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Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

  1. Niels Albert Graudal1,*,
  2. Thorbjorn Hubeck-Graudal2,
  3. Gesche Jurgens2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hypertension Group

Published Online: 9 NOV 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 4 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3


How to Cite

Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004022. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Dep. of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark

  2. 2

    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Copenhagen, Denmark

*Niels Albert Graudal, Dep. of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark. graudal@dadlnet.dk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 9 NOV 2011

SEARCH

 
Characteristics of included studies [ordered by study ID]
1000 P SE Parijs 1973

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN15
Hyp
Age41


InterventionsSR98
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 5
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)High risk

Allocation concealment (selection bias)High risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1001 Mark 1975

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN6
Hyp
Age28


InterventionsSR305
Dur10


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1002 P Morgan 1978

MethodsS
BP


ParticipantsN62, M/F:62/0
Hyp
Age60


InterventionsSR23
Dur90


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFO: 3
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1003 Sullivan 1980

MethodsS
CO


ParticipantsN27
Norm
Age29


InterventionsSR146
Dur4


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)High risk

Allocation concealment (selection bias)High risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1004 Sullivan 1980 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN19
Hyp
Age27


InterventionsSR153
Dur4


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)High risk

Allocation concealment (selection bias)High risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1005 MBP SE Rankin 1981

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 8 (M/F:8/0)
Normotension
Age 30


InterventionsSR 776 (796-20)
Dur 6


OutcomesMAP, NE


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Unclear riskSequence generation not described

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

1006 Skrabal 1981

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN20
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR150
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA
A


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High riskOpen study

1007 P Morgan 1981

MethodsSB

P


ParticipantsN12
Hyp
Age38


InterventionsSR67
Dur56


OutcomesDBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Unclear riskSequence generation not described

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)High risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risknot blinded

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1008 P Morgan 1981b

MethodsSB

P


ParticipantsN12
Hyp
Age40


InterventionsSR92
Dur56


OutcomesDBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)High risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1009 Ambrosioni 1982

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN25
Hyp
Age23


InterventionsSR60
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo:1
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Unclear riskSequence generation not described

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1010 SE Myers 1982

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN136
Norm
Age39


InterventionsSR130
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 182
LoFo: 46
IT: yes (results not shown, but reported to be "similar")


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1011 MacGregor 1982

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN19
Hyp
Age49


InterventionsSR76 Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1012 P Beard 1982

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN90
Hyp
Age48


InterventionsSR124
Dur 84


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 113
LoFo:23
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1013 P Puska 1983

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN38
Norm
Age40


InterventionsSR90
Dur72


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1014 P Puska 1983 b

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN34
Hyp
Age40


InterventionsSR90
Dur72


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1015 P Bulpitt 1983

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 65 (M/F29/36)(B/W/A.0/65/0)
Hypertension
Age 54.6


InterventionsSR 59 (161-102)
Dur 90


OutcomesSBP, DBP, chol


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1016 P Silman 1983

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN28
Hyp
Age55


InterventionsSR 63
Dur 90


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 5
IT: No
Weighted average of BP effects obtained ar 1,2,3,6 and 12 months.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1017 Sowers 1983

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 9 (M/F:9/0)
Normotension
Age 23


InterventionsSR 154 (196-42)
Dur 5


Outcomesrenin, Aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1018 SE Watt 1983

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN18
Hyp
Age52


InterventionsSR 56
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesIncluded 20
LoFo:2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1019 SE Cooper 1984

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN59
Norm
Age16


InterventionsSR55
Dur 24


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 124(1984+1984b)
LoFo: 11
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskB - Unclear

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1020 SE Cooper 1984 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN54
Norm
Age16


InterventionsSR72 Dur 24


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 124(1984+1984b)
LoFo: 11
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1021 Skrabal 1984

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN30
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR137
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA
A


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1022 Skrabal 1984 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN22
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR167
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA
A


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1023 Gillies 1984

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 24 (M/F:14/10)(B/W/A.0/24/0)
Hypertension
Age 56.7


InterventionsSR 77 (169-92)
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:4. 24 of 28 completed the study. IT:No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1024 P Erwteman 1984

MethodsS
BP


ParticipantsN94 (22 blacks)
Hyp
Age46


InterventionsSR58
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 107
LoFo: 13
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1025 Koolen 1984

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN20
Hyp
Age41


InterventionsSR213
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1026 Koolen 1984(2)

