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Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment

  1. Philip E Benson1,*,
  2. Nicola Parkin1,
  3. Fiona Dyer1,
  4. Declan T Millett2,
  5. Susan Furness3,
  6. Peter Germain4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Oral Health Group

Published Online: 12 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub3


How to Cite

Benson PE, Parkin N, Dyer F, Millett DT, Furness S, Germain P. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003809. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Oral Health and Development, Sheffield, UK

  2. 2

    Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Oral Health and Development, Cork, Ireland

  3. 3

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Cochrane Oral Health Group, Manchester, UK

  4. 4

    Newcastle Dental Hospital, Department of Orthodontics, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK

*Philip E Benson, Academic Unit of Oral Health and Development, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA, UK. p.benson@sheffield.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 12 DEC 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Luther 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Luther F, Tobin M, Robertson AJ, Toumba KJ. Fluoride-releasing glass beads in orthodontic treatment to reduce decay: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. World Journal of Orthodontics Supplement 2005;6(5):166-7.
Stecksén-Blicks 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Stecksén-Blicks C, Renfors G, Oscarson ND, Bergstrand F, Twetman S. Caries-preventive effectiveness of fluoride varnish: a randomized controlled trial in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. Caries Research 2007;41(6):455-9.
Øgaard 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Øgaard B, Alm AA, Larsson E, Adolfsson U. A prospective, randomized clinical study on the effects of an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse on plaque, gingivitis and initial caries lesion development in orthodontic patients. European Journal of Orthodontics 2006;28(1):8-12.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alexander 2000 {published data only}
Alwi 1994 {published data only}
  • Alwi NBH, Creanor SL. The influence of fluoride-releasing composites on the development of white-spot lesions near orthodontic brackets: an in vivo investigation (Research Reports 1993: Abstract). British Journal of Orthodontics 1994;21(1):118.
Banks 1997 {published data only}
Banks 2000 {published data only}
Blanco 1988 {published data only}
  • Blanco Parra R. Evaluation of the presence of white spots following orthodontic treatment. Revista Iberoamericana de Ortodoncia 1988;8(1):31-8.
Boyd 1992 {published data only}
  • Boyd RL. Two-year longitudinal study of a peroxide-fluoride rinse on decalcification in adolescent orthodontic patients. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1992;3(3):83-7. [MEDLINE: 1449617]
Boyd 1993 {published data only}
Boyles 2007 {published data only}
  • Bagby MD, Boyles GAC, Martin C, Kao E, Ngan P. Effects of fluoride varnishes on enamel decalcification around orthodontic appliances. American Association of Dental Research poster abstract; 2008 March 31-April 5; Dallas, TX.
  • Boyles GA. Effects of Fluoride Varnishes and Adhesives on Bond Strength and Preventing Enamel Decalcification Around Orthodontic Appliances: an In Vitro and In Vivo Study [MSc (Orthodontics)]. Morgantown, West Virginia: West Virginia University, 2007.
Buyukyilmaz 1994 {published data only}
  • Buyukyilmaz T, Tangugsorn V, Ogaard B, Arends J, Ruben J, Rolla G. The effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) application around orthodontic brackets. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1994;105(3):293-6. [MEDLINE: 8135216]
  • Buyukyilmaz T, Tangugsorn V, Ogaard B, Arends J, Ruben J, Rolla G. The effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) application around orthodontic brackets. European Journal of Orthodontics 1993;15(4):334.
Chung 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chung CK, Millett DT, Creanor SL. Cariostatic ability of resin-modified glass ionomer cements for orthodontic bonding. European Journal of Orthodontics 1996;18(5):513.
  • Chung CK, Millett DT, Creanor SL, Gilmour WH, Foye RH. Fluoride release and cariostatic ability of a compomer and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement used for orthodontic bonding. Journal of Dentistry 1998;26(5-6):533-8.
Czochrowska 1998 {published data only}
  • Czochrowska E, Ogaard B, Duschner H, Ruben J, Arends J. Cariostatic effect of a light-cured, resin-reinforced glass-ionomer for bonding orthodontic brackets in vivo. A combined study using microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics 1998;59(5):265-73. [MEDLINE: 9800441]
