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Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

  1. Niels Albert Graudal1,*,
  2. Thorbjorn Hubeck-Graudal2,
  3. Gesche Jurgens2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hypertension Group

Published Online: 9 NOV 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 4 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3


How to Cite

Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004022. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Dep. of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark

  2. 2

    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Copenhagen, Denmark

*Niels Albert Graudal, Dep. of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark. graudal@dadlnet.dk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 9 NOV 2011

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
1000 P SE Parijs 1973 {published data only}
1001 Mark 1975 {published data only}
  • Mark AL, Lawton WJ, Abboud FM, Fitz AE, Connor WE, Heistad DD. Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Circ Res 1975;(Suppl 1):36-37: I194-I198.
1002 P Morgan 1978 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Gillies A, Morgan G, Adam W, Wilson M, Carney S. Hypertension treated by salt restriction. Lancet 1978;I:227-30.
1003 Sullivan 1980 {published data only}
1004 Sullivan 1980 b {published data only}
1005 MBP SE Rankin 1981 {published data only}
1006 Skrabal 1981 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Auböck J, Hörtnagel H. Low sodium/high potassium diet for prevention of hypertension: probable mechanisms of action. Lancet 1981;II:895-900.
1007 P Morgan 1981 {published data only}
  • Morgan TO, Myers JB. Hypertension treated by sodium restriction. Med J Aust 1981;II:396-7.
1008 P Morgan 1981b {published data only}
  • Morgan TO, Myers JB. Hypertension treated by sodium restriction. Med J Aust 1981;II:396-7.
1009 Ambrosioni 1982 {published data only}
  • Ambrosioni E, Costa FV, Borghi C, Montebugnoli L, Giordani MF, Magnani B. Effects of moderate salt restriction on intralymphocytic sodium and pressor response to stress in borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1982;4:789-94.
1010 SE Myers 1982 {published data only}
1011 MacGregor 1982 {published data only}
  • MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Best FE, Elder DM, Cam JM, Sagnella GA Squires M. Double-blind randomised crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;i:351-5.
1012 P Beard 1982 {published data only}
  • Beard TC, Gray WR, Cooke HM, Barge R. Randomised controlled trial of a no-added-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet . 1982;II:455-8.
1013 P Puska 1983 {published data only}
  • Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A, Korhonen HJ, Vartianinen E, Pietinen P, DoughertyR, Leino U, Mutanen M, Moisio S, Huttunen J. Controlled, randomised trial of the effect of dietary fat on blood pressure. Lancet 1983;I:1-5.
1014 P Puska 1983 b {published data only}
  • Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A, Korhonen HJ, Vartianinen E, Pietinen P, DoughertyR, Leino U, Mutanen M, Moisio S, Huttunen J. Controlled, randomised trial of the effect of dietary fat on blood pressure. Lancet 1983;I:1-5.
1015 P Bulpitt 1983 {published data only}
  • Bulpitt CJ, Daymond M, Bulpitt PF, Ferrier G, Harrison R, Lewis, PJ, Dollery CT. Is low salt dietary advice a useful therapy in hypertensive patients with poorly controlled blood pressure?. Ann Clin Res 1984;16:143-9.
1016 P Silman 1983 {published data only}
  • Silman AJ, Locke C, Mitchell P, Humpherson P. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a low sodium diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Lancet 1983;I:1179-82.
1017 Sowers 1983 {published data only}
  • Sowers JR, Martin VI, Beck FW. Effects of dietary sodium on circadian rhythm and physiological responses of 18-hydroxycorticosterone. Clin Sci 1983;64:265-301.
1018 SE Watt 1983 {published data only}
1019 SE Cooper 1984 {published data only}
  • Cooper R, Van Horn L, Liu K, Trevisan M, Nanas S, Ueshima H, Larbi E, Yu CS, Sempos C, LeGrady D, Stammler J. A randomised trial of the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens 1984;2:361-6.
1020 SE Cooper 1984 b {published data only}
  • Cooper R, Van Horn L, Liu K, Trevisan M, Nanas S, Ueshima H, Larbi E, Yu CS, Sempos C, LeGrady D, Stammler J. A randomised trial of the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens 1984;2:361-6.
1021 Skrabal 1984 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Herholz H, Neumayr M, Hamberger L, Ledochowski M, Sporer H, HörtnaglH, Schwarz S, Schönitzer D. Salt sensitivity in humans is linked to enhanced sympathetic responsiveness and to enhanced proximal tubular reabsorption. Hypertension 1984;6:152-8.
1022 Skrabal 1984 b {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Herholz H, Neumayr M, Hamberger L, Ledochowski M, Sporer H, HörtnaglH, Schwarz S, Schönitzer D. Salt sensitivity in humans is linked to enhanced sympathetic responsiveness and to enhanced proximal tubular reabsorption. Hypertension 1984;6:152-8.
1023 Gillies 1984 {published data only}
1024 P Erwteman 1984 {published data only}
  • Erwteman TM, Nagelkerke N, Lubsen J, Koster M, Dunning AJ. ß Blockade, diuretics and salt restriction for the management of mild hypertension: a randomised double blind trial. BMJ 1984;289:406-9.
