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Intervention Review

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Lay health workers in primary and community health care

  1. Simon Lewin1,*,
  2. Judy Dick2,
  3. Philip Pond3,
  4. Merrick Zwarenstein4,
  5. Godwin N Aja5,
  6. Brian E van Wyk6,
  7. Xavier Bosch-Capblanch7,
  8. Mary Patrick2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Published Online: 24 JAN 2005

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 NOV 2004

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004015.pub2

How to Cite

Lewin S, Dick J, Pond P, Zwarenstein M, Aja GN, van Wyk BE, Bosch-Capblanch X, Patrick M. Lay health workers in primary and community health care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004015. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004015.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Preventive and International Health Unit, Oslo, Norway

  2. 2

    Medical Research Council of South Africa, Health Systems Research Unit, Tygerberg, South Africa

  3. 3

    London, UK

  4. 4

    Senior Scientist, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Continuing Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

  5. 5

    Babcock University, Department of Health Sciences, Ikeja-Lagos, South West, Nigeria

  6. 6

    University of the Western Cape, School of Public Health , Bellville, South Africa

  7. 7

    Swiss Tropical Institute, Swiss Centre for International Health, Basel, Switzerland

*Simon Lewin, Preventive and International Health Unit, Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Box 7004 St Olavs plass, Oslo, N-0130, Norway.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 24 JAN 2005


This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (17 MAR 2010)


