Intervention Review

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Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants

  1. Marco Esposito1,*,
  2. Maria Gabriella Grusovin2,
  3. Hassan Maghaireh3,
  4. Helen V Worthington1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Oral Health Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 20 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub5


How to Cite

Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Maghaireh H, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003878. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub5.

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Cochrane Oral Health Group, Manchester, UK

  2. 2

    Private practice, Gorizia, Italy

  3. 3

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manchester, UK

*Marco Esposito, Cochrane Oral Health Group, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Coupland 3 Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. espositomarco@hotmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Assad 2007 {published data only}
  • Assad AS, Hassan SA, Shawky YM, Badawy MM. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of implant-retained mandibular overdentures with immediate loading. Implant Dentistry 2007;16(2):212-23.
Cannizzaro 2003 {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Leone M. Restoration of partially edentulous patients using dental implants with a microtextured surface: a prospective comparison of delayed and immediate full occlusal loading. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2003;18(4):512-22.
Cannizzaro 2008a {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Leone M, Esposito M. Immediate versus early loading of two implants placed with a flapless technique supporting mandibular bar-retained overdentures: a single-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2008;1(1):33-43.
Cannizzaro 2008b {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Torchio C, Leone M, Esposito M. Immediate versus early loading of flapless-placed implants supporting maxillary full-arch prostheses: a randomised controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2008;1(2):127-39.
Cannizzaro 2008d {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Felice P, Leone M, Ferri V, Viola P, Esposito M. Immediate versus early loading of 6.5 mm-long flapless-placed single implants: a 4-year after loading report of a split-mouth randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2012;5(2):111-21.
  • Cannizzaro G, Leone M, Torchio C, Viola P, Esposito M. Immediate versus early loading of 7 mm long flapless-placed single implants: a split-mouth randomised controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2008;1(4):277-92.
Cannizzaro 2010 {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Torchio C, Felice P, Leone M, Esposito M. Immediate occlusal versus non-occlusal loading of single zirconia implants. A multicenter pragmatic randomised clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2010;3(2):111-20.
Chiapasco 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chiapasco M, Abati S, Romeo E, Vogel G. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures with Branemark System MKII implants: a prospective comparative study between delayed and immediate loading. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2001;16(4):537-46.
Crespi 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Crespi R, Capparé P, Gherlone E, Romanos GE. Immediate versus delayed loading of dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets in the maxillary esthetic zone: a clinical comparative study. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2008;23(4):753-8.
den Hartog 2011 {published data only}
De Rouck 2009 {published data only}
  • De Rouck T, Collys K, Wyn I, Cosyn J. Instant provisionalization of immediate single-tooth implants is essential to optimize esthetic treatment outcome. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2009;20(6):566-70.
Donati 2008 {published and unpublished data}
Enkling 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Albrecht D, Marki L, Fabiam M, Bayer S, Stark H, Mericske-Stern R, Enkling N. Impact of implant-retained-overdentures on OHRQoL: immediate- vs. delayed-loading (Abstract 076). Clinical Oral Implant Research. 2011; Vol. 22:913.
  • Enkling N, Albrecht D, Bayer S, Stark H, Mericske-Stern R. [Immediate loading of interforaminal implants using a chairside fabricated bur (oral presentation)]. Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2010; Vol. 21:1013.
Fischer 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fischer K, Stenberg T. Early loading of ITI implants supporting a maxillary full-arch prosthesis: 1-year data of a prospective, randomized study. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2004;19(3):374-81.