1025 Koolen 1984 {published data only}
  • Koolen MI, Brummelen P. Sodium sensitivity in essential hypertension: Role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the predictive value of an intravenous frusemide test. J Hypertens 1984;2:55-9.
1026 Koolen 1984(2) {published data only}
1027 P Fagerberg 1984 {published data only}
1028 P Maxwell 1984 {published data only}
  • Maxwell MH, Kushiro T, Dornfeld LP, Tuck ML, Waks AU. Blood pressure changes in obese hypertensive subjects during rapid weight loss. Comparison of restricted v unchanged salt intake. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1581-4.
1029 Richards 1984 {published data only}
  • Richards AM, Espiner EA, Maslowski AH, Nicholls MG, Ikram H, Hamilton EJ, Wells JE. Blood pressure response to moderate sodium restriction and to potassium supplementation in mild essential hypertension.. Lancet 1984;I:757-61.
1030 Resnick 1985 {published data only}
  • Resnick LM, Nicholson JP, Laragh JH. Alterations in calcium metabolism mediate dietary salt sensitivity in essential hypertension. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1985;98:313-21.
1031 P Tuthill 1985 {published data only}
  • Tuthill RW, Calabrese EJ. The Massachusetts Blood Pressure Study, Part 4. Modest sodium supplementation and blood pressure change in boarding school girls. Tox Indust Health 1985;1:35-43.
1032 SE Skrabal 1985 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Hamberger L, Cerny E. Salt sensitivity in normotensives with and salt resistance in normotensives without heredity of hypertension. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1985;176 Suppl:47-57.
1033 SE Skrabal 1985 b {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Hamberger L, Cerny E. Salt sensitivity in normotensives with and salt resistance in normotensives without heredity of hypertension. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1985;176(suppl):47-57.
1034 SE Watt 1985 {published data only}
1035 SE Watt 1985 b {published data only}
1036 Richards 1986 {published data only}
  • Richards AM, Tonolo G, Cleland JG, Leckie BJ, McIntyre GD, Ingram M, Dargie HJ, Ball SG, Robertson JI. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide: responses to modest and severe sodium restriction. J Hypertens 1986;Suppl 4:S559-63.
1037 Teow 1986 {published data only}
  • Teow BH, Nicolantonio RD, Morgan TO. Sodium chloride preference and recognition threshold in normotensive subjects on high and low salt diet. Clin Exp Hypertens 1986;A7:1681-95.
1038 P Logan 1986 {published data only}
1039 P ANHMRCDS 1986 {published data only}
  • Chalmers J, Morgan T, Doyle A, Dickson B, Hopper J, Mathews J, Matthews G, MouldsR, Myers J, Nowson C, Scoggins B, Stebbing M. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council dietary salt study in mild hypertension. J Hypertens 1986;Suppl 4:S629-37.
1040 El Ashry 1987 {published data only}
  • El Ashry A, Heagerty AM, Alton SM, Bing RF, Swales JD, Thurston H. Effects of manipulation of sodium balance on erythrocyte sodium transport. J Hum Hypertens 1987;1:105-11.
1041 El Ashry 1987 b {published data only}
  • El Ashry A, Heagerty AM, Alton SM, Bing RF, Swales JD, Thurston H. Effects of manipulation of sodium balance on erythrocyte sodium transport. J Hum Hypertens 1987;1:105-11.
1042 Fuchs 1987 {published data only}
  • Fuchs FD, Wannmacher CMD, Wannmacher L, Guimarães FS, Rosito GA, Gastaldo G, Hoeffel CP, Wagner EM. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, serum levels and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normotensives with and without familial predisposition to hypertension. Brazilian J Med Biol Res 1987;20:25-34.
1043 Fuchs 1987 b {published data only}
  • Fuchs FD, Wannmacher CMD, Wannmacher L, Guimarães FS, Rosito GA, Gastaldo G, Hoeffel CP, Wagner EM. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, serum levels and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normotensives with and without familial predisposition to hypertension. Brazilian J Med Biol Res 1987;20:25-34.
1044 P Morgan 1987 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Gillies A, Morgan G, Adam W, Wilson M, Carney S. Hypertension treated by salt restriction.. Lancet 1987;I:227-30.
1045 SE Kurtz 1987 {published data only}
1046 Grobbee 1987 {published data only}
1047 MacGregor 1987 {published data only}
  • McGregor GA, Markandu ND, Singer DRJ, Cappucio FP, Shore AC, Sagnella GA. Moderate sodium restriction with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in essential hypertension: a double blind study. BMJ 1987;294:531-4.
1048 Lawton 1988 {published data only}
1049 Lawton 1988 b {published data only}
1050 Morgan 1988 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Anderson A. Interaction in hypertensive men between sodium intake, converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril), plasma renin and blood pressure control. J Hum Hypertens 1988;1:311-5.
1051 SE Morgan 1988,2 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Anderson A. Interaction of slow-channel calcium blocking drugs with sodium restriction, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. J Hypertens 1988;6 (suppl 4):S652-S654.
1052 Shore 1988 {published data only}
  • Shore AC, Markandu ND, McGregor GA. A randomised cross-over study to compare the blood pressure response to sodium loading with and without chloride in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1988;6:613-7.
