytomegalovirus disease. A controlled trial at one institution. American Journal of Medicine 1982;73(1A):241-8. [MEDLINE: 6285715]
  • Balfour HH, Fletcher CV, Dunn D. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease with oral acyclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(2 Suppl 1):17-9. [MEDLINE: 1647558]
  • Balfour HH Jr, Chace BA, Stapleton JT, Simmons RL, Fryd DS. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts. New England Journal of Medicine 1989;320(21):1381-7. [MEDLINE: 2541335]
  • Fletcher CV, Englund JA, Edelman CK, Gross CR, Dunn DL, Balfour HH. Pharmacologic basis for high-dose oral acyclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1991;35(5):938-43. [MEDLINE: 1649575]
Barkholt 1999 Liver {published data only}
  • Barkholt L, Lewensohn-Fuchs I, Ericzon BG, Tyden G, Andersson J. High-dose acyclovir prophylaxis reduces cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant patients. Transplant Infectious Disease 1999;1(2):89-97. [MEDLINE: 11428976]
Brennan 1997 Kidney {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Singer GG, Schnitzler MA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir compared with deferred therapy for control of cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997;64(12):1843-6. [MEDLINE: 9422429]
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Singer GG, Schnizler MA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus infection and disease in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. 16th Annual Meeting. American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP); 1997 May 10-14; Chicago (ILL). 1997:87.
  • Brennan DC, Singer GG, Garlock KA, Schnitzler MA, Storch GA. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. Nephrology 1997;3(Suppl 1):S197.
  • Brennan DC, Storch GA, Singer GG, Lee L, Rueda J, Schnitzler MA. The prevalence of human herpesvirus-7 in renal transplant recipients is unaffected by oral or intravenous ganciclovir. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000;181(5):1557-61. [MEDLINE: 10823753]
  • Singer GG, Storch GA, Burton KG, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1941.
Cohen 1993 Liver {published data only}
Conti 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Conti DJ, Freed BM, Singh TP, Gallichio M, Gruber SA, Lempert N, et al. Preemptive ganciclovir therapy in cytomegalovirus-seropositive renal transplants recipients. Archives of Surgery 1995;130(11):1217-22. [MEDLINE: 7487465]
Duncan 1993 Lung {published data only}
  • Duncan SR, Grgurich WF, Iacono AT, Burckart GJ, Yousem SA, Paradis IL, et al. A comparison of ganciclovir and acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1994;150(1):146-52. [MEDLINE: 8025741]
Egan 2002 Heart {published data only}
  • Egan JJ, Carroll KB, Yonan N, Woodcock A, Crisp A. Valacyclovir prevention of cytomegalovirus reactivation after heart transplantation: a randomized trial. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 2002;21(4):460-6. [MEDLINE: 11927223]
Flechner 1998 Kidney {published data only}
  • Flechner SM, Avery RK, Fisher R, Mastroianni BA, Papajcik DA, O'Malley KJ, et al. A randomized prospective controlled trial of oral acyclovir versus oral ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998;66(12):1682-8. [MEDLINE: 9884259]
  • Flechner SM, O'Malley K, Fisher R, Mastroianni B, Papajcik D, Avery R, et al. A randomized prospective trial of oral acyclovir vs oral ganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in high risk kidney transplant recipients [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S187.
Gane 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Gane E, Saliba F, Valdecasas GJ, O'Grady J, Pescovitz MD, Lyman S, et al. Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver-transplant recipients. The Oral Ganciclovir International Transplantation Study Group. Lancet 1997;350(9093):1729-33. [MEDLINE: 9413463]
  • Saliba F, Bismuth H, Gane E, Valdecasas G, O'Grady J, Behrend M, et al. A randomized double blind versus placebo multicenter study of efficacy and tolerance of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in hepatic transplanted patients. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 1997;21(2 bis):A157. [CENTRAL: CN-00583127]
Gavalda 1997 Liver {published data only}
Green 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Green M, Kaufmann M, Wilson J, Reyes J. Comparison of intravenous ganciclovir followed by oral acyclovir with intravenous ganciclovir alone for prevention of cytomegalovirus and Epstein- Barr virus disease after liver transplantation in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(6):1344-9. [MEDLINE: 9431375]
  • Green M, Reyes J, Nour B, Beatty D, Kaufman M, Wilson J, et al. Randomized trial of ganciclovir followed by high-dose oral acyclovir vs ganciclovir alone in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in pediatric liver transplant recipients: preliminary analysis. Transplantation Proceedings 1994;26(1):173-4. [MEDLINE: 8108926]
Hertz 1998 Heart/lung {published data only}
  • Hertz MI, Jordan C, Savik SK, Fox JMK, Park S, Bolman II RM, et al. Randomized trial of daily versus three-times-weekly prophylactic ganciclovir after lung and heart-lung transplantation. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 1998;17(9):913-20. [MEDLINE: 9773865]
Hibberd 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Hibberd PL, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Conti D, Stuart F, Thistlethwaite JR, Neylan JF, et al. Preemptive ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease, in cytomegalovirus antibody-positive renal transplant recipients. A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995;123(1):18-26. [MEDLINE: 7762909]
IMPACT 2010 Kidney {published data only}
  • Blumberg E, Hauser I, Gahlemann CG, Berenson KL, Jardine A, Humar A. Cost-effectiveness model to evaluate 200-day vs 100-day valganciclovir (Valcyte®) prophylaxis to reduce CMV disease incidence post-transplant [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):126.