References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Andersen 2000 {published data only}
Barnes 1999 {published data only}
Barth 1991 {published data only}
  • Barth, R.P. An Experimental Evaluation of In-Home Child Abuse Prevention Services. Child Abuse and Neglect 1991;15:363-75.
  • Barth, R.P. Hacking, S. Ash, J.R. Preventing Child Abuse: An Experimental Evaluation of the Child Parent Enrichment Project. Journal of Primary Prevention 1988;8(4):201-217.
Black 1995 {published data only}
  • Black, M.M, Dubowitz, H, Hutcheson, J, Berenso-Howard, J, Staar, R.H. Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Intervention for Children with Failure to Thrive. Pediatrics 1995;95(6):807-814.
  • Hutcheson, J.H, Black, M.M, Talley, M, Dubowitz, H, Howard, J.B, Starr, R.H, Thompson, B.S. Risk Status and Home Intervention Among Children with Failure-to-Thrive: Follow-Up at Age 4. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1997;22(5):651-668.
Bullock 1995 {published data only}
  • Bullock, LFC. Wells, JE. Duff, GB. Hornblow, AR. Telephone Support for Pregnant Women: Outcome in Late Pregnancy. New Zealand Medical Journal 1995;108(1012):476-478.
Carpenter 1990 {published data only}
  • Carpenter, G.I. Demopoulos, G.R. Screening the Elderly in the Community: Controlled Trial of Dependency Surveillance Using a Questionnaire Administered by Volunteers. BMJ 1990;May:1253-1256.
Caulfield 1998 {published data only}
  • Caulfield, L.E.Gross, S.M.Bentley, M.E, et al. WIC-Based Interventions to Promote Breastfeeding among African-American Women in Baltimore: Effects on Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation. J Hum Lact 1998;14(1):15-22.
Chongsuvivat' 1996 {published data only}
  • Chongsuvivatwong, V. Mo-Suwan, L. Tayakkanonta, K. Vitsupakorn, K. McNeil, R. Impacts of Training of Village Health Volunteers in Reduction of Morbidity from Acute Respiratory Infections in Childhood in Southern Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1996;27(2):333-339.
Dennis 2002 {published data only}
Duan 2000 {published data only}
  • Derose, K.P, Reigadas, E, Hawes-Dawson, J. Church-Based Telephone Mammography Counseling with Peer Counselors. Journal of Health Communication 2000;5(2):175-188.
  • Duan, N, Fox, S.A, Derose, K.P, Carson, S. Maintaining Mammography Adherence Through Telephone Counseling in a Church-Based Trial. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(9):1468-71.
  • Pitkin Derose, K, Hawes-Dawson, J, Fox, S.A, Maldonado, N, Tatum, A, Kington, R. Dealing with Diversity: Recruiting Churches and Women for a Randomized Trial of Mammography Promotion. Health Education and Behaviour 2000;27(5):632-48.
  • Stockdale, S.E, Keeler, E, Duan, N, Pitkin Derose, K, Fox, S.A. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of a Church-Based Intervention to Promote Mammography Screening. Health Services Research 2000;35(5 (Part 1)):1037-57.
Graham 1992 {published data only}
  • Graham, AV. Frank, SH. Zyzanski, SJ. Kitson, GC. Reeb, KG. A Clinical Trial to Reduce the Rate of Low Birth Weight in an Inner-City Black Population. Fam Med 1992;24(6):439-46.
Haider 2000 {published data only}
  • Haider, R. Ashworth, A. Kabir, I. Huttly, S.R.A. Effects of Community-Based Peer Counsellors on Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices in Dhakar, Bangladesh: A Randomised Controlled Trial. The Lancet 2000;356(Nov 11):1643-1647.
Heller 1995 {published data only}
Hoare 1994 {published data only}
  • Hoare, T. Thomas, C. Biggs, A. Bradley, S. Friedman, E. Can the Uptake of Breast Cancer Screening by Asian Women be Increased? A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Linkworker Intervention. Journal of Public Health Medicine 1994;16:179-185.
Ireys 1996 {published data only}
  • Chernoff, R.G, Ireys, H.T, DeVet, K.A, Young, K.J. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based Support Program for Families of Children With Chronic Illness: Pediatric Outcomes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:533-39.
  • Ireys, H.T, Sills, E.M, Kolodner, K.B. A Social Support Intervention for Parents of Children with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Randomized Trial. J Pediatr Psychol 1996;21(5):633-641.
Ireys 2001 {published data only}
  • Ireys, H. Chernoff, R. De Vet, KA. Kim, Y. Maternal Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based Support Program for Families of Children with Chronic Illness. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155:771-776.
Johnson 1993 {published data only}
Kidane 2000 {published data only}
Komaroff 1974 {published data only}
  • Komaroff, A.L, Black, W.L, Flatley, M, Knopp, R.H, Reiffen, B, Sherman, H. Protocols for Physician Assistants: Management of Diabetes and Hypertension. The New England Journal of Medicine 1974;290(6):307-12.
Krieger 1999 {published data only}
  • Krieger, J. Collier, C. Song, L. Martin, D. Linking Community-Based Blood Pressure Measurements to Clinical Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Outreach and Tracking by Community Health Workers. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89(6):856-61.
Krieger 2000 {published data only}
  • Krieger, JW. Castorina, JS. Walls, ML. Weaver, MR. Increasing Influenza and Pneumococcal Immunization Rates: A Randomized Controlled Study of a Senior Center-Based Intervention. Am J Prev Med 2000;18(2):123-131.
Lapham 1995 {published data only}
  • Lapham, S.C, Hall, M, McMurray-Avila, M, Beaman, H. Residential Care: Alburquerque, Evanston/VA, Los Angeles. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1993;10(3-4):139-54.
  • Lapham, SC. Hall, M. Skipper, BJ. Homelessness and Substance Use Among Alcohol Abusers Following Participation in Project H&ART. J Addict Dis 1995;14(4):41-55.
Leigh 1999 {published data only}
Lin 1997 {published data only}
McNeil 1995 {published data only}
  • McNeil, J.K. Effects of Nonprofessional Home Visit Programs for Subclinically Unhappy and Unhealthy Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology 1995;14(3):333-42.
Morrell 2000 {published data only}
  • Morrell, C. J. Spiby, H. Stewart, P. Walters, S. Morgan, A. Costs and Effectiveness of Community Postnatal Support Workers: Randomized Control Trial. British Medical Journal 2000;321(September):593-598.
Morrow 1999 {published data only}
  • Morrow, A.L. Guerrero, M.L. Shults, J. Calva, J.J. Lutter, C. Bravo, J, et al. Efficacy of Home-Based Peer Counselling to Promote Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Lancet 1999;353:1226-31.
Mtango 1986 {published data only}
  • Mtango, F.D.E. Neuvians, D. Acute Respiratory Infections in Children Under Five Years. Control Project in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1986;80:851-858.
Nielsen 1972 {published data only}