1053 MBP SE Sudhir 1989 {published data only}
  • Sudhir K, Friberg P, Meredith IT, Woods RL, Esler MD, Jennings GL. Cardiac secretion and renal clearance of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal man: effect of salt restriction. Clin Sci 1989;77:605-610.
1054 Hargreaves 1989 {published data only}
1055 P ANHMRCDS 1989 {published data only}
  • Australian National Health And Medical Research Council Dietary Salt Study Management Committee. Fall in blood pressure with modest reduction in dietary salt intake in mild hypertension .. Lancet 1989;1:399-402.
1056 MacGregor 1989 {published data only}
  • McGregor GA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, Singer DRJ, Cappucio FP. Double-blind study of three sodium intakes and long-term effects of sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1989;II:1244-7.
1057 SE Dimsdale 1990 {published data only}
1058 SE Dimsdale 1990 b {published data only}
1059 SE Dimsdale 1990 c {published data only}
1060 SE Dimsdale 1990 d {published data only}
1061 Schmid 1990 {published data only}
1062 Schmid 1990 b {published data only}
1063 P HPTRG 1990 {published data only}
  • Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:153-62.
1064 Bruun 1990 {published data only}
  • Bruun NE, Skøtt P, Nielsen MD, Rasmussen S, Schütten HJ, Leth A, Pedersen EB, Giese J. Normal renal tubular response to changes of sodium intake in hypertensive man. J Hypertens 1990;8:219-27.
1065 Bruun 1990 b {published data only}
  • Bruun NE, Skøtt P, Nielsen MD, Rasmussen S, Schütten HJ, Leth A, Pedersen EB, Giese J. Normal renal tubular response to changes of sodium intake in hypertensive man. J Hypertens 1990;8:219-27.
1066 Sharma 1990 {published data only}
1067 Sharma 1990,2 {published data only}
1068 SE Friberg 1990 {published data only}
1069 Del Rio 1990 {published data only}
  • Del Rio A, Rodriguez-Villamil JL, Lopez-Campos JM, Carrera F. Effect of moderate salt restriction on the antihypertensive action of nifedipine: a double blind study [Influencia de la restriccion salina moderada sobre la actividad antihipertensiva de la nifedipina: un estudio doble ciego.]. Revista Clinica Espanola 1990;186:5-10.
1070 P Parker 1990 {published data only}
1071 P Parker 1990 b {published data only}
1072 MBP P Mtabaji 1990 {published data only}
1073 Sharma 1991 {published data only}
1074 SE Howe 1991 {published data only}
1075 SE Mascioli 1991 {published data only}
1076 Carney 1991 {published data only}
  • Carney SL, Gillies AH, Smith AJ, Smitham S. Increased dietary sodium chloride in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. Clin Exp Hypertens 1991;A13:401-7.
1077 SE Singer 1991 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Sugden AL, Miller MA, MacGregor GA. Sodium restriction in hypertensive patients treated with a converting enzyme inhibitor and a thiazide. Hypertension 1991;17:798-803.
1078 MBP SE Egan 1991 {published data only}
  • Egan BM, Weder AB, Petrin J, Hoffman RG. Neurohumoral and metabolic effects of short-term dietary NaCl restriction in men: relationship to salt-sensitivity status.. Am J Hypertens 1991;4:416-21.
1079 Gow 1992 {published data only}
  • Gow IF, Dockrell M, Edwards CRW, Elder A, Grieve J, Kane G, Padfield PL, Waugh CJ, Williams BC. The sensitivity of human blood platelets to the aggregation agent ADP during different dietary sodium intakes in healthy men.. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43:635-8.
1080 Huggins 1992 {published data only}
1081 P TOHP I 1992 {published data only}
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels. JAMA 1992;267:1213-1220.
1082 P Cobiac 1992 {published data only}
1083 P Cobiac 1992 b {published data only}
1084 Benetos 1992 {published data only}
  • Benetos A, Xiao YY, Cuche JL, Hannaert P, Safar M. Arterial effects of salt restriction in hypertensive patients. A 9-week, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Hypertens 1992;10:355-60.
1085 P Sciarrone 1992 {published data only}
1086 P Jula 1992 {published data only}
1087 P Jula 1992(2) {published data only}
1088 Ruppert 1993 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Göbel B, Stumpe KO. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of severe and moderate salt restriction in non-obese normotensive adults. Hypertens 1993;11:743-9.
1089 Ruppert 1993 b {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Göbel B, Stumpe KO. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of severe and moderate salt restriction in non-obese normotensive adults. Hypertens 1993;11:743-9.
1090 Ruppert 1993 c {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Göbel B, Stumpe KO. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of severe and moderate salt restriction in non-obese normotensive adults. Hypertens 1993;11:743-9.
1091 Burnier 1993 {published data only}
  • Burnier M, Rutschmann B, Nussberger J, Versaggi J, Shahinfar S, Waeber B, Brunner HR. Salt dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects.. Hypertension 1993;22:339-47.
1092 Burnier 1993 b {published data only}
  • Burnier M, Rutschmann B, Nussberger J, Versaggi J, Shahinfar S, Waeber B, Brunner HR. Salt dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects.. Hypertension 1993;22:339-47.