  • Chou S, Marousek G, Boivin G, Goyette N, Farhan M, Ives JA, et al. Recombinant phenotyping of cytomegalovirus sequence variants detected after 200 or 100 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1409-13. [MEDLINE: 21030903]
  • Elston R, Bovin G, Goyette N, Voulgari A, Ives J, Farhan M. The IMPACT Study: genotypic analysis of cytomegalovirus UL54 and UL97 genes derived from patients receiving 100 or 200 days of valganciclovir (Valcyte®) prophylaxis [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):208.
  • Humar A, IMPACT ISC, Peeters P, Abramowicz D, Humar A, Lebranchu Y, et al. Response to questions regarding the design and results of the IMPACT trial. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(1):177-8. [MEDLINE: 21199360]
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Blumberg E, Punch J, Limaye A, et al. Long term results of the IMPACT study: 200 vs 100 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl S4):143.
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Blumberg EA, Punch JD, Limaye AP, et al. The efficacy and safety of 200 days valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(5):1228-37. [MEDLINE: 20353469]
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Punch J, Abramowicz D, Blumberg E, et al. The Impact Study: Valganciclovir prophylaxis for until 200 days post-transplant in high risk kidney recipients substantially reduces the incidence of CMV disease [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(Suppl 2):248.
  • Humar A, Limaye AP, Blumberg EA, Hauser IA, Vincenti F, Jardine AG, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D/R kidney transplant recipients is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: two-year results of the IMPACT Study. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1427-31. [MEDLINE: 21197713]
  • Kalil AC, Sun J, Florescu DF. IMPACT trial results should not change current standard of care of 100 days for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(1):18-21. [MEDLINE: 21199346]
  • Welker H, Farhan M, Humar A, Washington C. Ganciclovir pharmacokinetic parameters do not change when extending valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1414-9. [MEDLINE: 21076372]
Kletzmayr 1996 Kidney {published data only}
  • Kletzmayr J, Kotzmann H, Popow-Kraupp T, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Impact of high-dose oral acyclovir prophylaxis on cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in CMV high-risk renal transplant recipients. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(2):325-30. [MEDLINE: 8785404]
  • Kletzmayr J, Kotzmann H, Popow-Kraupp T, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Oral acyclovir in prevention of CMV disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. ISN XIII International Congress of Nephrology; 1995 Jul 2-6; Madrid (Spain). 1995:375.
Leray 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Leray H, Mourad G, Chong G, Segondy M, Mion C. Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus primary infection with ganciclovir in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1995;27(4):2448. [MEDLINE: 7652875]
Lowance 1999 Kidney {published data only}
  • Legendre CM, Norman DJ, Keating MR, Maclaine GD, Grant DM. Valaciclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in renal transplantation: an economic evaluation. Transplantation 2000;70(10):1463-8. [MEDLINE: 11118091]
  • Lowance D, Legendre C, Neumayer H, Norman D, Coggon G, Lee I, et al. Valaciclovir reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease and acute graft rejection in CMV-seronegative recipients of a seropositive cadaveric renal allograft [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S18.
  • Lowance D, Neumayer HH, Legendre CM, Squifflet JP, Kovarik J, Brennan PJ, et al. Valacyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. International Valacyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Transplantation Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;340(19):1462-70. [MEDLINE: 10320384]
  • Squifflet J, Mendez R. Valaciclovir reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease in CMV-seropositive renal allograft recipients [abstract]. 16th Annual Meeting. American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP); 1997 May 10-14; Chicago (ILL). 1997:87.