D'Agostino 1988 {published data only}
  • D'Agostino RB, Cancro LP, Fischman S. Effects of anticaries dentifrices on orthodontic subjects. The Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 1988;11:S384-9.
Demito 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Demito CF, Rodrigues GV, Ramos AL, Bowman SJ. Efficacy of a fluoride varnish in preventing white-spot lesions as measured with laser fluorescence. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 2011;45(1):25-9.
Dénes 1988 {published data only}
  • Dénes J, Gábris K. Results of a 3-year Elmex program during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. ZWR 1988;97(10):863-8.
Dénes 1989 {published data only}
  • Dénes J, Domokos G, Gábris K, Juhász G, Nagy B, Radóczi B, et al. Results of the use of amine-fluoride preparations in orthodontic practice. Fogorvosi Szemle 1989;82(9):257-61.
Dénes 1991 {published data only}
  • Dénes J, Gábris K. Results of a 3-year oral hygiene programme, including amine fluoride products, in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. European Journal of Orthodontics 1991;13(2):129-33.
Dyer 1982 {published data only}
  • Dyer JR, Shannon IL. MFP versus stannous fluoride mouthrinses for prevention of decalcification in orthodontic patients. American Society of Dentistry for Children Journal of Dentistry for Children 1982;49(1):19-21. [MEDLINE: 6948831]
Farhadian 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Farhadian N, Miresmaeili A, Eslami B, Mehrabi S. Effect of fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization around brackets: an in-vivo study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2008;133(4 Supplement):S95-8.
Fricker 1985 {published data only}
  • Fricker JP, McLachlan MD. Clinical studies of glass ionomer cements. Part I-A twelve month clinical study comparing zinc phosphate cement to glass ionomer. Australian Orthodontic Journal 1985;9(1):179-80.
Fricker 1987 {published data only}
  • Fricker JP, McLachlan MD. Clinical studies on glass ionomer cements. Part 2-A two year clinical study comparing glass ionomer cement with zinc phosphate cement. Australian Orthodontic Journal 1987;10(1):12-4.
Gaworski 1999 {published data only}
  • Gaworski M, Weinstein M, Borislow AJ, Braitman LE. Decalcification and bond failure: a comparison of a glass ionomer and a composite resin bonding system in vivo. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1999;116(5):518-21. [MEDLINE: 10547510]
Geiger 1988 {published data only}
  • Geiger AM, Gorelick L, Gwinnett AJ, Griswold PG. The effect of a fluoride program on white spot formation during orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1988;93(1):29-37.
Geiger 1992 {published data only}
  • Geiger AM, Gorelick L, Gwinnett AJ, Benson BJ. Reducing white spot lesions in orthodontic populations with fluoride rinsing. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1992;101(5):403-7.
Gillgrass 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gillgrass TJ, Benington PC, Millett DT, Newell J, Gilmour WH. Modified composite or conventional glass ionomer for band cementation? A comparative clinical trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2001;120(1):49-53.
Gorton 2003 {published data only}
Hirschfield 1978 {published data only}
  • Hirschfield RE. Control of decalcification by use of fluoride mouthrinse. American Society of Dentistry for Children Journal of Dentistry for Children 1978;45(6):458-60.
Leizer 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Leizer C, Weinstein M, Borislow AJ, Braitman LE. Efficacy of a filled-resin sealant in preventing decalcification during orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2010;137(6):796-800.
Maijer 1988 {published data only}
Marcusson 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Marcusson A, Norevall LI, Persson M. White spot reduction when using glass ionomer cement for bonding in orthodontics: a longitudinal and comparative study. European Journal of Orthodontics 1997;19(3):233-42. [MEDLINE: 9239953]
Marini 1999 {published data only}
Mattick 2001 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Mattick CR, Mitchell L, Chadwick SM, Wright J. Fluoride-releasing elastomeric modules reduce decalcification: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Orthodontics 2001;28(3):217-9.
Millett 1999 {published data only}
Millett 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Millett DT, McCluskey LA, McAuley F, Creanor SL, Newell J, Love J. A comparative clinical trial of a compomer and a resin adhesive for orthodontic bonding. The Angle Orthodontist 2000;70(3):233-40. [MEDLINE: 10926433]
Mitchell 1992 {published data only}
  • Mitchell L. An investigation into the effect of a fluoride releasing adhesive on the prevalence of enamel surface changes associated with directly bonded orthodontic attachments. British Journal of Orthodontics 1992;19(3):207-14. [MEDLINE: 1390576]