  • Fischer K, Stenberg T. Three-year data from a randomized, controlled study of early loading of single-stage dental implants supporting maxillary full-arch prostheses. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2006;21(2):245-52.
  • Fischer K, Stenberg T, Hedin M, Sennerby L. Five-year results from a randomized, controlled trial on early and delayed loading of implants supporting full-arch prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2008;19(5):433-41.
Güncü 2008 {published and unpublished data}
Hall 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hall J, Payne AG, Purton DG, Torr B, Duncan WJ, De Silva RK. Immediately restored, single tapered implants in the anterior maxilla: prosthodontic and aesthetic outcome after one year. Clinical Implant Dentistry & Related Research 2007;9(1):34-45.
  • Hall JA, Payne AG, Purton DG, Torr B. A randomized controlled clinical trial of conventional and immediately loaded tapered implants with screw-retained crowns. International Journal of Prosthodontics 2006;19(1):17-9.
  • Tan D, Hall J, Duncan W, Thomson WH. Immediate-loading of single-tooth, narrow, tapered Southern implants. http://iadr.confex.com/iadr/anz05/techprogram/abstract_72085.htm 2005:(Abstract No 0099).
Lindeboom 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lindeboom JA, Frenken JW, Dubois L, Frank M, Abbink I, Kroon FH. Immediate loading versus immediate provisionalization of maxillary single-tooth replacements: a prospective randomized study with BioComp implants. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2006;64(6):936-42.
Meloni 2012 {published data only}
  • Meloni SM, De Riu G, Pisano M, De Riu N, Tullio A. Immediate versus delayed loading of single lower molars. One year results from a randomised controlled trial. The European Journal of Oral Implantology 2012;5(4):345-53.
Merli 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Merli M, Bernardelli F, Esposito M. Immediate non-occlusal versus early loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients. Preliminary results from a randomized controlled clinical trial. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 2008;28(5):453-9.
  • Merli M, Merli A, Bernardelli F, Lombardini F, Esposito M. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients. One-year results from a randomized controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2008;1(3):207-20.
  • Merli M, Moscatelli M, Mariotti G, Piemontese M, Nieri M. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients: a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2012;39(2):196-202.
Oh 2006 {published data only}
  • Oh TJ, Shotwell JL, Billy EJ, Wang HL. Effect of flapless implant surgery on soft tissue profile: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Periodontololgy 2006;77(5):874-82.
Payne 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Romeo 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Schincaglia 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Schincaglia GP, Marzola R, Fazi G, Scapoli C, Scotti R. Replacement of mandibular molars with single-unit restorations supported by wide-body implants: immediate versus delayed loading. A randomized controlled study. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2008;23(3):474-80.
Tawse-Smith 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Tawse-Smith A, Payne AG, Kumara R, Thomson WM. Early loading of unsplinted implants supporting mandibular overdentures using a one-stage operative procedure with two different implant systems: a 2-year report. Clinical Implant Dentistry & Related Research 2002;4(1):33-42.
Testori 2007 {published data only}
  • Capelli M, Esposito M, Zuffetti F, Galli F, Del Fabbro M, Testori T. A 5-year report from a multicentre randomised clinical trial: immediate non-occlusal versus early loading of dental implants in partially edentulous patients. European Journal of Oral Implantology 2010;3(3):209-19.
  • Galli F, Capelli M, Zuffetti F, Esposito M, Testori T. Immediate non-occlusal vs early loading of dental implants in partially edentulous patients: a multicentre randomized clinical trial. Peri-implant bone and soft-tissue levels. Clinical Oral implants Research 2008;19(6):546-52.
  • Testori T, Galli F, Capelli M, Zuffetti F, Esposito M. Immediate non-occlusal versus early loading of dental implants in partially edentulous patients: 1-year results from a multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2007;22(5):815-22.
Turkyilmaz 2007 {published and unpublished data}
Zöllner 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ganeles J, Zöllner A, Jackowski J, ten Bruggenkate C, Beagle J, Guerra F. Immediate and early loading of Straumann implants with a chemically modified surface (SLActive) in the posterior mandible and maxilla: 1-year results from a prospective multicenter study. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2008;19(11):1119-28.