Olds 2002 {published data only}
  • Korfmacher, J, O'Brien, R, Hiatt, S, Olds, D. Differences in Program Implementation Between Nurses and Paraprofessionals Providing Home Visits During Pregnancy and Infancy: A Randomized Trial. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89(12):1847-51.
  • Olds, D.L, Robinson, J, O'Brien, R, Luckey, D.W, Pettitt, L.M, Henderson, C.R, Ng, R.K, Sheff, K.L, Korfmacher, J, Hiatt, S, Talmi, A. Home Visiting by Paraprofessionals and by Nurses: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics 2002;110(3):486-496.
Ramadas 2003 {published data only}
  • Ramadas, K, Sankaranarayanan, R, Jose Jacob, B, Thomas, G, Somanathan, T, Mahe, C, Pandey, M, Abraham, E, Najeeb, S, Mathew, B, Parkin, D.M, Krishnan, N. Interim results from a cluster randomized controlled oral cancer screening trial in Kerala, India. Oral Oncology 2003;39:580-88.
  • Sankaranarayanan, R, Mathew, B, Jacob, B.J, Thomas, G, Somanathan, T, Pisani, P, Pandey, M, Ramadas, K, Najeeb, K, Abraham. E. Early Findings from a Community-Based, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Oral Cancer Screening Trial in Kerala, India. Cancer 2000;88(3):664-73.
Schuler 2000 {published data only}
  • Schuler, M.E. Nair, P. Black, M. M. Kettinger, L. Mother-Infant Interaction: Effects of a Home Intervention and Ongoing Maternal Drug Use. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 2000;29(3):424-431.
Siegel 1980 {published data only}
  • Siegal, E. Bauman, E.K. Schaefer, E.S. Saunders, M.M. Ingram, D. Hospital and Home Support During Infancy: Impact on Maternal Attachment, Child Abuse and Neglect, and Health Care Utilization. Pediatrics 1980;66(2):183-190.
Silver 1997 {published data only}
Sung 1997 {published data only}
  • Sung, JF. Blumenthal, DS. Coates, RJ. Effect of a Cancer Screening Intervention Conducted by Lay Health Workers Among Inner-City Women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1997;13(1):51-56.
Tudiver 1992 {published data only}
Von Korff 1998 {published data only}
  • Von Korff, M. Moore, J.E. Lorig, K. Cherkin, D.C Saunders, K. Gonzalez, V.M. Laurent, D. Rutter, C. Comite, F. A Randomized Trial of a Lay Person-Led Self-Management Group Intervention for Back Pain in Primary Health Care. Spine 1998;23(23):2608-2615.
Voorhees 1996 {published data only}
  • Stillman, FA. Bone, LR. Rand, C. Levine, DM. Becker, DM. Heart,Body and Soul: A Church Based Smoking Cessation Program for Urban African Americans. Preventative Medicine 1993;22:335-49.
  • Voorhees, C.C, Stillman, F.A, Swank, R.T, Heagerty, P.J, Levine, D.M, Becker, D.M. Heart, Body and Soul: Impact of Church-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions on Readiness to Quit. Preventative Medicine 1996;25:277-85.
Wan 1980 {published data only}
Weinberger 1989 {published data only}
  • Rene, J. Weinberg, M. Mazzuca, S.A. Brandt, K.D. Katz, B.P. Reduction of Joint Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis who have Recieved Monthly Telephone Calls from Lay Personnnel and Whose Medical Treatment Regimens have Remained Stable. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1992;35(5):511-515.
  • Weinberger, M, Tierney, W.M, Booher, P, Katz, B.K. Can the Provision of Information to Patients with Osteoarthritis Improve Functional Status? A Randomised Controlled Trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1989;32(12):1577-1583.
  • Weinberger, M. Tierney, W.M. Booher, P. Katz, B.P. The Impact of Increased Contact on Psychosocial Outcomes in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Rhematology 1991;18(6):849-854.
Wertz 1986 {published data only}
  • Wertz, R. Weiss, D.G. Aten, J.L. Brookshire, R.H. Garcia-Bunuel, L. Holland, A.L. Kurtzke, J.F. La Pointe, L.L . Miliant, F.J. Brannegan, R. Greenbaum, H. Marshall, R.C. Vogel, D. Carter, J. Barnes, N.S. Goodman, R. Comparison of Clinic, Home, and Deferred Language Treatment for Aphasia. Arch Neurol 1986;43(July):653-658.
Williams 1992 {published data only}
  • Williams, E.I. Greenwell, J.Groom, L.M. The Care of People Over 75 Years and Older After Discharge from Hospital: An Evaluation of Timetabled Visiting by Health Visitor Assistants. J Public Health Med 1992;14(2):138-144.
Zwarenstein 2000 {published data only}
  • Zwarenstein, M. Schoeman, J.H. Vundule, C. Lombard, C.J Tatley, M. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lay Health Workers as Direct Observers for Treatment of Tuberculosis. Int J Lung Dis 2000;4(6):550-554.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Akram 1997 {published data only}
  • Akram, D.S. Agboatwalla, M. Shamshad, S. Effect of Intervention on Promotion of Exclusive Breast Feeding. J Pak. Med. Assoc 1997;47(2):46-48.
Anderson 1998 {published data only}
  • Anderson. S. E. Brewer, B.S. Stein, M. Closing the Distance. Nursing Management 1998;November:44-48.
Andresen 1992 {published data only}
Arlotti 1998 {published data only}
  • Arlotti, JP. Cottrell, BH. Lee, SH. Curtin, J. Breastfeeding among Low-Income Women with and without Peer Support. J Commun Health Nurs 1998;15:163-178.
Armstrong 1999 {published data only}
Ashworth 1992 {published data only}
Assar 2000 {published data only}
  • Assar, D, Chamberlain, D, Colquhoun, M, Donnelly, P, Handley, H.J, Leaves, S, Kern, K.B. Randomised Controlled Trials of Staged Teaching for Basic Life Support (1) Skill Aquisition at Bronze Stage. Resuscitation 2000;47:7-15.
Ayele 1993 {published data only}
  • Ayele, F. Desta, A. Larson, C. The Functional Status of Community Helth Agents: A Trial of Refresher Courses and Regular Supervision. Health Policy and pplanning 1993;8(4):379-384.
Bailey 1996 {published data only}
Bang 1993 {published data only}
Bang 1994 {published data only}
  • Bang, A. T. Bang, R. A. Sontakke, P. G. & the Search Team. Management of Childhood Pneumonia by Traditional Birth Attendants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1994;72(6):897-905.
Bang 1999 {published data only}
  • Bang, A.T. Bang, R.A. Baitule, S.B. Reddy, M.H. Deshmukh, M.D. Effect of Home-Based Neonatal Care and Management of Sepsis on Neonatal Mortality: Feild Trial in Rural India. The Lancet 1999;345:1955-1961.
Berry 1991 {published data only}
Bester 1991 {published data only}
  • Bester, F. C. J. Weich, D. J. V. Albertyn, E. W. Socio-Economic Circumstances and Functional Abilites of Elderly Black Persons in the Orange Free State. South African Medical Journal 1992;82:110-113.
Bhattacharya 1988 {published data only}
  • Bhattacharya, R. Kaur, P. Reddy, C.S. Impact of Education in the Knowledge and Practices of Rural Mothers and Key Family Members on Diarrhoea and its Treatment at Home. Journal of Diarrhoeal and Disease Research 1988;6(1):15-20.
Bird 1998 {published data only}