1093 Sharma 1993 {published data only}
1094 Sharma 1993,2 {published data only}
  • Sharma AM, Schorr U, Oelkers W, Distler A. Effects of sodium salts on plasma renin activity and norepinephrine response to orthostasis in salt-sensitive normotensive subjects. American Journal of Hypertension 1993;6:780-785.
1095 MBP Fliser 1993 {published data only}
  • Fliser D, Nowack R, Allendorf-Ostwald N, Kohl B, Hubinger A, Ritz E. Serum lipid changes on low salt diet. Effects of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:320-4.
1096 MBP Fliser 1993 b {published data only}
  • Fliser D, Nowack R, Allendorf-Ostwald N, Kohl B, Hubinger A, Ritz E. Serum lipid changes on low salt diet. Effects of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:320-4.
1097 P Nestel 1993 {published data only}
  • Nestel PJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, McArthur R, Howe PR. Enhanced blood pressure response to dietary salt in elderly women, especially those with small waist:hip ratio. J Hypertens 1993;11:1387-94.
1098 P Nestel 1993 b {published data only}
  • Nestel PJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, McArthur R, Howe PR. Enhanced blood pressure response to dietary salt in elderly women, especially those with small waist:hip ratio. J Hypertens 1993;11:1387-94.
1099 Donovan 1993 {published data only}
1100 SE Fotherby 1993 {published data only}
1101 P Redon-Mas 1993 {published data only}
  • Redón-Más J, Abellán-Alemán J, Aranda-Lara P, de la Figuera-von Wichmann M, Luque-Otero M, Rodicio-Díaz JL, Ruilope-Urioste LM, Velasco-Quintana J. Antihypertensive activity of verapamil: impact of dietary sodium. J Hypertens 1993;11:665-71.
1102 P Ruilope 1993 {published data only}
1103 Del Rio 1993 {published data only}
1104 Overlack 1993 {published data only}
1105 Overlack 1993b {published data only}
1106 Overlack 1993c, {published data only}
1107 SE MacFadyen 1994 {published data only}
1108 Buckley 1994 {published data only}
  • Buckley MG, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, MacGregor GA. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides: a dual peptide system of potential importance in sodium balance and blood pressure regulation in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1994;12:809-13.
1109 Zoccali 1994 {published data only}
1110 P Jula 1994 {published data only}
  • Jula AM, Karanko HM. Effects on left ventricular hypertrophy of long-term nonpharmacological treatment with sodium restriction in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Circulation 1994;89:1023-31.
1111 P Howe 1994 {published data only}
  • Howe PRC, Lungershausen YK, Cobiac L, Dandy G, Nestel PJ. Effect of sodium restriction and fish oil supplementation on BP and thrombotic risk factors in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. J Hum Hypertens 1994;8:43-49.
1112 Iwaoka 1994 {published data only}
  • Iwaoka T, Umeda T, Inoue J, Naomi S, Sasaki M, Fujimoto Y, Gui C, Ideguchi Y, Sato T. Dietary NaCl restriction deteriorates oral glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients with impairment of glucose tolerance. Am J Hypertens 1994;7:460-463.
1113 Miller 1995 {published data only}
1114 MBP Fliser 1995 {published data only}
1115 Doig 1995 {published data only}
  • Doig JK, MacFadyen RJ, Sweet CS, Reid JL. Haemodynamic and renal responses to oral losartan potassium during salt depletion or salt repletion in normal human volunteers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1995;25:511-517.
1116 Stein 1995 {published data only}
1117 P Arrol 1995 {published data only}
1118 Draaijer 1995 {published data only}
  • Draaijer P, De Leeuw P, Maessen J, Van Hooff J, Leunissen K. Salt-sensitivity testing in patients with borderline hypertension: Reproducibility and potential mechanisms. J Hum Hypertens 1995;9:263-269.
1119 MBP Overlack 1995 {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Ruppert M, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Stumpe KO. Age is a major determinant of the divergent blood pressure responses to varying salt intake in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995;8:829-36.
1120 MBP Overlack 1995 b {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Ruppert M, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Stumpe KO. Age is a major determinant of the divergent blood pressure responses to varying salt intake in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995;8:829-36.
1121 MBP Overlack 1995 c {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Ruppert M, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Stumpe KO. Age is a major determinant of the divergent blood pressure responses to varying salt intake in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995;8:829-36.
1122 P Dubbert 1995 {published data only}
  • Dubbert PM, Cushman WC, Meydrech EF. Rowland AK, Maury P. Effects of dietary instruction and sodium excretion feedback in hypertension clinic patients. Behav Ther 1995;26:721-32.
1123 SE Weir 1995 {published data only}
1124 SE Weir 1995 b {published data only}
1125 Grey 1996 {published data only}
1126 MBP Feldman 1996 {published data only}
1127 MBP Feldman 1996 b {published data only}
1128 Schorr 1996 {published data only}
  • Schorr U, Distler A, Sharma AM. Effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in elderly normotensive individuals: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. J Hypertens 1996;14:131-5.
