Intervention Review

Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries

  1. Albert Yeung1,*,
  2. Joseph L Hitchings2,
  3. Tatiana V Macfarlane3,
  4. Anthony Threlfall4,
  5. Martin Tickle5,
  6. Anne-Marie Glenny6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Oral Health Group

Published Online: 20 JUL 2005

Assessed as up-to-date: 16 MAY 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003876.pub2

How to Cite

Yeung A, Hitchings JL, Macfarlane TV, Threlfall A, Tickle M, Glenny AM. Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003876. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003876.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lanarkshire NHS Board, Public Health Department, Hamilton, UK

  2. 2

    Southport, Merseyside, UK

  3. 3

    Foresterhill Health Centre, Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Aberdeen, UK

  4. 4

    The University of Manchester, School of Dentistry, Manchester, UK

  5. 5

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Oral Health Unit, National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, Manchester, UK

  6. 6

    MANDEC, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Cochrane Oral Health Group, Manchester, UK

*Albert Yeung, Public Health Department, Lanarkshire NHS Board, 14 Beckford Street, Hamilton, ML3 0TA, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 20 JUL 2005




  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. アブストラクト
  5. 摘要


Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children and the vast majority of adults. Milk provides a relatively cost-effective vehicle for fluoride in the prevention of dental caries.


To determine the effectiveness of fluoridated milk, as a means of delivering fluoride on a community basis, for preventing dental caries.

Search methods

We searched Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (28 April 2005), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 17 May 2005), OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), EMBASE (1980 to 2005 week 20), LILACS (1982 to 17 May 2005), BBO (1986 to 17 May 2005), SIGLE (1980 to 17 May 2005), Digital Dissertations (1861 to 17 May 2005) and reference lists of relevant articles. Attempts were made to identify both unpublished and ongoing studies. There were no language restrictions.

Selection criteria

Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with an intervention or follow-up period of at least 3 years, comparing fluoridated milk with non-fluoridated milk. Primary outcome was change in caries experience, as measured by changes in decayed, missing and filled figures on tooth (dmft/DMFT) and surface (dmfs/DMFS).

Data collection and analysis

Inclusion decisions, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out independently and in duplicate. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary.

Main results

Two RCTs involving 353 children were included. For permanent teeth, after 3 years there was a significant reduction in the DMFT (78.4%, P < 0.05) between the test and control groups in one trial, but not in the other. The latter study only showed a significant reduction in the DMFT until the fourth (35.5%, P < 0.02) and fifth (31.2%, P < 0.05) years. For primary teeth, again there was a significant reduction in the dmft (31.3%, P < 0.05) between the test and control groups after 3 years in one study, but not in the other. The results could not be pooled because of the difference in concentration of fluoride in the milk.

Authors' conclusions

There are insufficient studies with good quality evidence examining the effects of fluoridated milk in preventing dental caries. However, the included studies suggested that fluoridated milk was beneficial to school children, especially their permanent dentition. The data need to be supplemented by further RCTs to provide the highest level of evidence for practice.


Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. アブストラクト
  5. 摘要

Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries

Insufficient evidence exists to show the effectiveness of fluoridated milk in preventing tooth decay.
Tooth decay (dental caries) can cause pain and lead to loss of teeth. Fluoride is a mineral that prevents tooth decay. Fluoride can be used as a public health measure by being added to water supply, salt or milk. Fluoridated milk is often available to children through school milk schemes or national nutritional programmes. The use of such distribution systems can provide a convenient and cost-efficient means of targeted fluoride supplementation. Parents can also have the freedom of choice. The review found that there is insufficient evidence to show the effectiveness of fluoridated milk in preventing tooth decay.



  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. アブストラクト
  5. 摘要







検索には、Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register(2005年4月28日)、Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials(CENTRAL)(コクラン・ライブラリ2005年2号),MEDLINE(1966年~2005年5月17日)、OLDMEDLINE(1950~1965年)、EMBASE(1980年~2005年第20週)、LILACS(1982年~2005年5月17日)、BBO(1986年~2005年5月17日)もSIGLE(1980年~2005年5月17日)もDigital Dissertations(1861年~2005年5月17日)、関連文献の参考文献リストを用いた。未発表・進行中の研究の同定も試みた。言語上の制約は設けなかった。










監  訳: 槍崎 慶二,安藤 雄一,JCOHR,2008.4.1

実施組織: 厚生労働省委託事業によりMindsが実施した。

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  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. アブストラクト
  5. 摘要







我們搜尋了考科藍口腔衛生團體之臨床試驗註冊資料庫(Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register)(2005年四月28日),考科藍隨機對照試驗中央註冊資料庫(CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005), MEDLINE(1966年至2005年五月17日), OLDMEDLINE(1950年至1965年), EMBASE(1980年至2005年第20週), LILACS(1982年至2005年五月17日), BBO(1986年至2005年五月17日), SIGLE(1980年至2005年5月17日), Digital Dissertations (1861年至2005年五月17日)以及相關文章之參考文獻.盡可能去辨別尚未發表或正在研究的內容.關於內容沒有語言上的限制.




納入實驗的決定(Inclusion decisions),資料的納入,擷取與品質評估是分別重覆獨立進行.必要時與作者接觸以獲得額外資訊.


二則隨機臨床試驗包含353位小孩.恆齒部份,於三年之後,其中一試驗中的試驗組與對照組之間有明顯的DMFT的降低(78.4%, p<0.05),然而在另一試驗卻無此差別.後者試驗結果只顯示在第四年(35.5%, p<0.02)與第五年(31.2%, p<0.05)時有明顯的DMFT下降.乳齒部份,如同恆牙部分一般,於三年之後,其中一試驗中的試驗組與對照組之間有明顯的dmft的降低(31.3%, p<0.05),然而在另一試驗卻無此差別.結果無法被統整是由於牛奶中氟濃度之差異.





此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。