  • Zöllner A, Ganeles J, Korostoff J, Guerra F, Krafft T, Brägger U. Immediate and early non-occlusal loading of Straumann implants with a chemically modified surface (SLActive) in the posterior mandible and maxilla: interim results from a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled study. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2008;19(5):442-50.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Appleton 2005 {published data only}
Barewal 2012 {published data only}
  • Barewal RM, Stanford C, Weesner TC. A randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of three loading protocols on dental implant stability. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 2012;27(4):945-56.
Cannizzaro 2008c {published data only}
  • Cannizzaro G, Leone M, Consolo U, Ferri V, Esposito M. Immediate functional loading of implants placed with flapless surgery versus conventional implants in partially edentulous patients. A 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2008;23(5):867-75.
Degidi 2009 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Degidi M, Nardi D, Piattelli A. Immediate versus one-stage restoration of small-diameter implants for a single missing maxillary lateral incisor: a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Journal of Periodontology 2009;80(9):1393-8.
Degidi 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Göthberg 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • Göthberg C, Slotte C, Bergendal T, Thomsen P, Suska F, Zoric N, et al. Tissue reactions around implants in fixed partial dentures and evaluation of healing times. A prospective, randomized, controlled study. Ongoing trial.
Jokstad 2011 {published data only}
Kim 2011 {published data only}
  • Kim YK, Kim SG, Park JY, Yi YJ, Bae JH. Comparison of clinical outcomes of sinus bone graft with simultaneous implant placement: 4-month and 6-month final prosthetic loading. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathotology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics 2011;111(2):164-9.
Mackie 2011 {published data only}
  • Mackie A, Lyons K, Thomson WM, Payne AG. Mandibular two-implant overdentures: prosthodontic maintenance using different loading protocols and attachment systems. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 2011;24(5):405-16.
Ottoni 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ottoni JM, Oliveira ZF, Mansini R, Cabral AM. Correlation between placement torque and survival of single-tooth implants. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2005;20(5):769-76.
Polson 2000 {published data only}
  • Lee H, Polson AM, Salama H, Rose L, Minsk L, Sharkey D, et al. Safety and effectiveness of mandibular implants used in immediate loading: 5-year findings. Journal of Periodontology 2002;73(9, 2002 Annual Meeting Abstract):1091.
  • Lee I, Polson AM, Sharkey D, Polson AP, Salama H, Minsk L, et al. Five-year clinical status of dental implants after immediate loading. Journal of Dental Research 2003;Spec Issue A:(Abstract No 0850).
  • Polson AM, Lee I, Salama H, Minsk L, Sharkey D, Rose L, et al. 3-year evaluation of safety and effectiveness of implants used in an immediate loading situation for the edentulous mandible (abstract). Journal of Periodontology 2000;71(12, 2000 Annual Meeting Abstract):1914.
  • Polson AM, Sharkey D, Lee I, Polson AP, Minsk L, Salama H, et al. Three year alveolar bone levels of dental implants after immediate loading. Journal of Dental Research 2001;80(AADR Abstracts):211 (Abstract No 1405).
  • Polson AM, Sharkey D, Minsk L, Lee I, Polson AP, Salama H, et al. Two year alveolar bone levels of dental implants after immediate loading. Journal of Dental Research 2000;79(IADR Abstracts):337 (Abstract No 1550).
  • Polson AM, Sharkey D, Polson AP, Salama H, Minsk L, Rose L, et al. Four year clinical status of dental implants after immediate loading. Journal of Dental Research 2002;81(Spec Issue A):A-101 (Abstract No 0616).
Roccuzzo 2001 {published data only}
Romanos 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Romanos GE. Immediate loading in the posterior mandible. A clinical study. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2002;13(4):xxi (Abstract No 52).
  • Romanos GE, Nentwig G-H. Immediate versus delayed functional loading of implants in the posterior mandible: a 2-year prospective clinical study of 12 consecutive cases. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry in press.
Salvi 2004 {published data only}
Shibly 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Tealdo 2011 {published data only}
  • Tealdo T, Bevilacqua M, Menini M, Pera F, Ravera G, Drago C, Pera P. Immediate versus delayed loading of dental implants in edentulous maxillae: a 36-month prospective study. International Journal of Prosthodontics 2011;24(4):294-302.
Testori 2003 {published data only}
  • Testori T, Bianchi F, Del Fabbro M, Szmukler-Moncler S, Francetti L, Weinstein RL. Immediate non-occlusal loading vs. early loading in partially edentulous patients. Practical Procedures and Aesthetic Dentistry 2003;15(10):787-94.
Turkyilmaz 2006 {published and unpublished data}