1129 Bellini 1996 {published data only}
  • Bellini C, Ferri C, Carlomagno A, Necozione S, Lepore A, Desideri G, Santucci A. Impaired inactive to active kallikrein conversion in human salt-sensitive hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996;7:2565-2577.
1130 Inoue 1996 {published data only}
  • Inoue J, Cappuccio FP, Sagnella GA, Markandu ND, Folkerd EJ, Sampson B, Miller MA, Blackwoo AM, MacGregor GA. Glucose load and renal sodium handling in mild essential hypertension on different sodium intakes. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10:523-529.
1131 Ferri 1996 {published data only}
  • Ferri C, Bellini C, Carlomagno A, Desideri G, Santucci A. Active kallikrein respons to changes in sodium-chloride intake in essential hypertensive patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996;7:443-53.
1132 SE Ishimitsu 1996 {published data only}
  • Ishimitsu T, Nishikimi T, Matsuoka H, Kangawa K, Kitamura K, Minami J, Matsuo H, Eto, T. Behaviour of adrenomedullin during acute and chronic salt loading in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Clin Sci 1996;91:293-298.
1133 SE Ishimitsu 1996 b {published data only}
  • Ishimitsu T, Nishikimi T, Matsuoka H, Kangawa K, Kitamura K, Minami J, Matsuo H, Eto, T. Behaviour of adrenomedullin during acute and chronic salt loading in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Clin Sci 1996;91:293-298.
1134 SE Cappuccio 1997 {published data only}
1135 P TOHP II 1997 {published data only}
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II.. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:657-667.
1136 P van Buul 1997 {published data only}
  • Van Buul BJA, Steegers EAP, van der Maten GD, Delemarre FMC, Jongsma HW, Oosterbaan HP, de Jong PA. Dietary Sodium Restriction Does not Prevent Gestational Hypertension: A Dutch Two-Center Randomized Trial. Hypertens Preg 1997;16:335-346.
1137 SE Schorr 1997 {published data only}
  • Schorr U, Beige J, Ringel J, Turan S, Kreutz R, Distler A, Sharma AM. Hpa II polymorphism of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene and the blood pressure response to salt intake in normotensive men. J Hypertens 1997;15:715-8.
1138 McCarron 1997 {published data only}
  • McCarron DA, Weder AB, Egan BE, Krishna GG, Morris CD, Cohen M, Oparil S. Blood pressure and metabolic responses to moderate sodium restriction in isradipine treated hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 1997;10:68-76.
1139 Meland 1997 {published data only}
1140 Fotherby 1997-BP {published data only}
1141 Ferri 1998-BP {published data only}
  • Ferri C, Bellini C, Desideri G, Giuliani E, De Siati L, Cicogna S, Santucci A. Clustering of endothelial markers of vascular damage in human salt-sensitive hypertension: influence of dietary sodium load and depletion. Hypertension 1998;32:862-868.
1142 P Knuist 1998 {published data only}
1143 MBP Bech 1998 {published data only}
  • Bech JN, Nielsen CB, Ivarsen P, Jensen KT, Pedersen EB. Dietary sodium affects systemic and renal hemodynamic response to NO inhibition in healthy humans. Am J Physiol 1998;274:914-923.
1144 Foo 1998 {published data only}
1145 SE Wing 1998 {published data only}
  • Wing LMH, Arnolda LF, Harvey PJ, Upton J, Molloy D, Gabb GM, Bune AJC, Chalmers JP. Low-dose diuretic and/or dieatary sodium restriction when blood pressure is resistant to ACE inhibitor. Blood Pressure 1998;7:299-307.
1146 Herlitz 1998 {published data only}
  • Herlitz H, Dahlöf B, Jonsson O, Friberg P. Relationship between salt and blood pressure in hypertensive patients on chronic ACE-inhibition. Blood Press 1998;7:47-52.
1147 MBP Feldman 1999 {published data only}
1148 MBP Damasceno 1999 {published data only}
  • Damasceno A, Santos A, Serrao P, Caupers P, Soares-da-Silva P, Polonia J. Deficiency of renal dopaminergic-dependent natriuretic response to acute sodium load in black salt-sensitive subjects in contrast to salt-resistant subjects. J Hypertens 1999;17:1995-2001.
1149 Davrath 1999 {published data only}
  • Davrath LR, Gotshall RW, Tucker A, Sadeh WZ, Luckasen GJ, Downes TR, Coonts CC. Moderate sodium restiction does not alter lower body negative pressure tolerance. Aviat Space Environ Med 1999;70:577-82.
1150 SE Schorr 1999 {published data only}
1151 Uzu 1999 {published data only}
1152 MBP SE Chiolero 2000 {published data only}
  • Chiolero, A, Maillard, M, Nussberger, J, Brunner HR. Renal sodium handling in acute and chronic salt loading/depletion protocols: the confounding influence of acute water loading. J Hypertens 2000;36:631-637.
1153 Bruun 2000 {published data only}
  • Bruun NE, Dige-Pedersen H, Skott P. Normal responses of atrial natriuretic factor and renal tubular function to sodium loading in hypertension-prone humans. Blood Pressure 2000;9:206-213.