Macdonald 1995 Heart {published data only}
  • Macdonald PS, Keogh AM, Marshman D, Richens D, Harvison A, Kaan AM, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of low-dose ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after heart transplantation. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 1995;14(1):32-8. [MEDLINE: 7727473]
Martin 1994 Liver {published data only}
  • Martin M, Manez R, Linden P, Estores D, Torre-Cisneros J, Kusne S, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing sequential ganciclovir-high dose acyclovir to high dose acyclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in adult liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1994;58(7):779-85. [MEDLINE: 7940710]
Merigan 1992 Heart {published data only}
  • Merigan TC, Renlund DG, Keay S, Bristow MR, Starnes V, O'Connell JB, et al. A controlled trial of ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after heart transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;326(18):1182-6. [MEDLINE: 1313549]
  • Valantine HA, Gao SZ, Menon SG, Renlund DG, Hunt SA, Oyer P, et al. Impact of prophylactic immediate posttransplant ganciclovir on development of transplant atherosclerosis: a post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Circulation 1999;100(1):61-6. [MEDLINE: 10393682]
  • Wagner JA, Ross H, Hunt S, Gamberg P, Valantine H, Merigan TC, et al. Prophylactic ganciclovir treatment reduces fungal as well as cytomegalovirus infections after heart transplantation. Transplantation 1995;60(12):1473-7. [MEDLINE: 8545877]
  • Wagner JA, Ross H, Hunt S, Gamberg P, Valantine H, Merigan TC, Stinson EB. Prophylactic ganciclovir treatment reduces cytomegalovirus and fungal infections in orthotopic heart transplant recipients. ASTP 1995 Annual Meeting. 1995.
Nafar 2005 Kidney {published data only}
  • Nafar M, Pezeshki ML, Farrokhi F, Einollahi B, Pour-Reza-Gholi F, Firouzan A, et al. A randomized prospective trial of oral versus intravenous ganciclovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in high-risk kidney recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 2005;37(7):3053-5. [MEDLINE: 16213302]
Nakazato 1993 Liver {published data only}
  • Nakazato PZ, Burns W, Moore P, Garcia-Kennedy R, Cox K, Esquivel C. Viral prophylaxis in hepatic transplantation: Preliminary report of a randomized trial of acyclovir and gancyclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1993;25(2):1935-7. [MEDLINE: 7682357]
Palmer 2010 Lung {published data only}
  • Finlen Copeland CA, Davis WA, Snyder LD, Banks M, Avery R, Palmer SM. Reduced lifetime incidence of cytomegalovirus with extended prophylaxis: Long-term follow up from a randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 2011;30(4 Suppl 1):S42. [EMBASE: 70383484]
  • Palmer SM, Limaye AP, Banks M, Gallup D, Chapman J, Lawrence EC, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010;152(12):761-9. [MEDLINE: 20547904]
Pavlopoulou 2005 Kidney {published data only}
Paya 2004 All {published data only}
  • Boivin G, Goyette N, Gilbert C, Roberts N, Macey K, Paya C, et al. Absence of cytomegalovirus-resistance mutations after valganciclovir prophylaxis, in a prospective multicenter study of solid-organ transplant recipients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;189(9):1615-8. [MEDLINE: 15116297]
  • Freeman RB, Macey K, Paya C, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Dominquez E, et al. Risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease: results from a multicenter randomized trial of valganciclovir (VGC) [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):391.
  • Humar A, Mazzulli T, Moussa G, Razonable RR, Paya CV, Pescovitz MD, et al. Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology testing in high-risk CMV D+/R- transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2005;5(5):1065-70. [MEDLINE: 15816887]
  • Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, Blumberg E, Alexander B, et al. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2004;4(4):611-20. [MEDLINE: 15023154]
  • Pescovitz M, Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, Blumberg E, et al. Valganciclovir for prevention of CMV disease: 12 month follow up of a randomized trial of 364 D+/R- transplant recipients [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):299.
  • Wiltshire H, Hirankarn S, Farrell C, Paya C, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, et al. Pharmacokinetic profile of ganciclovir after its oral administration and from its prodrug, valganciclovir, in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2005;44(5):495-507. [MEDLINE: 15871635]
  • Wiltshire H, Paya CV, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, et al. Pharmacodynamics of oral ganciclovir and valganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2005;79(11):1477-83. [MEDLINE: 15940035]
Pouteil-Noble 1996 Kidney {published data only}
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Megas F, Chapuis F, Bosshard S, Colin C, Hadj-Aissa A, et al. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis by ganciclovir followed by high-dose acyclovir in renal transplantation: A randomized, controlled trial. Transplantation Proceedings 1996;28(5):2811. [MEDLINE: 8908072]
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Megas F, Chapuis F, Colul C, Bosshard S, Hadj-Aissa A, et al. Is CMV prophylaxis by ganciclovir-high dose acyclovir worthwhile in renal transplantation? A randomized, controlled, clinical and economical trial. [abstract]. ISN XIII International Congress of Nephrology; 1995 Jul 2-6; Madrid (Spain). 1995:343.
