High intracranial pressure (ICP) is the most frequent cause of death and disability after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). High ICP is usually treated with general maneuvers (normothermia, sedation, etc.) and a set of first-line therapeutic measures (moderate hypocapnia, mannitol, etc.). When these measures fail to control high ICP, second-line therapies are initiated. Of these, barbiturates, hyperventilation, moderate hypothermia, or removal of a variable amount of skull bone (decompressive craniectomy) are used.