Neumann 1976 {published data only}
  • Neumann HF. A clinical evaluation of decalcification under orthodontic bands following pretreatment with acidulated phosphate-fluorides and adhesive plastic coatings. (Abstract - Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, and Fairleigh Dickinson University, Hackensack, NJ, USA). American Journal of Orthodontics 1976;69(6):698-9. [MEDLINE: CN-00295371]
O'Reilly 1987 {published data only}
Pascotto 2004 {published data only}
  • Pascotto RC, Navarro MF, Capelozza Filho L, Cury JA. In vivo effect of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2004;125(1):36-41. [MEDLINE: 14718877]
Robertson 2011 {published data only}
  • Johnson D. MI Paste Plus research. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2012;141(5):526. [PUBMED: 22554734]
  • Robertson MA, Kau CH, English JD, Lee RP, Powers J, Nguyen JT. MI Paste Plus to prevent demineralization in orthodontic patients: a prospective randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2011;140(5):660-8.
Salzmann 1976 {published data only}
  • Salzmann JA. A clinical evaluation of decalcification under orthodontic bands following pretreatment with acidulated phosphate-fluorides and adhesive plastic coatings. (Abstract - Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, and Fairleigh Dickinson University, Hackensack, NJ, USA). American Journal of Orthodontics 1976;69(6):698.
Shan 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Shan LH, Cui ZQ, Shen QH, Gao Q, Qiu ZX. Application of light-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cement in orthodontic practice. Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research 2008;12(6):1149-52.
Shannon 1978 {published data only}
  • Shannon IL, St Clair JR, Pratt GA, West DC. Stannous fluoride versus sodium fluoride in preventive treatment of orthodontic patients. Australian Orthodontic Journal 1978;5(1):18-24.
Shannon 1979 {published data only}
  • Shannon IL, West DC. Prevention of decalcification in orthodontic patients by daily self-treatment with 0.4% SnF2 gel. Pediatric Dentistry 1979;1(2):101-2. [MEDLINE: 298749]
Sköld-Larsson 2013 {published data only}
  • Sköld-Larsson K, Sollenius O, Karlsson L, Petersson LG, Twetman S. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 2013;71(3-4):464-8.
Sonis 1989 {published data only}
  • Sonis AL, Snell W. An evaluation of a fluoride-releasing, visible light-activated bonding system for orthodontic bracket placement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1989;95(4):306-11.
Trimpeneers 1996 {published data only}
  • Trimpeneers LM, Dermaut LR. A clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of a fluoride-releasing visible light-activated bonding system to reduce demineralization around orthodontic brackets. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1996;110(2):218-22. [MEDLINE: 8760850]
Turner 1993 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Twetman 1997 {published data only}
  • Twetman S, McWilliam JS, Hallgren A, Oliveby A. Cariostatic effect of glass ionomer retained orthodontic appliances. An in vivo study. Swedish Dental Journal 1997;21(5):169-75.
Ullsfoss 1994 {published data only}
  • Ullsfoss BN, Ogaard B, Arends J, Ruben J, Rolla G, Afseth J. Effect of a combined chlorhexidine and NaF mouthrinse: an in vivo human caries model study. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1994;102(2):109-12. [MEDLINE: 8016555]
Underwood 1989 {published data only}
van der Linden 1998 {published data only}
  • van der Linden RP, Dermaut LR. White spot formation under orthodontic bands cemented with glass ionomer with or without Fluor Protector. European Journal of Orthodontics 1998;20(3):219-24.
Vivaldi-Rodrigues 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Vivaldi-Rodrigues G, Demito CF, Bowman SJ, Ramos AL. The effectiveness of a fluoride varnish in preventing development of white spot lesions. World Journal of Orthodontics 2006;7:138-44.
Wenderoth 1999 {published data only}
  • Wenderoth CJ, Weinstein M, Borislow AJ. Effectiveness of a fluoride-releasing sealant in reducing decalcification during orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1999;116(6):629-34. [MEDLINE: 10587596]
Øgaard 1986 {published and unpublished data}
  • Øgaard B, Arends J, Schuthof J, Rolla G, Ekstrand J, Oliveby A. Action of fluoride on initiation of early enamel caries in vivo. A microradiographical investigation. Caries Research 1986;20(3):270-7. [MEDLINE: 3456849]
Øgaard 1992 {published data only}
  • Øgaard B, Rezk-Lega F, Ruben J, Arends J. Cariostatic effect and fluoride release from a visible light-curing adhesive for bonding of orthodontic brackets. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1992;101(4):303-7. [MEDLINE: 1532684]
Øgaard 1996 {published data only}
Øgaard 1997 {published data only}