Van de Velde 2010 {published data only}
  • Van de Velde T, Sennerby L, De Bruyn H. The clinical and radiographic outcome of implants placed in the posterior maxilla with a guided flapless approach and immediately restored with a provisional rehabilitation: a randomized clinical trial. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2010;21(11):1223-33.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Albrektsson 1981
  • Albrektsson T, Brånemark PI, Hansson HA, Lindström J. Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1981;52(2):155-70.
Alsabeeha 2010
  • Alsabeeha N, Atieh M, Payne AG. Loading protocols for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 2010; Vol. 12 Suppl 1:e28-38.
Brunski 1979
  • Brunski JB, Moccia AF Jr, Pollack SR, Korostoff E, Trachtenberg DI. The influence of functional use of endosseous dental implants on the tissue-implant interface. I. Histological aspects. Journal of Dental Research 1979;58(10):1953-69.
Brånemark 1977
  • Brånemark P-I, Hansson BO, Adell R, Breine U, Lindström J, Hallén O, et al. Osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Experience from a 10-year period. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1977.
Brånemark 1999
  • Brånemark PI, Engstrand P, Öhrnell LO, Gröndahl K, Nilsson P, Hagberg K, et al. Brånemark Novum: a new treatment concept for rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible. Preliminary results from a prospective clinical follow-up study. Clinical Implant Dentistry & Related Research 1999;1(1):2-16.
Cannizzaro 2012
  • Cannizzaro G, Leone M, Ferri V, Viola P, Federico G, Esposito M. Immediate loading of single implants inserted flapless with medium or high insertion torque: a 6-month follow-up of a split-mouth randomised controlled trial. The European Journal of Oral Implantology 2012;5(4):333-42.
Chung 2011
  • Chung S, McCullagh A, Irinakis T. Immediate loading in the maxillary arch: evidence-based guidelines to improve success rates: a review. The Journal of Oral Implantology 2011; Vol. 37, issue 5:610-21.
Curtin 2002
Del Fabbro 2006
  • Del Fabbro M, Testori T, Francetti L, Taschieri S, Weinstein R. Systematic review of survival rates for immediately loaded dental implants. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 2006;26(3):249-63.
Egger 1997
Elbourne 2002
  • Elbourne DR, Altman DG, Higgins JP, Curtin F, Worthington HV, Vail A. Meta-analyses involving cross-over trials: methodological issues. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(1):140-9.
Esposito 2007
  • Esposito M, Murray-Curtis L, Grusovin MG, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different types of dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003815.pub3]
Follmann 1992
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Ioannidou 2005
Javed 2010
  • Javed F, Romanos GE. The role of primary stability for successful immediate loading of dental implants. A literature review. Journal of Dentistry 2010; Vol. 38, issue 8:612-20.
Jemt 1997
  • Jemt T. Regeneration of gingival papillae after single-implant treatment. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 1997;17(4):326-33.
Lekholm 1985
  • Lekholm U, Zarb GA. Patient selection and preparation. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb GA, Albrektsson T editor(s). Tissue integrated prostheses - osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co, 1985:199-209.
Romanos 2010
  • Romanos G, Froum S, Hery C, Cho SC, Tarnow D. Survival rate of immediately vs delayed loaded implants: analysis of the current literature. The Journal of Oral Implantology 2010; Vol. 36, issue 4:315-24.
Schnitman 1990
  • Schnitman PA, Wöhrle PS, Rubenstein JE. Immediate fixed interim prostheses supported by two-stage threaded implants: methodology and results. Journal of Oral Implantology 1990;16(2):96-105.
Schropp 2004
Sennerby 2008
Thorlund 2011
  • Thorlund K, Imberger G, Walsh M, Chu R, Gluud C, Wetterslev J, et al. The number of patients and events required to limit the risk of overestimation of intervention effects in meta-analysis - a simulation study. PLoS One 2011; Vol. 6, issue 10:e25491.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Esposito 2003
  • Esposito M, Worthington HV, Coulthard P. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878]
Esposito 2004
  • Esposito M, Worthington HV, Thomsen P, Coulthard P. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub2]
Esposito 2007b
  • Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Willings M, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub3]
Esposito 2007c
  • Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Willings M, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. The effectiveness of immediate, early, and conventional loading of dental implants. A Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2007;22(6):893-904.
Esposito 2009
  • Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Achille H, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub4]