Reischig 2005 Kidney {published and unpublished data}
  • Reischig T, Bouda M, Opatrny KJ, Treska V, Jindra P, Svecova M. Oral ganciclovir versus valacyclovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. XIXth International Congress of the Transplantation Society; 2002 Aug 25-30; Miami (FL). 2002.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Cechura M, Svecova M, Opatrny KJ, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomized comparison with oral ganciclovir and deferred therapy. [abstract]. Transplantation 2004;78(2 Suppl):483.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Opatrny K, Cechura M, Svecova M, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 2005;79(3):317-24. [MEDLINE: 15699762]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Opatrny K, Jr, Treska V, Cechura M, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomized comparison of oral ganciclovir and valacyclovir [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2004;4(Suppl 8):493.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Svecova M, Kormunda S, Opatrny K, Treska V. The impact of cytomegalovirus disease and asymptomatic infection on acute renal allograft rejection. Journal of Clinical Virology 2006;36(2):146-51. [MEDLINE: 16531113]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Svecova M, Opatrny K, Treska V. The impact of cytomegalovirus disease and asymptomatic infection on acute renal allograft infection [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2005;5(Suppl 11):382.
  • Reischig T, Opatrny JK, Treska V, Mares J, Jindra P, Svecova M. Prospective comparison of valacyclovir and oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 2005;28(4):218-25. [MEDLINE: 16043964]
  • Reischig T, Opatrny K, Jr, Bouda M, Treska V, Jindra P, Svecova MT, et al. A randomized prospective controlled trial of oral ganciclovir versus oral valacyclovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. Transplant International 2002;15(12):615-22. [MEDLINE: 12478408]
Rondeau 1993 Kidney {published data only}
  • Rondeau E, Bourgeon B, Peraldi MN, Lang P, Buisson C, Schulte KM, et al. Effect of prophylactic ganciclovir on cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1993;8(9):858-62. [MEDLINE: 8255520]
  • Rondeau E, Bourgeon B, Peraldi MN, Lang P, Buisson C, Schulte KM, et al. Prophylaxis of CMV disease by ganciclovir (DHPG) in seronegative recipients of renal allograft from seropositive donors. Transplant International 1992;5(Suppl 1):S30-1.
Rostaing 1994 Kidney {published data only}
  • Rostaing L, Crespin A, Icart J, Lloveras JJ, Durand D, Martinet O, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis by acyclovir in pre-transplant CMV-positive renal transplant recipients. Transplant International 1994;7 Suppl 1:331-5. [MEDLINE: 11271244]
Rubin 2002 All {published data only}
  • Rubin RH, Kemmerly SA, Conti D, Doran M, Murray BM, Neylan JF, et al. Prevention of primary cytomegalovirus disease in organ transplant recipients with oral ganciclovir or oral acyclovir prophylaxis. Transplant Infectious Disease 2000;2(3):112-7. [MEDLINE: 11429021]
Saliba 1993 Liver {published data only}
  • Saliba F, Eyraud D, Samuel D, David MF, Arulnaden JL, Dussaix E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1993;25(1 Pt 2):1444-5. [MEDLINE: 8382876]
Winston 1995 Liver {published data only}
Winston 2003 Liver {published data only}
  • Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of oral ganciclovir versus oral acyclovir after induction with intravenous ganciclovir for long-term prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in cytomegalovirus-seropositive liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2003;75(2):229-33. [MEDLINE: 12548129]
Winston 2004 Liver {published data only}
  • Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of sequential intravenous and oral ganciclovir versus prolonged intravenous ganciclovir for long-term prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk cytomegalovirus-seronegative liver transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus-seropositive donors. Transplantation 2004;77(2):305-8. [MEDLINE: 14742998]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ahsan 1998 {published data only}
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Sonderbye L, Langhoff E, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in postkidney transplant 'CMV at risk' recipients: A controlled, comparative study of two regimens (750 mg Bid and 500 mg Bid). Transplantation Proceedings 1998;30(4):1383-5. [MEDLINE: 9636560]
Arbo 2000 {published data only}
Brennan 1997 {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Lippmann BA, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, Lowell JA, et al. Control of cytomegalovirus-associated morbidity in renal transplant patients using intensive monitoring and either preemptive or deferred therapy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1997;8(1):118-25. [MEDLINE: 9013456]
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, Lowell JA, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-triggered preemptive or deferred therapy to control cytomegalovirus-associated morbidity and costs in renal transplant patients. Transplantation Proceedings 1997;29(1-2):809-11. [MEDLINE: 9123536]
  • Brennan DC, Storch GA, Singer GG, Lee L, Rueda J, Schnitzler MA. The prevalence of human herpesvirus-7 in renal transplant recipients is unaffected by oral or intravenous ganciclovir. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000;181(5):1557-61. [MEDLINE: 10823753]
Brennan 2001 {published data only}
Devolder 2010 {published data only}
  • Devolder I. The influence of intensive education and coaching on compliance for oral ganciclovir in the prophylaxis of CMV: an open randomised trial. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00566072 (accessed 21 December 2012).