  • Øgaard B, Larsson E, Glans R, Henriksson T, Birkhed D. Antimicrobial effect of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (Cervitec) in orthodontic patients. A prospective, randomized clinical trial. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics 1997;58(4):206-13. [MEDLINE: 9282547]
Øgaard 2001 {published data only}
  • Øgaard B, Larsson E, Henriksson T, Birkhed D, Bishara SE. Effects of combined application of antimicrobial and fluoride varnishes in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2001;120(1):28-35.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
NCT00268138 {published data only}
  • NCT00268138. Phase 4 study prevention of incipient carious lesions (white spot lesions) in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances following the application of Elmex gel. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00268138?term=orthodontic*+and+fluoride&rank=6.
NCT01768390 {published data only}
  • NCT01768390. Caries-preventive effectiveness of a dentifrice containing 5.000 ppm fluoride - a randomized controlled trial in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01768390?term=orthodontic*+and+fluoride&rank=2.
NCT01925924 {published and unpublished data}
  • Benson PE, Millett D. Resin-modified glass ionomer versus composite for orthodontic bonding. A multicentre, randomised, single blinded clinical trial. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01925924?term=NCT01925924&rank=1.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Angmar-Mansson 1996
Benson 2010
  • Benson PE. Fluoride-containing materials and the prevention of demineralization during orthodontic treatment – which research method should we now use?. Seminars in Orthodontics 2010;16(4):293-301.
Chadwick 2005
  • Chadwick BL, Roy J, Knox J, Treasure ET. The effect of topical fluorides on decalcification in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: a systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2005;128(5):601-6.
Derks 2004
  • Derks A, Katsaros C, Frencken JE, van't Hof MA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Caries Research 2004;38(5):413-20.
Enaia 2011
  • Enaia M, Bock N, Ruf S. White-spot lesions during multibracket appliance treatment: a challenge for clinical excellence. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2011;140(1):e17-e24.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Kerbusch 2012
  • Kerbusch AE, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Mulder J, Sanden WJ. Methods used for prevention of white spot lesion development during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 2012; Vol. 70, issue 6:564-8.
Lynch 2006
Marinho 2003
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002284]
Marinho 2003a
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002278]
Marinho 2003b
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002782]
Marinho 2004
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Sheiham A, Logan S. Combinations of topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, varnishes) versus single topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002781.pub2]
Maxfield 2012
  • Maxfield BJ, Hamdan AM, Tufekci E, Shroff B, Best AM, Lindauer SJ. Development of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment: perceptions of patients, parents, orthodontists, and general dentists. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2012;141(3):337-44.
Naranjo 2006
  • Naranjo AA, Triviño ML, Jaramillo A, Betancourth M, Botero JE. Changes in the subgingival microbiota and periodontal parameters before and 3 months after bracket placement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2006;30(3):275.e17-275.e22.
Ogaard 1989
  • Ogaard B. Prevalence of white spot lesions in 19-year-olds: a study on untreated and orthodontically treated persons 5 years after treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1989;96(5):423-7.
Rogers 2010
  • Rogers S, Chadwick B, Treasure E. Fluoride-containing orthodontic adhesives and decalcification in patients with fixed appliances: a systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2010;390:e1-8.
Rücker 2008
ten Cate 2013
  • ten Cate JM. Contemporary perspective on the use of fluoride products in caries prevention. British Dental Journal 2013;214(4):161-7.
Tufekci 2011
  • Tufekci E, Dixon JS, Gunsolley JC, Lindauer SJ. Prevalence of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The Angle Orthodontist 2011;81(2):206-10.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Benson 2002
  • Benson PE, Parkin N, Millett DT, Dyer FE, Vine S, Shah A. Fluorides for the prevention of white spots on teeth during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809]
Benson 2004
  • Benson PE, Parkin N, Millett DT, Dyer F, Vine S, Shah A. Fluorides for the prevention of white spots on teeth during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub2]