1154 SE Burnier 2000 {published data only}
  • Burnier M, Monod M, Chiolero A, Maillard M, Nussberger J, Brunner HR. Renal sodium handling in acute and chronic salt loading/depletion protocols: the confounding influence of acute water loading. J Hypertens 2000;18:1657-1664.
1155 P Heer 2000 {published data only}
  • Heer M, Baisch F, Kropp J, Gerzer R, Drummer C. High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans. Am J Physiol 2000;278:585-595.
1156 MBP SE Barba 2000 {published data only}
  • Barba G, Vallance PJ, Strazzullo P, MacAllister RJ. Effects of sodium intake on the pressor and renal responses to nitric oxide synthesis inhibition in normotensive individuals with different sodium sensitivity. J Hypertens 2000;18:615-621.
1157 Boero 2000 {published data only}
  • Boero R, Pignataro A, Bancale E, Campo A, Morelli E, Nigra M, Novarese M, Possamai D, Prodi E, Quarello F. Metabolic effects of changes in dietary sodium intake in patients with essential hypertension [Effetti metabolici delle variazioni dell'apporto alimentare di sodio in pazienti con ipertensione essenziale.]. Min Urol Nefrol 2000;52:13-16.
1158 Suzuki 2000 {published data only}
1159 Ames 2001 {published data only}
1160 SE DASH 1, 2001 {published data only}
  • Sacks F, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin P-H. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. NEJM 2001;344:3-10.
1161 SE DASH 1b, 2001 {published data only}
  • Sacks F, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin P-H. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. NEJM 2001;344:3-10.
1162 SE DASH 1c, 2001 {published data only}
  • Sacks F, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin P-H. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. NEJM 2001;344:3-10.
1163 SE DASH 1d, 2001 {published data only}
  • Sacks F, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin P-H. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. NEJM 2001;344:3-10.
1164 SE DASH 2, 2001 {published data only}
  • Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG, Conlin PR, Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Moore TJ, Karanja N, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1019-1028.
1165 SE DASH 2b, 2001 {published data only}
  • Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG, Conlin PR, Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Moore TJ, Karanja N, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1019-1028.
1166 SE DASH 2c, 2001 {published data only}
  • Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG, Conlin PR, Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Moore TJ, Karanja N, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1019-1028.
1167 SE DASH 2d, 2001 {published data only}
  • Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG, Conlin PR, Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Moore TJ, Karanja N, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1019-1028.
1168 Cuzzola 2001 {published data only}
  • Cuzzola F, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G, Parlongo S, Cutrupi S, Cataliotti A, Stancanelli B, Malatino L, Bellanuova I, Ferri C, Galletti F, Filigheddu F, Glorioso N, Strazzullo P, Zoccali C. Urinary adrenomedullin is related to ET-1 and salt intake in patients with mild essential hypertension.. Am J Hypertens 2001;14:224-230.
1169 P Seals 2001 {published data only}
  • Seals DR, Tanaka H, Clevenger CM, Monahan KD, Reiling MJ, Hiatt WR, Davy KP, DeSouza CA. Blood pressure reductions with exercise and sodium restriction in postmenopausal women with elevated systolic pressure: role of arterial stiffness. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:506-513.
1170 P TONE 2001 {published data only}
1171 P TONE 2001 b {published data only}
1172 Johnson 2001 {published data only}
  • Johnson AG, Nguyen TV, Davis D. Blood pressure is linked to salt intake and modulated by the angiotensinogen gene in normotensive and hypertensive elderly subjects. J Hypertens 2001;19:1053-1060.
1173 Manunta 2001 {published data only}
  • Manunta P, Messaggio E, Ballabeni C, Sciarrone MT, Lanzani C, Ferrandi M, Hamlyn JM, Cusi D, Galletti F, Bianchi G Plasma ouabain-like factor during acute, chronic changes in sodium balance in essential hypertension. Manunta P. Messaggio E, Ballabeni C, Sciarrone MT, Lanzani C, Ferrandi M, Hamlyn JM, Cusi D, Galletti F, Bianchi G. Plasma ouabain-like factor during acute and chronic changes in sodium balance in essential hypertension. Hypertension 2001;38:198-203.
1174 MBP Kleij 2002 {published data only}
  • van der Kleij FGH, de Jong PE, Henning RH, de Zeeuw D, Navis G. Enhanced responses of blood pressure, renal function, and aldosterone to angiotensin I in the DD genotype are blunted by low sodium intake. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:1025-1033.
1175 MBP SE Kerstens 2003 {published data only}
  • Kerstens MN, van der Kleij FG, Boonstra AH, Sluiter WJ, Koerts J, Navis G, Dullaart RP. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects: relationships with salt sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:4180-5.
1176 SE Dishy 2003 {published data only}
  • Dishy V, Sofowora GG, Imamura H, Nishimi Y, Xie HG, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Nitric oxide production decreases after salt loading but is not related to blood pressure changes or nitric oxide-mediated vascular responses. J Hypertens 2003;21:153-7.
1177 SE Nowson 2003 {published data only}
  • Nowson CA, Morgan TO, Gibbons C. Decreasing dietary sodium while following a self-selected potassium-rich diet reduces blood pressure. J Nutr 2003;133:4118-4123.