Dickinson 1996 {published data only}
  • Dickinson BI, Gora-Harper ML, McCraney SA, Gosland M. Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1996;30(12):1452-64. [MEDLINE: 8968459]
Falagas 1997 {published data only}
  • Falagas ME, Snydman DR, Ruthazer R, Griffith J, Werner BG, Freeman R, et al. Cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMVIG) prophylaxis is associated with increased survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. The Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG Study Group. Clinical Transplantation 1997;11(5 Pt 1):432-7. [MEDLINE: 9361936]
Fehir 1989 {published data only}
  • Fehir KM, Decker WA, Samo T, Young JB, Lederer E, Lawrence EC. Immune globulin (GAMMAGARD) prophylaxis of CMV infections in patients undergoing organ transplantation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 1989;21(1 Pt 3):3107-9. [MEDLINE: 2539691]
Ferreira 2004 {published data only}
  • Ferreira A, Felipe CR, Motegi SA, Hosaka BA, Tamura MK, Kamura LA, et al. Relationship between immunosuppression and subsequent development of CMV disease [abstract]. 3rd International Congress on Immunosuppression; 2004 Dec 8-11; San Diego, (CA). 2004.
Fishman 2000 {published data only}
  • Fishman JA, Doran MT, Volpicelli SA, Cosimi AB, Flood JG, Rubin RH. Dosing of intravenous ganciclovir for the prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;69(3):389-94. [MEDLINE: 10706048]
Gerna 2003 {published data only}
  • Gerna G, Baldanti F, Lilleri D, Parea M, Torsellini M, Castiglioni B, et al. Human cytomegalovirus pp67 mRNAemia versus pp65 antigenemia for guiding preemptive therapy in heart and lung transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Transplantation 2003;75(7):1012-9. [MEDLINE: 12698090]
Gerna 2008 {published data only}
  • Gerna G, Lilleri D, Callegaro A, Goglio A, Cortese S, Stroppa P, et al. Prophylaxis followed by preemptive therapy versus preemptive therapy for prevention of human cytomegalovirus disease in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation. Transplantation 2008;86(1):163-6. [MEDLINE: 18622294]
Greger 1988 {published data only}
  • Greger B, Schareck WD, Busing M, Mellert J, Muller GH, Hopt UT, et al. Are the risk of viral infections increased in kidney transplant patients receiving triple-drug therapy?. Transplantation Proceedings 1988;20(1 Suppl 1):466-8. [EMBASE: 1988111944]
Griffiths 1997 {published data only}
Griffiths 2010 {published data only}
  • Griffiths PD. Determining a viral load threshold for pre-emptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection in transplant patients using real time PCR monitoring. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00947141 (accessed 21 December 2012).
Grundmann 1986 {published data only}
  • Grundmann R, Wienand P, Runde A. The value of a prophylactic CMV-IgG-treatment in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1986;1(2):144.
Hecht 1988 {published data only}
  • Hecht DW, Snydman DR, Crumpacker CS, Werner BG, Heinze-Lacey B. Ganciclovir for treatment of renal transplant-associated primary cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1988;157(1):187-90. [MEDLINE: 2826608]
Huurman 2006 {published data only}
  • Huurman VA, Kalpoe JS, van de LP, Vaessen N, Ringers J, Kroes AC, et al. Choice of antibody immunotherapy influences cytomegalovirus viremia in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients. Diabetes Care 2006;29(4):842-7. [MEDLINE: 16567825]
Jung 2001 {published data only}
  • Jung C, Engelmann E, Borner K, Offermann G. Preemptive oral ganciclovir therapy versus prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 2001;33(8):3621-3. [MEDLINE: 11750538]
  • Offermann G, Jung C. Preemptive oral ganciclovir therapy versus prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation [abstract no: 1094]. A Transplant Odyssey; 2001 Aug 20-23; Istanbul (Turkey). 2001.
Jurim 1996 {published data only}
  • Jurim O, Martin P, Winston DJ, Shackleton C, Holt C, Feller J, et al. Failure of ganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent allograft reinfection following orthotopic liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver Transplantation & Surgery 1996;2(5):370-4. [MEDLINE: 9346678]
Khoury 2006 {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Hardinger KL, Bohl DL, Lockwood M, Torrence S, Schuessler R, et al. Preemptive vs prophylactic valganciclovir for CMV in renal transplantation: early results from a randomized, prospective trial [abstract no: SA-FC009]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2004;15(Oct):23A.