  • Bird, J. A. Mc Phee, J. Davis, T. Jenkins, N. H. Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key. Preventitive Medicine 1998;27:821-829.
Boucher 1987 {published data only}
  • Boucher, B.J. Claff, H.R. Edmonson, M. Evans, S. Harris, S.A. Hull, S.A.H. Jones, E.J. Mellins, D.H. Safir, .J.G. Taylor, B. Udezue, E. Young, M.R.Y. Yudkin, J.S. A Pilot Diabetic Support Service Based on Family Practice Attenders:Comparison with Diabetic Clinics in East LOndon. Diabetic Medicine 1987;4:480-484.
Brennan 1991 {published data only}
Brook 1989 {published data only}
  • Brook, S, Fantopoulos, I, Johnston, S, Goering, P. Training Volunteers to Work with the Chronically Mentally Ill in the Community. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989;40(8):853-5.
Brownstein 1992 {published data only}
  • Brownstein, J.N, Cheal, N, Ackerman, S.P, Bassford, T.L, Campos-Outcalt, D. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Minority Populations: a Model for Using Lay Health Educators. Cancer Educ 1992;7(4):321-6.
Bullough 1989 {published data only}
Chamberlain 2001 {published data only}
  • Chamberlain, D. Smith, A. Colquhoun, M. Handley, A.J. Randomised Controlled Trials of Staged Teaching for Basic Life Support (2) Comparison of CPR Performance and Skill Retention Using Either Staged Instruction or Conventional Training. Resuscitation. Resuscitation 2001;50:27-37.
Charles 1974 {published data only}
Chen 1999 {published data only}
Christopher 1990 {published data only}
  • F. Scott Christopher, Mark W. Roosa. An Evaluation of an Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programme: Is 'Just Say No' Enough?. Family Relations 1990;39(1):68-72.
Corrado 2000 {published data only}
Cox 1998 {published data only}
  • Cox, G.B. Dale Walker, R. Freng, S.A. Bruce, A. Short, A. Meijer, L Gilchrist, L. Outcome of a Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Intensive Case Management for Chronic Public Inebriates. Journal of Studies on Alchol 1998;September:523-532.
Dalby 2000 {published data only}
  • Dalby.D. Sellors, J.W. Fraser, F.D. Fraser, C. van Ineveld, C. Howard, M. Effectbof Preventive Home Visits by a Nurse on the Outcomes of frail Elderly in the Community: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMC 2000;162(4):497-500.
Davies-Adetugbo 1997 {published data only}
  • Davies-Adetugbo, A. Adebawa, H.A. The Ife South Breastfeeding Project:Training Community Health Extension Workers to Promote and Manage Breastfeeding in rural Communities. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1997;75(4):323-332.
Davis 1994 {published data only}
  • Davis, D.T. Bustamante, A . Brown, C.P. Wolde-Tsadik, G. Savage, E.W. Cheng, X. Howland, L. The Urban Church and Cancer Control: A Source of Social Influence in Minority Communites. Public Health Reports 1994;109(4):500-506.
Delacollette 1996 {published data only}
  • Delacollette, C. Van der Stuyft, P. Molima, K. Using Community Health Workers for Malaria Control: Experience in Zaire. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1996;74(4):423-430.
Dennis 1997 {published data only}
DiCenso 1997 {published data only}
  • Mitchell-DiCenso, A, Thomas, B.H, Devlin, M.C, Goldsmith. C.H, Willan, A, Singer, J, Marks, S, Watters, D, Hewson, S. Evaluation of an educational program to prevent adolescent pregnancy. Health Educ Behav 1997;24(3):300-12.
Dick 1997 {published data only}
  • Dick, J. Clarke, M. Tibbs, J. Schoeman, H. Combating Tuberculosis-Lessons Learnt from a Rural Community Project in the Klein Drakenstein Area of the Western Cape. South African Medical Journal 1997;87(8):1042-1047.
DiClemente 1989 {published data only}
  • DiClemente, R.J. Pies, C.A. Straits, C. Haskin, J. Stoller, E.J. Olvia, G E. Rutherford, G.W. Evaluation of School-Based AIDS Education Curricula in San Francisco. The Journal of Sex Research 1989;26(2):188-199.
Durand 1992 {published data only}
Durlak 1981 {published data only}
Gerson 1976 {published data only}
Goodburn 2000 {published data only}
  • Goodburn, E.A. Chowdhury, M. Gazi, R. Marshall, T. Graham, W. Training Traditional Birth Attendants in Clean Delivery Does Not Prevent Postpartum Infection. Health Policy and Planning 2000;15(4):394-399.
Graham 2002 {published data only}
  • Graham, A. Moore, L. Diamond, I. Improving Teenagers Knowledge of Emergency Contraception: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of a Teacher Led Intervention. British Medical Journal 2002;324(7347):1179.
Grande 1999 {published data only}
  • Grande, G. E. Todd, C.J. Barclay, S.I.G. Farquhar, M.C. Does Hospital at Home for Palliative Care Facilitate Death at Home? Randomised Controll Trial.. British Medical Journal 1999;319:1472-1475.
Gray 1980 {published data only}
Greenwood 1989 {published data only}
  • Greenwood, B.M. Greenwood, A.M. Snow, R.W. Bypass, P. Bennett, S. Hatib-N'Jie. The Effects of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis given by Tradtional Birth Attendants on the Course and Outcome of Pregnancy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989;83:589-594.
Gunnell 2000 {published data only}
  • Gunnell, D. Coast, J. Richards, S.H. Peters, T.J. Pounsford, C. How great a burden does early discharge to hospital-at-home impose on carers? A randomized controll trial. Age and Ageing 2000;29:137-142.
Gupta 1992 {published data only}
Haider 1997 {published data only}
  • Haider, R. Kabir, I. Hamadani, J.D. Habte, D. Reasons for Failure of Breast-Feeding Counselling: Mother's Perspectives in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1997;75(3):191-196.
Hamalainen 1992 {published data only}
  • Hamalainen, S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. A Controlled Study of the Effects of One Lesson on the Knowledge and Attitudes of School Children Concerning HIV and AIDS. Health Education Journal 1992;51(3):135-138.
Hampson 1980 {published data only}
Havas 1991 {published data only}
Heikens 1993 {published data only}
  • Heikens, G.T. Schofield, W.N. Dawson, S. The Kingston Project. II. The effects of high energy supplement and metronidazole on malnourished children rehabilitated in the community: anthropometry. European Journal of Clinical Nutritionh 1993;47(3):160-173.
Heins 1987 {published data only}
Helgeson 2001 {published data only}
Hernandez 2000 {published data only}
Hill 1999 {published data only}
  • Hill, M.N, Bone, L.E, Hilton, S.C, Roary, M.C, Kelen, G.D, Levine, D.M. A Clinical Trial to Improve High Blood Pressure Care in Young Urban Black Men. American Journal of Hypertension 1999;12:548-554.
Hill 2000 {published data only}
Hodnett 1989 {published data only}
Hughes 1992 {published data only}
  • Hughes SL, Cummings J, Weaver F, Manheim L, Braun B, Conrad K. A randomized trial of the cost effectiveness of VA hospital-based home care for the terminally ill. Health Services Research 1992;26:801-817.