1178 Perry 2003 {published data only}
  • Perry CG, Palmer T, Cleland SJ, Morton IJ, Salt IP, Petrie JR, Gould GW, Connell JM. Decreased insulin sensitivity during dietary sodium restriction is not mediatedby effects of angiotensin II on insulin action. Clin Sci 2003;105:187-194.
1179 P Nakamura 2003 {published data only}
1180 Palacios 2004 {published data only}
  • Palacios C, Wigertz K, Martin BR, Jackman L, Pratt JH, Peacock M, McCabe G, Weaver CM. Sodium retention in black and white female adolescents in response to salt intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1858-1863.
1181 Beeks 2004 {published data only}
  • Beeks E, van der Klauw MM, Kroon AA, Spiering W, Fuss-Lejeune MJMJ, de Leeuw PW. Alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and renal hemodynamics in essential hypertension. Hypertension 2004;44:419-423.
1182 Berge-Landry 2004 {published data only}
  • van Berge-Landry H, James, GD. Serum electrolyte, serum protein, serum fat and renal responses to a dietary sodium challenge: allostasis and allostatic load. Ann Hum Biol 2004;31:477-487.
1183 Gates 2004 {published data only}
1184 Harsha 2004 {published data only}
  • Harsha DW, Sacks FM, Obarzanek E, Svetkey LP, Lin P, Bray GA, Aickin M, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Appel, LJ. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: results from the DASH-sodium trial. Hypertension 2004;43(part 2):393-398.
1185 Zanchi 2004 {published data only}
  • Zanchi A, Chiolero A, Maillard M, Nussberger J, Brunner HR, Burnier M. Effects of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone on renal and hormonal responses to salt in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1140-1145.
1186 SE Forrester 2005 {published data only}
  • Forrester T, Adeyemo A, Soarres-Wynter S, Sargent L, Bennett F, Wilks R, Luke A, Prewitt E, Kramer H, Cooper RS. A randomized trial on sodium reduction in two developing countries. J Hum Hypertens 2005;19:55-60.
1187 SE Forrester 2005 b {published data only}
  • Forrester T, Adeyemo A, Soarres-Wynter S, Sargent L, Bennett F, Wilks R, Luke A, Prewitt E, Kramer H, Cooper RS. A randomized trial on sodium reduction in two developing countries. J Hum Hypertens 2005;19:55-60.
1188 SE Swift 2005 {published data only}
  • Swift, Pauline A.AU  - Markandu, Nirmala D.AU  - Sagnella, Giuseppe A.AU  - He, Feng J.AU  - MacGregor, Graham A. Modest salt reduction reduces blood pressure and urine protein excretion in black hypertensives: a randomized control trial. Hypertension 2005;46:308-312.
1189 MBP Damgaard 2006 {published data only}
  • Damgaard M, Norsk P, Gustafsson F, Kanters JK, Christensen NJ, Bie P, Friberg L, Gadsboll N. Hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to changes in sodium intake in compensated heart failure. Am J Physiol - Reg Integ Comp Physiol 2006;290:R1294-R1301.
1190 SE Takahashi 2006 {published data only}
1191 SE Melander 2007 {published data only}
  • Melander O, von Wowern F, Frandsen E, Burri P, Willsteen G, Aurell M, Hulthén UL. Moderate salt restriction effectively lowers blood pressure and degree of salt sensitivity is related to baseline concentration of renin and N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma. J Hypertens 2007;25:619-27.
1192 Townsend 2007 {published data only}
1193 Dengel 2007 {published data only}
  • Dengel DR, Brown MD, Ferrell RE, Reynolds TH, Supiano MA. A preliminary study on T-786C endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and renal hemodynamic and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium. Physiol Res 2007;56:393-401.
1194 Tzemos 2008 {published data only}
1195 SE Jessani 2008 {published data only}
1196 Paulsen 2009 {published data only}
  • Paulsen L, Holst LM, Bech JN, Starklint J, Pedersen EB. Glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure are unchanged by increased sodium intake in atorvastatin-treated healthy men. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2009;69:323-329.
1197 Dickinson 2009 {published data only}
1198 SE He 2009 {published data only}
  • He FJ, Marciniak M, Visagie E, Markandu ND, Anand V, Dalton RN, MacGregor GA. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives. Hypertension 2009;54:482-8.
1199 P Meland 2009 {published data only}
1200 SE Pimenta 2009 {published data only}
  • Pimenta E, Gaddam KK, Oparil S, Aban I, Husain S, Dell'Italia LJ, Calhoun DA. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial. Hypertension 2009;54:475-481.
1201 P Nowson 2009 {published data only}
  • Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 2009;29:8-18.
1202 Weir 2010 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Yadao AM, Purkayastha D, Charney AN. Effects of high- and low-sodium diets on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with hypertension receiving aliskiren. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010;15:356-63.
1203 Starmans-Kool 2011 {published data only}
  • Starmans-Kool MJ, Stanton AV, Xu YY, McG Thom SA, Parker KH, Hughes AD. High dietary salt intake increases carotid blood pressure and wave reflection in normotensive healthy young men. J Appl Physiol 2011;110:468-71.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 1990 {published data only}
Dodson 1989 {published data only}
  • Dodson PM, Beevers M, Hallworth R, Webberley MJ, Fletcher RF, Taylor KG. Sodium restriction and blood pressure in hypertensive type II diabetics: randomised blind controlled and crossover studies of moderate sodium restriction and sodium supplementation.. BMJ 1989;298:227-230.