  • Khoury JA, Storch GA, Bohl DL, Schuessler RM, Torrence SM, Lockwood M, et al. Prophylactic versus preemptive oral valganciclovir for the management of cytomegalovirus infection in adult renal transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2006;6(9):2134-43. [MEDLINE: 16780548]
  • Spinner ML, Saab G, Casabar E, Bowman LJ, Storch GA, Brennan DC. Impact of prophylactic versus preemptive valganciclovir on long-term renal allograft outcomes. Transplantation 2010;90(4):412-8. [MEDLINE: 20555305]
Kim 2000 {published data only}
Kletzmayr 2000 {published data only}
  • Kletzmayr J, Kreuzwieser E, Watkins-Riedel T, Berlakovich G, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Long-term oral ganciclovir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in cytomegalovirus high-risk renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;70(8):1174-80. [MEDLINE: 11063336]
Kliem 2008 {published data only}
  • Kliem V, Fricke L, Wollbrink T, Burg M, Radermacher J, Rohde F. Improvement in long-term renal graft survival due to CMV prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir: results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(5):975-83. [MEDLINE: 18261177]
  • Radermacher J, Fricke L, Burg M, Mischak H, Rohde F, Kliem V. Influence of prophylactic compared with early ganciclovir treatment on graft survival in renal allograft recipients [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2006;17(Abstracts):111A.
Koetz 2001 {published data only}
  • Koetz AC, Delbruch R, Furtwangler A, Hufert FT, Neumann-Haefelin D, Kirste G, et al. Cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen-guided preemptive therapy with ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transplantation 2001;72(7):1325-7. [MEDLINE: 11602864]
Kuypers 1999 {published data only}
Laske 1991 {published data only}
  • Laske A, Gallino A, Mohacsi P, Bauer EP, Carrel T, Von Segesser LK, et al. Prophylactic treatment with ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus infection in heart transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(1 Pt 2):1170-3. [MEDLINE: 1846456]
Laske 1992 {published data only}
  • Laske A, Carrel T, Niederhauser U, Bauer E, Pasic M, Von Segesser LK, et al. The prevention of cytomegalus infection after heart transplantation. Helvetica Chirurgica Acta 1992;58(4):527-32. [EMBASE: 1992114614]
Luan 2009 {published data only}
  • Luan FL, Stucky L, Park JM, Ojo A. Economic analysis of extended cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high risk kidney transplant patients [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(Suppl 2):250.
Lumbreras 1993 {published data only}
  • Lumbreras C, Otero JR, Herrero JA, Gomez R, Lizasoain M, Aguado JM, et al. Ganciclovir prophylaxis decreases frequency and severity of cytomegalovirus disease in seropositive liver transplant recipients treated with OKT3 monoclonal antibodies. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1993;37(11):2490-2. [MEDLINE: 8285641]
MacDonald 1991 {published data only}
  • MacDonald AS, Belitsky P, Cohen A, Lee S. Cytomegalovirus disease prophylaxis in seronegative recipients of kidneys from seropositive donors by combination of cytomegalovirus-hyperimmune globulin and low-dose acyclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(1 Pt 2):1355-6. [MEDLINE: 1846463]
Marker 1980 {published data only}
Martin 1993 {published data only}
Martin 1994 {published data only}
Martin 1995 {published data only}
Mattes 2004 {published data only}
  • Mattes FM, Hainsworth EG, Geretti AM, Nebbia G, Prentice G, Potter M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial comparing ganciclovir to ganciclovir plus foscarnet (each at half dose) for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;189(8):1355-61. [MEDLINE: 15073671]
McGavin 2001 {published data only}
Moreno 1999 {published data only}
  • Moreno J, Montero JL, Gavilan F, Costan G, Herrero C, Cardenas M, et al. Open clinical trial with oral acyclovir for the prophylaxis of disease by Cytomegalovirus in low risk liver transplant recipients. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica 1999;17(8):382-5. [MEDLINE: 10563084]
Mullen 1998 {published data only}
  • Mullen GM, Silver MA, Malinowska K, Lawless CE, Lichtenberg RC, Barath PC, et al. Effective oral ganciclovir prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1998;30(8):4110-2. [MEDLINE: 9865316]
Murray 1997 {published data only}
  • Murray BM, Blas S. Cost comparison of two approaches to the management of CMV infection in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1997;8(Program & Abstracts):695A.
Paya 2002 {published data only}
  • Paya CV, Wilson JA, Espy MJ, Sia IG, DeBernardi MJ, Smith TF, et al. Preemptive use of oral ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002;185(7):854-60. [MEDLINE: 11920308]
Pescovitz 2009 {published data only}
Pouteil 1991 {published data only}
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Betuel H, Raffaele P, Megri K, Louvier C, Lefrancois N, et al. Influence of HLA compatibility on cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplantation [Influence de la compatibilite HLA sur l'infection a cytomegalovirus en transplantation renale]. Presse Medicale 1991;20(40):2022-4. [MEDLINE: 1662376]
PROTECT Study 2010 {published data only}
  • Potena L. Efficacy and safety of anti-cytomegalovirus prophylaxis versus pre-emptive approaches with valganciclovir in heart transplant recipients treated with everolimus or mycophenolate. a randomized open-label study for prevention of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (PROTECT). clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00966836 (accessed 21 December 2012).