Jepson 1999 {published data only}
  • Jepson, C. McCorkle, R. Adler, D. Nuamah, I. Lusk, E. Effects of Home Care on Caregiver's Psychological Status. Image:Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1999;31(2):115-119.
Jessop 1991 {published data only}
Johansson 1999 {published data only}
Johnstone 2000 {published data only}
Kaag 1996 {published data only}
Kamolratanakul 1999 {published data only}
  • Kamolratanakul, P, Sawert, H, Lertmaharit, Kasetjaroen, Y, Akksilp, S, Tulaporn, C, Punnachest, K, Na-Songkhla, S, Payananadana, V. Randomized controlled trial of directly observed treatment (DOT) for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Thailand. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93:552-557.
Kent 1997 {published data only}
  • Kent, R.M. Chandler, B. A Comparison of Community Care Services Provided for Younger and Elderly Disabled People. Clinical Rehabilitation 1997;11:265-270.
Kidorf 1997 {published data only}
  • Kidorf, M. Brooner, R. King, VL. Motivatring Methodone Patients to Include Drug-Free Significant Others in Treatment: A Behavioral Intervention. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1997;14(1):23-28.
King 1991 {published data only}
  • King, A.C. Haskell, L. Barr Taylor, C, Kraemer, H.C. DeBusk, R.F. Group-vs Home-Based Exercise Training in Health Older Men and Women. JAMA 1991;266(11):15351542.
Kitzman 2000 {published data only}
  • Kitzman, H. Olds, D.L. Sidora, K. Henderson, C.R. Hanks, C. Cole, R. Luckey, D.W. Bondy, J. Cole, K. Glazener, J. Enduring Effects of Nurse Home Visitation on Maternal Life Course: A 3-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial. JAMA 2000;283(15):1983-9.
Kules 1995 {published data only}
Kumar 1998 {published data only}
  • Kumer, M.S Mudaliar, S.Daniels, D. Community-Based Outreach HIV INtervention for Street-Recruited Drug Users in Madras,India. Public Health Reports 1998;113(Supplement 1):58-66.
Larson 1980 {published data only}
Lasater 1996 {published data only}
  • Lasater M. The effect of a nurse-managed CHF clinic on patient readmission and length of stay. Home Healthc Nurse 1996;14:351-356.
Lefeber 1997 {published data only}
Lin,T 1997 {published data only}
Lindsay 1993 {published data only}
  • Lindsay, S.W. Alonso, P.L. Armstrong Schellemberg, J.R.M.Hemingway, J. Thomas, P.J. Shenton, F.C. Greenwood, B.M. A Malaria Control Trial Using Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Targeted Chemopophylaxis in a Rural Area of the Gambia, West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87(2):19-23.
Linn 1977 {published data only}
Mallams 1982 {published data only}
Mandelblatt 1996 {published data only}
  • Mandelblatt, J. Freeman, H. Winczewski, D. Cagney, K. Williams, S. Trowers, R. Tang, J. Kerner, J. Implementation of a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program in a Public Hospital Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1996;28((5)):493-498.
Margolis 1998 {published data only}
May 1986 {published data only}
  • May, D. McKeganey, N. Flood, M. Extra Hands or Extra Problems. Nursing Times 1986;82(36):35-38.
Mc Farlane 1997 {published data only}
  • Mc Farlane, J. Wiist, W. Preventing Abuse to Pregnant Women: Implementation of a "Mentor Mother" Advocacy Model. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1997;14(4):237-249.
McCosker 1997 {published data only}
  • McCosker, H. Madl, R. Harris, M. Anderson, D. Mannion, J. Evaluation of a Self-Paced Education Package on Violence Against Women for Rural Community-Based Health Workers.. Aust Journal of Rural Health 1999;7:5-12.
McCurren 1999 {published data only}
McInnes 2000 {published data only}
Menendez 1994 {published data only}
  • Menendez, C. Todd, J. Alonso, P.L. Lulat, S. Francis, N. Greenwood, B.M. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis, Infection of the Placenta and Birth Weight in Gambia Primigravidae. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;97:244-248.
Menendez,C {published data only}
  • Menendez, . Todd, J. Alonso, P.L. Francis, N. Lulat, S. Cessy, S. M'Boge, B. Greenwood, B.M. The Effects of Iron Supplementation During Pregnancy, Given by Traditional Birth Attendants, on the Prevalence of Anaemia and Malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(5):590-3.
Mercier 1992 {published data only}
  • Mercier, C. Tempier, R Renaud, E.C. [Services Communautaires Et Qualiite De La Vie: Une Etude D'Impact En Region Eloignee]. Revue psychiatrie 1992;37:553-563.
Moongtui 2000 {published data only}
Mowles 1982 {published data only}
  • Mowles, H. Project S.A.V.E: A Volunteer Program to Combat Alcoholism. Health and Social Work 1982;7(3):215-219.
Muijen 1992 {published data only}
  • Muijen, M. Marks, I.Connolly, J. Audini, B. Home Based Care and Standard Hospital Care for Patients with Severe Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial. British Medical Journal 1992;304(March):749-755.
Nations 1997 {published data only}
  • Nations, M. K. de Souza, A. Umbanda Healers as Effective AIDS Educators: Case-Control Study in Brazilian Urban Slums (Favelas). Tropical Doctor 1997;27(Supplement 1):60-66.
Neittaanmaki 1980 {published data only}
  • Neittaanmaki, L. Koskela, K. Puska, P. McAlister, A.L. The Role of Lay Workers in Community Health Education:Experiences of the North Karelia Project. Scand J Soc Med 1980;8:1-7.
Newcomer 1999 {published data only}
  • Newcomer, R. Spitalny, M. Fox, P. Yordi, C. The Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration Program. HSR: Health Services Research 1999;34(3):645-666.
Newell 1993 {published data only}
  • Newell, J. Senkoro, K. Mosha, F. Grosskurth, H. Nicoll, A. Barongo, L. Borgdorff, M. Klokke, A. Changalucha, J. Killewo, J. Velema, J. Muller, A.S. Rugemalila, J. Mabey, D. A Population-Based Study of Syphilis and Sexually Transmitted Disease Syndromes in North-Western Tanzania. 2. Risk Factors and Health Seeking Behaviour. Genitourin Med 1993;69:421-426.
Nikodem 2001 {published data only}
  • Nikodem, V.C. Nolte, A.G.W.Wolman, W. Gulmezoglu, A.M. Hofmeyer, G.J. Companionship by a Lay Labour Supporter to Modify the Clinical Birth Environment: Long-Term Effects on Mother and Child. Curationis 2001;21(1):8-12.
Pai 1982 {published data only}
  • Pai, S. Nagarajaiah. Treatment of Schizophrenic Patients in their Homes through a Visiting Nurse-Some Issues in the Nurse's Training. Int.J.Nurs.Stud 1982;19(3):167-172.
Pai 1983 {published data only}
Paulson 1999 {published data only}
  • Paulson, R. Herinckx, H. Demmler, J. Clarke, G. Cutler, D. Birecree, E. Comparing Practice Patterns of Consumer and Non-Consumer Mental Health Service Providers. Community Mental Health Journal 1999;35(3):251-269.
Radentz,W.H {published data only}
