Epinephrine is a cardiac stimulant with complex effects on the heart and blood vessels. It has been used for decades in all age groups to treat cardiac arrest and bradycardia. Despite formal guidelines for the use of epinephrine in neonatal resuscitation, the evidence for these recommendations has not yet been rigorously scrutinised. While it is understood that this evidence is in large part derived from animal models and the adult human population, the contribution from work in the neonatal population remains unclear. In particular, it remains to be determined if any randomised studies in neonates have helped to establish if the administration of epinephrine in the context of apparent stillbirth or extreme bradycardia might influence mortality and morbidity.