Queiroga 2003 {published data only}
  • Quieroga M, Castro MC, Araujo LM, Alves CF, Kakehashi E, Panutti C, et al. A prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing oral ganciclovir with weekly monitored CMV-antigenemia in renal transplant patients with a high-risk for CMV infection [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):511.
Rayes 2001 {published data only}
  • Rayes N, Seehofer D, Schmidt CA, Oettle H, Muller AR, Steinmuller T, et al. Prospective randomized trial to assess the value of preemptive oral therapy for CMV infection following liver transplantation. Transplantation 2001;72(5):881-5. [MEDLINE: 11571454]
Reischig 2008 {published data only}
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Hes O, Svecova M, Klaboch J, Treska V. Valacyclovir prophylaxis versus preemptive valganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(1):69-77. [MEDLINE: 17973956]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Klaboch J, Svecova M, Hes O, Treska V. Valacyclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced risk of acute renal allograft rejection compared to preemptive valganciclovir therapy [abstract]. Transplant International 2007;20(Suppl 2):185.
  • Reischig T, Nemcova J, Vanecek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Intragraft cytomegalovirus infection: a randomized trial of valacyclovir prophylaxis versus pre-emptive therapy in renal transplant recipients. Antiviral Therapy 2010;15(1):23-30. [MEDLINE: 20167988]
  • Reischig T, Nemcova J, Vanecek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Preemptive valganciclovir therapy is not associated with increase in cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in renal allograft biopsy specimens compared with valacyclovir prophylaxis [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):131.
  • Reischig T, Nmcov J, Vanek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in the graft: Results of a randomised study comparing valacyclovir prophylaxis and preemptive treatment after renal transplantation [abstract]. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 2010;33(4):324. [EMBASE: 70448142]
Sagedal 2003 {published data only}
  • Sagedal S, Nordal KP, Hartmann A, Midvedt K, Foss A, Asberg A, et al. Pre-emptive therapy of CMVpp65 antigen positive renal transplant recipients with oral ganciclovir: a randomized, comparative study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2003;18(9):1899-908. [MEDLINE: 12937241]
Said 2007 {published data only}
  • Said T, Nampoory MR, Pacsa AS, Essa S, Madi N, Fahim N, et al. Oral valgancyclovir versus intravenous gancyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 2007;39(4):997-9. [MEDLINE: 17524873]
Schafers 1988 {published data only}
  • Schafers H-J, Wahlers T, Jurmann M, Fieguth H-G, Milbradt H, Flik J, et al. Hyperimmuneglobulin for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis following heart transplantation. Journal of Hospital Infection 1988;12(Suppl D):61-5. [MEDLINE: 2902131]
Schnitzler 2000 {published data only}
  • Schnitzler MA, Metheney TG, Rueda JF, Woodward RS, Lowell JA, Singer GG, et al. A 3-year follow-up of pre-emptive vs deferred treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplantation. Clinical Drug Investigation 2000;19(5):367-74. [: EMBASE: 2000190076]
Singh 1994 {published data only}
  • Sing N, Yu VL, Mieles L, Wagener MM, Miner RC, Gayowsky T. High-dose acyclovir compared with short-course preemptive ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;120(5):375-81. [MEDLINE: 8304654]
Singh 1995 {published data only}
Singh 2000 {published data only}
  • Singh N, Paterson DL, Gayowsky T, Wagener MM, Marino IR. Cytomegalovirus antigenemia directed pre-emptive prophylaxis with oral versus iv ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;70(5):717-22. [MEDLINE: 11003347]
  • Singh N, Yu VL, Gayowski T, Marino IR. CMV antigenemia directed preemptive prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir for the prevention of CMV disease in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S113.