  • Radentz WH, Barnes GP, Kenigsberg HS, Carter HG. Teaching dental flossing to patients via television reinforced by individual instructions. Periodontol 1995;46:426-429.
Rettig,B 1986 {published data only}
Robinson 1988 {published data only}
Rotheram-Borus 1991 {published data only}
  • Rotheram-Borus, M.J. Koopman, C. Haignere, C. Davies, M. Reducing HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Runaway Adolescents. JAMA 1991;226(9):1237-1241.
Rubenstein 1978 {published data only}
  • Rubenstein, J.S. James, M.D. Armentrout, J.A. Levin, S. Herald, D. The Parent-Therapist Program:Alternate Care for Emotionally Disturbed Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1978;48(4):655-662.
Samman 1999 {published data only}
  • Samman, S. Lyons, P.M. Chan, G.S.M. Smith, S.J. Petocz, P. The Effect of Supplementation with Isoflavones on Plasma lipids and Oxidisability of Low Density Lipoprotein in Premenopausal Women. Atherosclerosis 1999;147:277-283.
Saylor 1983 {published data only}
  • Saylor, D.E. Orientation Programs Prepare Volunteers for Patient Contact. Hospital Progress 1983;May:53-54.
Scarano 1987 {published data only}
  • Scarano, S. Victim Volunteers Mobilize to Minister. Emergency 1987;March:47-4.
Schafer 1998 {published data only}
Schardin 1994 {published data only}
  • Schardin, K.E. Volunteerism: Central to Everday Life and ANNA. ANNA Journal 1994;21(4):142-143.
Searle 1999 {published data only}
  • Searle, BJ. Bright, J.E.H. Bochner, S. Testing the 3-Factor Model of Occupational Stress: The Impact of Demands, Control and Social Support on a Mail Sorting Task. Work and Stress 1999;13(3):269-279.
Shaughnessy 1996 {published data only}
  • Shaughnessy, P.W. Schlenker, R.E. Crisler, K.S. Arnold, A.G.Powell, M.C. Beaudry, J.M. Home Care:Moving Forward with Continuous Qulity Improvement. The Haworth Press 1996;6(3-4):149-67.
Shaw 1999 {published data only}
  • Shaw, E. Kaczorowski, J. The Effect of a Peer Counselling Program on Breastfeeding Initiation and Longlevity in a Low-Income Rural Poulation. J Hum Lact 1999;15(1):19-25.
Small 1987 {published data only}
  • Small, D. In-Service Training of Home Health Aides for Arthritis Care. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1987;4(4):243-251.
Smith 2000 {published data only}
Smith, JB 2000 {published data only}
  • Smith, J.B. Coleman, N.A. Fortney, J.A. Johnson, J.D .Blumhagen, D.W Grey, T. The Impact of Traditional Birth Attendant Training on Delivery Complications in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning 2000;15(3):326-331.
Spiby 1999 {published data only}
  • Spiby, H. Crowther, S. Dutch Materninty Aides: A Transferable Model. RCM Midwives Journal 1999;2(3):20-21.
Stephens 1996 {published data only}
  • Stephens, C. Smith, M. Occupational Overduse Syndrome and the Effects of Psychosocial Stressors on Keyboard Users in the Newspaper Industry. Work and Stress 1996;2:141-153.
Stephenson 1998 {published data only}
  • Stephenson, J.M. Oakley, A. Charleston, S. Brodala, A. Fenton, K. Petruckevitch, A. Johnson, A.M. Behavioural Intervention Trials for HIV/STD Preventin in Schools: Are They Feasible?. Sex Transm Inf 1998;74:405-408.
Stewart 1999 {published data only}
  • Stewart, S. Vandenbroek, A.J. Pearson, S. Horowitz, J.D. Prolonged Beneficial Effects of a Home-Based Intervention on Unplanned Readmissions and Mortality Among Patients with Congestive Heart Failure. Arch Intern Med 1999;159(Feb 8):257-261.
Strawczynski 1973 {published data only}
  • Strawczynski, H Stachewitsch, A Morgenstern, G Shaw, M.E. Delivery of Care to Hemophilic Children: Home Care Versus Hospitilization. Pediatrics 1973;51(6):986-991.
Stricklin 2000 {published data only}
  • Stricklin, M Lou. V. Jones, S. Niles, S.A. Home Talk/Healthy Talk: Improving Patients Health Status with Telephone Technology. Home Healthcare Nurse 2000;18(1):53-63.
Sullivan 1999 {published data only}
Susser 1998 {published data only}
  • Susser, E. Valencia, E. Berkman, A. Sohler, N. Conover, S. Torres, J. Bentne, P. Felix, A. Miller, S. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sexual Risk Reduction in Homeless Men with Mental Illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998;55:266-272.
Terefe 1993 {published data only}
Teri 1999 {published data only}
Tessaro 1997 {published data only}
  • Tessaro, I. Campbell, M. O'Meara, C. Herrick, H. Buescher, P. State Health Department and University Evaluation of North Carolina's Maternal Outreach Worker Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1997;13(6 (suppl)):38-44.
Thomas 1985 {published data only}
Thouw 1992 {published data only}
Tinetti 1993 {published data only}
Tinetti 1999 {published data only}
  • Tinetti, M.E. Baker, I.D. Gottschalk, M. Williams, C.S. Pollack, D. Garrett, P. Gill, T.M. Marottoli, R.A. Acampora, D. Home-Based Mulitcomponent Rehabilitation Program for older Persons after Hip Fracture: A Randomized Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80(8):916-922.
Toobert 2000 {published data only}
Townsend 1976 {published data only}
  • Townsend, P. W. Flanagan, J.J. Experimental Preadmission Program to Encourage Home Care for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 1976;80(5):562-569.
Tramarin 1992 {published data only}
  • Tramarin, A. Milocchi, F. Tolley, K. Vaglia, A. Marcolini, F. Manfrin, V. de Lalla, F. An Economic Evaluation of Home-Care Assistance for AIDS Patients: A Piolt Study in a Town in Northern Italy. Current Science 1992;6(11):1377-1383.
Tuckman 1994 {published data only}
  • Tuckman, H.P. Chang, C.F. The Healthcare Volunteer. Hospital Topics 1994;72(2):23-27.
Tudiver, F 1992 {published data only}
  • Tudiver, F. Hilditch, J. Permaul, J. McKendree, D. Does Mutual Help Facilitate Newly Bereaved Widowers?. Evaluation & the Health Professional 1992;June:147-161.
Uphold 2000 {published data only}
Victora 1994 {published data only}
  • * Victora, CG Langr, A. Barros, F. Belizan, J. Farnot, U. Villar, J. The Latin American Multicenter Trial on Psychosocial Support During Pregnancy: Methology and Baseline Comparability. Latin American Network for Perinatal and Reproductive Research. Control Clin Trials 1994;15(5):379-94.
Walraven 1995 {published data only}
  • Walraven, G.E.L. Mkanje, R.J.B. Roosmalen, J. van Dongen, P.W.J. Dolmans, W.M.V. Perinatal Mortality in Home Births in Rural Tanzania. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1995;58:131-134.
Walton 1993 {published data only}
  • Walton, E. Fraser, M.W. Lewis, R.E. Pecora, P.J. Walton, W.K. In-Home Family-Focused Reunification: An Experimental Study. Child Welfare 1993;LXXII(5):473-487.
Wanlass 1983 {published data only}
Watts 1995 {published data only}
Weiler 1993 {published data only}
  • Weiler, K. Volunteer Family Members Assisting with Care. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 1993;19(7):43.