Imanishi M 2001 {published data only}
  • Imanishi M, Yoshioka K, Okumura M, Konishi Y, Okada N, Morikawa T, Sato T, Tanaka S, Fujii S. Sodium sensitivity related to albuminuria appearing before hypertension in type 2 diabetic patients.. Diabetes Care 2001;24(1):111-116.
Miller JA 1997 {published data only}
Mühlhauser I 1996 {published data only}
  • Mulhauser I, Prange K, Sawicki PT, Bender R, Dworschak A, Schaden W, Berger M. Effects of dietary sodium on blood pressure in IDDM patients with nephropathy.. Diabetologia Diabetologia 1996;39(2):212-219.
Palmer 1989 {published data only}
  • Palmer RM, Osterweil D, Loon-Lustig G, Stern N. The effect of dietary salt ingestion on blood pressure of old-old subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1989;37:931-936.
Parfrey 1981 {published data only}
  • Parfrey PS, Condon K, Wright P, Vandenburg MJ, Holly JM, Goodwin FJ, Evans SJ, Ledingham JM. Blood pressure and hormonal changes following alteration in dietary sodium and potassium in young men with and without a familial predisposition to hypertension. Lancet 1981;1:113-7.
Ruppert 1991 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Diehl J, Kolloch R, Overlack A, Kraft K, Göbel B, Hittel N, Stumpe KO. Short term dietary sodium restriction increases serum lipids and insulin in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant normotensive adults. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69(suppl 25):51-7.
Ruppert 1994 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Lennarz M, Stumpe KO. Effects of severe and moderate salt restriction on serum lipids in nonobese normotensive adults. Am J Med Sci 1994;307(suppl 1):S87-90.
Steegers 1991 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Aldermann 2010
Bibbins-Domingo 2010
  • Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, et al. Chertow GM, Coxson PG, Moran A, Lightwood JM, Pletcher MJ, Goldman L. Projected Effect of Dietary Salt Reductions on Future Cardiovascular Disease.. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:650-2.
Cohen 2010
  • Cohen HW, Alderman MH. Errors in data and questionable methodology impact conclusions on sodium and CVD. BMJ 2010;bmj.com:070110.
Collins 1990
  • Collins R, Peto R, macMahon S, Hebert P, Fiebach NH, Eberlein KA, Godwin J, Qizilbash N, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH. Blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease. Part 2, short term reductions in blood pressure; overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context.. Lancet 1990;335:827-838.
Cutler 1991
  • Cutler JA, Follmann D, Elliot P, Suh I. An overview of randomised trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure. Hypertension 1991;17 (suppl 1):I27-I33.
Cutler 1997
Ebrahim 1998
Ekinci 2011
Folkow 2011
Freedman 2001
Goff 2001
Graudal 2000
Grobbee 1986
He 2002
He 2004
  • He FJ, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004937]
Hooper 2002
Intersalt 1988
Jürgens 2002
Law 1991
McCarron 2009
McCarron 2010
Midgley 1996
Oliver 1975
Paterna 2008
  • Paterna S, Gaspare P, Fasullo S, Sarullo FM, Di Pasquale P. Normal-sodium diet compared with low-sodium diet in compensated congestive heart failure: is sodium an old enemy or a new friend?. Clin Sci (Lond) 2008;114:221-230.
Paterna 2009
  • Paterna S, Parrinello G, Cannizzaro S, Fasullo S, Torres D, Sarullo FM, DiPasquale P. Medium term effects of different dosage of diuretic, sodium, and fluid administration on neurohormonal and clinical outcome in patients with recently compensated heart failure.. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:93-102.
Stolarz-Skrzypek 2011
  • Stolarz-Skrzypek K, Kuznetsova T, Thijs L, Tikhonoff V, Seidlerová J, Richart T, Jin Y, Olszanecka A, Malyutina S, Casiglia E, Filipovský J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Nikitin Y, Staessen JA, European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators. Fatal and nonfatal outcomes, incidence of hypertension, and blood pressure changes in relation to urinary sodium excretion.. JAMA 2011;303:1777-1785.
Strazzulo 2009
Taubes 1998
Taylor 2011
Thomas 2011
  • Thomas MC, Moran J, Forsblom C, Harjutsalo V, Thorn L, Ahola A, Wadén J, Tolonen N, Saraheimo M, Gordin D, Groop PH, FinnDiane Study Group. The association between dietary sodium intake, ESRD, and all-cause mortality inpatients with type 1 diabetes.. Diabetes Care 2011;34:861-866.
Warren 1980

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Graudal 1998
  • Graudal, NA, Galløe, AM, Garred, P. Effects of Sodium Restriction on Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterols, and Triglyceride [Effects of Sodium Restriction on Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterols, and Triglyceride]. JAMA 1998;279(17):1383-91.
Jürgens 2004
  • Jürgens G, Graudal NA. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub2]