Snydman 1991a {published data only}
  • Snydman DR. Cytomegalovirus infections in the immunocompromised transplant patient. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease with intravenous immune globulin. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(2 Suppl 1):20-5. [MEDLINE: 1647560]
Snydman 1991b {published data only}
  • Snydman DR, Werner BG, Tilney NL, Kirkman RL, Milford EL, Cho SI, et al. Final analysis of primary cytomegalovirus disease prevention in renal transplant recipients with a cytomegalovirus-immune globulin: comparison of the randomized and open-label trials. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(1 Pt 2):1357-60. [MEDLINE: 1846464]
Snydman 1994 {published data only}
  • Snydman DR, Werner BG, Dougherty NN, Griffith J, Rohrer RH, Freeman R, et al. A further analysis of the use of cytomegalovirus immune globulin in orthotopic liver transplant patients at risk for primary infection. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG-Study Group. Transplantation Proceedings 1994;26(5 Suppl 1):23-7. [MEDLINE: 7940972]
Snydman 2001 {published data only}
Speich 1999 {published data only}
  • Speich R, Thurnheer R, Gaspert A, Weder W, Boehler A. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after lung transplantation. Transplantation 1999;67(2):315-20. [MEDLINE: 10075601]
Stratta 1992 {published data only}
  • Stratta RJ, Shaefer MS, Cushing KA, Markin RS, Reed EC, Langnas AN, et al. A randomized prospective trial of acyclovir and immune globulin prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients receiving OKT3 therapy. Archives of Surgery 1992;127(1):55-64. [MEDLINE: 1310385]
Tong 2002 {published data only}
  • Tong CY, Bakran A, Williams H, Cheung CY, Peiris JS. Association of human herpesvirus 7 with cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;70(1):213-6. [MEDLINE: 10919606]
Turgeon 1998 {published data only}
  • Turgeon N, Fishman JA, Basgoz N, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Doran M, Cosimi AB, et al. Effect of oral acyclovir or ganciclovir therapy after preemptive intravenous ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in cytomegalovirus seropositive renal and liver transplant recipients receiving antilymphocyte antibody therapy. Transplantation 1998;66(12):1780-6. [MEDLINE: 9884276]
Valantine 1995 {published data only}
  • Valantine HA. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in thoracic organ transplant patients: Evidence for a beneficial effect of hyperimmune globulin. Transplantation Proceedings 1995;27(5 Suppl 1):49-57. [MEDLINE: 7482821]
VICTOR Study 2007 {published data only}
  • Asberg A, Humar A, Jardine AG, Rollag H, Pescovitz MD, Mouas H, et al. Long-term outcomes of CMV disease treatment with valganciclovir versus IV ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(5):1205-13. [MEDLINE: 19422345]
  • Asberg A, Humar A, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Mouas H, Pescovitz MD, et al. Oral valganciclovir is noninferior to intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2007;7(9):2106-13. [MEDLINE: 17640310]
  • Asberg A, Jardine AG, Bignamini AA, Rollag H, Pescovitz MD, Gahlemann CC, et al. Effects of the intensity of immunosuppressive therapy on outcome of treatment for CMV disease in organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(8):1881-8. [MEDLINE: 20486914]
  • Asberg A, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Jardine AG, Rollag H, Mouas H, et al. Oral valganciclovir and intravenous ganciclovir results in comparable long-term outcomes in transplant recipients with CMV disease: the VICTOR study [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):222.
  • Boivin G, Goyette N, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Pescovitz MD, Asberg A, et al. Cytomegalovirus resistance in solid organ transplant recipients treated with intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir. Antiviral Therapy 2009;14(5):697-704. [MEDLINE: 19704173]
  • Humar A, Asberg A, Kumar D, Hartmann A, Moussa G, Jardine A, et al. An assessment of herpesvirus co-infections in patients with CMV disease: correlation with clinical and virologic outcomes. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(2):374-81. [MEDLINE: 19120074]
  • Manual O, Emery V, Asberg A, Hartmann A, Pescovitz M, Pang X, et al. A prospective study of viral genetic polymorphisms in CMV glycoprotein B and their association with clinical and virologic outcomes in patients with CMV disease: results from the VICTOR Study [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):221.
  • Manuel O, Asberg A, Pang X, Rollag H, Emery VC, Preiksaitis JK, et al. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on outcomes in solid-organ transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;49(8):1160-6. [MEDLINE: 19751151]
  • Pescovitz M, Hartmann A, Humar A, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Bignamini AA, et al. Management of post transplant CMV disease: lessons learned from the VICTOR trial [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(Suppl 2):183.
Yang 1998 {published data only}
  • Yang CW, An HJ, Kim YO, Shin YS, Chang YS, Bang BK. Indication of ganciclovir treatment during early cytomegalovirus (cmv) viremia in CMV seropositive recipients. a longitudinal study of CMV pp65 antigenemia (Ag) assay [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1928.
  • Yang CW, Kim YO, Kin YS, Kin SY, Moon IS, Ahn HJ, et al. Clinical course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia with and without ganciclovir treatment in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients. American Journal of Nephrology 1998;18(5):373-8. [MEDLINE: 9730559]
Yang 1999 {published data only}
  • Yang HC, Holman MJ, Langhoff E, Dellock CA, Gupta M, Ulsh PJ, et al. A comparative study of 500 mg BID and 250 mg BID of prophylactic oral ganciclovir in post-kidney transplant 'CMV at risk' recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1999;31(1-2):1125-6. [MEDLINE: 10083502]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
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  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Villano 2010 {published data only}
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Strippoli 2006b
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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
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Hodson 2005a
  • Hodson EM, Barclay PG, Craig JC, Jones C, Kable K, Strippoli GF, et al. Antiviral medication for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003774]
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  • Hodson EM, Barclay PG, Craig JC, Jones C, Kable K, Strippoli GF, et al. Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003774.pub2]
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Hodson 2008