Weinberger 1988 {published data only}
Wenger 1992 {published data only}
  • Wenger, N.S .Greenberg, J.M. Hilborne, L.H. Kusseling, F. Mangotich, M. Shapiro, M.F. Effects of HIV Antibody Testing and AIDS Education on Communication about HIV Risk and Sexual Behaviour. American College of Physicians 1992;117(11):905-11.
Weuve 2000 {published data only}
  • Weuve, J.L. Boult, C. Morishita, L. The Effects of Outpatient Geriatric Evaluation and Management on Caregiver Burden. The Gerontological Society of America 2000;40(4):429-436.
Williams, EI 1992 {published data only}
  • Williams, E.I. Greenwell, J. Groom, L.M. The Care of People Over 75 Years and Older after Discharge from Hospital: An Evaluation of Timetabled Viisting by Health Visitor Assistants. Oxford University Press 1992;14(2):138-144.
Wolf 1985 {published data only}
  • Wolf, R.S. Halas, K.T. Green, L.B McNiff, M.L. A Model for the Integration of Community-Based Health and Social Services. Home health Care Services Quarterly 1985/6;64(4):41-57.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Aiken 1994 {published data only}
  • Aiken, LS. West, SG. Woodward, CK. Reno, RR. Reynolds, KD. Increasing Screening Mammography in Asymptomatic Women:Evaluation of a Second-Generation, Theory-Based Program. Health Psychol 1994;13:526-538.
Azrin 1982 {published data only}
Barrera 2002 {published data only}
  • Barrera, M, Glasgow, R.E, McKay, H.G, Boles, S.M, Feil, E.G. Do Internet-Based Support INterventions Change Perceptions of Social Support?: An Experimental Trial of Approaches for Supporting Diabetes Self-Management. American Journal of Community Psychology 2002;30:637-654.
Calle 1994 {published data only}
  • Calle, EE. Miricle-McMahill, HL. Moss, RE. Heath, CW Jr. Personal Contact from Friends to Increase Mammograph Usage. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1994;10:361-366.
Cogan 1988 {published data only}
  • Cogan, B, Spinnato, J.A. Social support during premature labor: effects on labor and the newborn. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1988;8:209-16.
Coppotelli 1985 {published data only}
Dennis, CL 2002 {published data only}
Earp 2002 {published data only}
  • Earp, J.A, Eng, E, O'Malley, M.S, Altpeter, M, Rauscher, G, Mayne, L, Mathews, H.F, Lynch, K.S, Qaqish, B. Increasing Use of Mammography Among Older rural African Women: Results from a Community Trial. Research and Practcie 2002;92(4):646-654.
Erwin 1999 {published data only}
Flynn 1997 {published data only}
Fox 1998 {published data only}
  • Fox, SA. Stein, JA.Gobzalez, RE. Farrenkopf, M. Dellinger, A. A Trial to Increase Mammography Utilization Among Los Angeles Hispanic Women. Journal Health Care Poor Underserved 1998;9:309-321.
Gokcay, G {published data only}
Graffy 2004 {published data only}
Hamminki 1990 {published data only}
  • Hemminki, E, Virta, A.L, Koponen, P, Malin, M, Kojo-Austin, H, Tuimala, R. A trial on continuous human support during labor: feasibility, interventions and mothers' satisfaction. (Trial A - Pilot study with volunteered midwifery students). Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1990;11:239-50.
Herinckx 1997 {published data only}
  • Herinckx, HA. Kinney, RF. Clarke, GN. Paulson, RI. Assertive Community Treatment Versus Usual Care in Engaging and Retaining Clients with Severe Mental Illness. Psychiartic Services 1997;10:1297-1306.
Houts 1991 {published data only}
  • Houts, PS.Wojtkowiak, SL. Simmonds, MA. Weinberg, GB. Heitjan, DF. Using a State Cancer registry to Increase Screening Behaviour of Sisters and Daughters of Breast Cancer Patients. American Journal of Public Health 1991;81:386-388.
Hunt 1973 {published data only}
Jakobsen 1999 {published data only}
Janz 1997 {published data only}
  • Janz, NK. Schottenfeld, DD. Doerr, KM. Selig, SM. Dunn, RL. Strawderman, M. Levine, PA. A Two-Step Intervention to Increase Mammography Among Women Aged 65 and Older. Americam Jopurnal of Public Health 1997;87:1683-1686.
King 1995 {published data only}
Kistin 1990 {published data only}
  • Kistin, N, Benton, D, Rao, S, Sullivan, M. Breast-feeding rates among Black urban low-inocme women: effect of prenatal education. Pediatrics 1990;86:741-46.
Klaus 1986 {published data only}
Lauver 1999 {published data only}
Laveissiere 1998 {published data only}
  • Laveissiere, C, Meda, A.H, Doua, F, Sane, B. Detecting sleeping sickness: comparative efficacy of mobile teams and community health workers [Dépistage de la maladie du sommeil: efficacité comparée des équipes mobiles et des agents de santé communautaires]. Bulletin de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé 1998;76(6):559-564.
Long 1995 {published data only}
  • Long, D.G, Funk-Archuleter, M.A, Geiger, C.J, Mozar, A.J, Heins, J.N. Peer counselor program increases breastfeeding rates in Utah Native American population. J Hum Lact 1995;11:279-84.
Madi 1999 {published data only}
Mathew 1995 {published data only}
  • Mathew, B, Sankaranarayanan, R, Wesley, R, Joseph, A, Nair, M.K Sankaranarayanan, R. Wesley, R. Joseph, A. Nair, M. K. Evaluation of utilisation of health workers for secondary prevention of oral cancer in Kerala, India. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol 1995;31B(3):193-6.
McCord 1978 {published data only}
McCrady 1986 {published data only}
  • McCrady, BS.Noel, NE.Abrams, DB.Stout, RL.Nelson, HF.Hay, WM. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Types of Spoue Involvement in Outpatient Behavioural Alcoholism Treatment. Journal of Studies on Alchol 1986;47:459-467.
Mermelstein 1986 {published data only}
  • Mermelstein R, Cohen S, Lichtenstein E, Baer JS, Kamarck T Social support, smoking cessation, maintenance. Mermelstein R. Cohen S, Lichtenstein E, Baer JS, Kamarck T. Social support and smoking cessation and maintenance. J Consult Clin Psychol 1986;54(4):447-453. [MEDLINE: 3745596]
Mishra 1998 {published data only}
  • Mishra, Si. Chavez, LR. Magana, JR. Nava, P. Valdez, RB. Hubbell, FA. Improving Breast Cancer Control Amongs Latinas: Valuation of a Theory-Based Education Program. Health Educ Behav 1998;25:653-670.
Mongeon 1995 {published data only}
  • Mongeon, M. Allard, R. Controlled Study of a Regular Telephone Support Program given by Women Volunteers on the Establishment of Breastfeeding (in French). Can J Public Health 1995;86(2):124-127.
Navarro 1998 {published data only}
  • Navarro, AM. Senn, KL. McNicholas, LJ. Kaplan, RM. Roppe, B. Campo, MC. Por La Vida Model intervention Enhances use of Cancer Screening Test Among Latinas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;15:32-41.
O'Farrel 1985 {published data only}
  • O'Farrell, TJ.Cutter, HSG.Floyd, FJ. Evaluating Behavioural Marital Therapy for Male Alocoholics:Effects in Marital Adjustment and Communication from Before to After Treatment. Behavior Therapy 1985;16:147-167.
Rimer 1992 {published data only}
  • Rimer, BK. Resch, N. King, E. Ross, E. Lerman, C. Boyee, A. Kessler, H. Engstom, PF. Multistrategy Health Education Program to Increase Mammography Use Among Women Ages 65 and Older. Public Health Reo 1992;107:369-380.
Rimer 1993 {published data only}
  • Rimer, BK. Ross, E. Balshem, A. Engstom, PF. The Effects of a Comprehensive Breast Screening Program on Self-Repoted Mammography used by Primary Care Physicians and Women in a Health Maintence Organization. J Am Board Fam. Pract 1993;6:443-451.
Rimer 1999 {published data only}
  • Rimmer, BK. Conway, M. Lyna, P. Glassman, B. Yarnall, KSH. Lipkus, I. Barber, LT. The Impact of Tailored Interventions on a Community Health Center Population. Patient Education and Counselling 1999;37:125-140.
Russ 1992 {published data only}
  • Russ, J.L, Bentley, M.E, Bronner, Y.L, Caulfield, L.E, Paige, D.P. Desired qualities of a breastfeeding peer counselor: preliminary ethnographic research for a WIC-centered breatfeeding promotion project in Baltimore. MD (presentation at APHA conference, Washington D.C., November). 1992.
Slater 1998 {published data only}
  • Slater, JS. Ha, CN. Malone, ME. McGovern, P Madigsn, SD. Finnegan, JR. Casey-Paal, AL, Margolis, KL. Lurie, N. A Randomized Community Trial to Increase Mammography Utilization Among Low-Income Living in Public Housing. Prev Med 1998;27:862-870.
Solomon 1995 {published data only}
Sung 2001 {published data only}
  • Sung, JFC. Blumenthal, DS. Coates, RJ. Williams, JE. Alema-Mensah, E. Liff, JM. Effects of a Cancer Screening Intervention Conducted by Lay Health Workers among Inner-City Women. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 1997;13:51-57.
Weber 1997 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Dick 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ongoing study Starting date of trial not provided. Contact author for more information.
Haines 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ongoing study Starting date of trial not provided. Contact author for more information.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Altman 1998
Barnes 1999
Berman 1987
Black 1995
  • Black, M.M. Dubowitz, H. Hutcheson, J. Berenso-Howard, J. Staar, R.H. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Intervention for Children with Failure to Thrive. Pediatrics 1995;95(6):807-814.
Bonfill 2004
  • Bonfill, X, Marzo, M, Pladevall, M, Marti, J, Emparanza, J.I. Strategies for increasing the participation of women in community breast cancer screening. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002943]
Campbell 2000
Chan 2003
  • Chan A-W, Altman, D. Discrepancies between protocols and publications: evidence of outcome reporting bias in randomised trials. Paper presented at the XI Cochrane Colloquium: Evidence, health care and culture. Barcelona, Spain, 26-31 October 2003.
Dick 1997
  • Dick J, Clarke M, Tibbs J, Schoeman H. Combating tuberculosis- lessons learnt from a rural community project in the Klein Drakenstein area of the western Cape. South African Medical Journal 1997;87(8):1042-1047.
Dick 1998
Farmer 2001
  • Farmer, P, Leandre, F, Mukherjee, J, Gupta, R, Tarter, L, Kim, J.K. Community-based treatment of advanced HIV disease: introducing DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy). Bull World Health Organ 2001;79(12):1145-51.
Fedder 2003
  • Fedder, D.O, Chang, R.J, Curry, S, Nichols, G. The effectiveness of a community health worker outreach program on healthcare utilization of west Baltimore City Medicaid patients with diabetes, with or without hypertension. Ethn Dis 2003;13(1):22-7.
Foster 1996
  • Foster G, Mafuka C, Drew R, Kambeu S, Saurombe K. Supporting children in need through a community-based orphan visiting programme. Aids Care 1996; Vol. 8, issue 4:389-403.
Frankel 1992
  • Frankel S. The community health worker: effective programmes for developing countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Hadley 2000
  • Hadley M, Maher D. Community involvement in tuberculosis control: lessons from other health care programmes. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2000;4(5):401-408.
Hodnett 2004a
  • Hodnett, E.D, Fredericks, S. Support during pregnancy for women at increased risk of low birthweight babies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000198]
Hodnett 2004b
  • Hodnett, E.D, Gates, S, Hofmeyr, G.J, Sakala, C. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.pub2]
Loewenson 2004
Love 1997
Maher 1999
  • Maher D, van Gondrie PCFM, Raviglione M. Community contribution to tuberculosis care in countries with high tuberculosis prevalence: past, present and future. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 1999;3(9):762-68.
Masood 1999
  • Masood, S. A plea for a worldwide volunteer cervical cancer education and awareness programme. A proposal from the International Academy of Cytology Committee on Cancer Detection for Medically Underserved Women. Acta Cytol 1999;43(4):539-543.
Olsen 2004
  • Olsen O, Gøtzsche PC. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001877]
Rosenthal 1998
  • Rosenthal, E.L. A Summary of the National Community Heath Advisor Study. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Baltimore, 1998.
Sikorski 2004
  • Sikorski, J, Renfrew, M.J, Pindoria, S, Wade, A. Support for breastfeeding mothers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001141.pub3]
Sinanovic 2003
  • Sinanovic, E, Floyd, K, Dudley, L, Azevedo, V, Grant, R, Maher, D. Cost and cost-effectiveness of community-based care for tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Disease 2003;7(9 Suppl 1):S56-62.
Swider 2002
Unaids 1999
  • Unaids. Comfort and Hope. Six case studies on mobilizing family and community care for and by people with HIV/AIDS. Unaids Best Practice Collection 1999; Vol. June.
Walt 1989
Walt 1990
  • Walt G. Community health workers in national programmes: just another pair of hands?. Community health workers in national programmes: just another pair of hands?. Open University Press, 1990.
Ward 2004
  • Ward, D, Severs, M, Dean, T, Brooks, N. Care home versus hospital and own home environments for rehabilitation of older people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003164.pub2]
Wilkinson 1997
  • Wilkinson, D, Floyd, K, Gilks, C.F. Costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis management strategies in South Africa - implications for policy. S Afr Med J 1997;87(4):451-5.
Witmer 1995
Zwarenstein 2000
  • Zwarenstein M, Schoeman JH, Vundule C, Lombard CJ, Tatley M. A randomised controlled trial of lay health workers as direct observation for treatment of tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2000;4(6):550-554.