MethodsS
CO


ParticipantsN25 Caucasians
Hyp
Age41


InterventionsSR 208
Dur 14


OutcomesNA


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1027 P Fagerberg 1984

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN30
Hyp
Age51


InterventionsSR99
Dur63


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 34
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskB - Unclear

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1028 P Maxwell 1984

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN30
Hyp
Age 46


InterventionsSR161
Dur 84


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1029 Richards 1984

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN12
Hyp
Age36


InterventionsSR100
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesIncluded 16
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1030 Resnick 1985

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN12
Hyp
Age


InterventionsSR190
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1031 P Tuthill 1985

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN 191 (M/F:0/191)
Normotension
Age 17


InterventionsSR 14 (600 mg)
Dur 56


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 13. 191 of 204 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1032 SE Skrabal 1985

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN34
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR144
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1033 SE Skrabal 1985 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN28
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR163
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1034 SE Watt 1985

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN31
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR60
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 75 (1985+1985b)
LoFo: 9
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1035 SE Watt 1985 b

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN35
Norm
Age22


InterventionsSR75
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 75 (1985+1985b)
LoFo: 9
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1036 Richards 1986

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN 8 males
Norm
Age36


InterventionsSR181
Dur4


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1037 Teow 1986

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN9
Norm
Age25


InterventionsSR 200
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1038 P Logan 1986

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN86
Hyp
Age47


InterventionsSR43
Dur180


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: ?


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1039 P ANHMRCDS 1986

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN100
Hyp
Age53


InterventionsSR70
Dur 84


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 108
LoFo:8
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1040 El Ashry 1987

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN13
Norm
Age24


InterventionsSR222
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1041 El Ashry 1987 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN13
Norm
Age27


InterventionsSR232
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1042 Fuchs 1987

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN6
Norm
Age20


InterventionsSR99
Dur9


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1043 Fuchs 1987 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN11
Norm
Age20


InterventionsSR93
Dur9


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1044 P Morgan 1987

MethodsSB

P


ParticipantsN20
Hyp
Age58


InterventionsSR57
Dur60


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1045 SE Kurtz 1987

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN5
Hyp
Age58


InterventionsSR217
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 7
LoFo: 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1046 Grobbee 1987

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN40
Hyp
Age24


InterventionsSR72 (129-57)
Dur42


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
NA
A
Chol


NotesIncluded 42
LoFo: 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1047 MacGregor 1987

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN15
Hyp
Age52


InterventionsSR100
Dur30


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1048 Lawton 1988

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN13
Norm
Age24


InterventionsSR313
Dur6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1049 Lawton 1988 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN9
Hyp
Age25


InterventionsSR328
Dur6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1050 Morgan 1988

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN16
Hyp
Age63


InterventionsSR50
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1051 SE Morgan 1988,2

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 8
Hypertension
Age 63


InterventionsSR 67 (135-68)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1052 Shore 1988

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN6
Hyp
Age


InterventionsSR 97
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1053 MBP SE Sudhir 1989

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 6 (M/F:6/0)(B/W/A.0/6/0)
Normotension
Age 35


InterventionsSR 134 (163-29)
Dur 12


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1054 Hargreaves 1989

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR106
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1055 P ANHMRCDS 1989

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN103
Hyp
Age58


InterventionsSR63
Dur 48


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 111
LoFo:8
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1056 MacGregor 1989

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN20
Hyp
Age57


InterventionsSR150
Dur30


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFO: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1057 SE Dimsdale 1990

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN19 (White)
Norm
Age34


InterventionsSR183
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1058 SE Dimsdale 1990 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN23 (Black)
Norm
Age34


InterventionsSR178
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1059 SE Dimsdale 1990 c

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN16 (Black)
Hyp
Age34


InterventionsSR178
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1060 SE Dimsdale 1990 d

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN17 (White)
Hyp
Age34


InterventionsSR 198
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1061 Schmid 1990

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN9
Norm
Age32


InterventionsSR190
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesAllocation: random numbers
LoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1062 Schmid 1990 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN9
Hyp
Age36


InterventionsSR
Dur


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesAllocation: random numbers
LoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1063 P HPTRG 1990

MethodsS
P


ParticipantsN228 (45 blacks)
Norm
Age40


InterventionsSR23
Dur 1100


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 252
LoFo: 24
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1064 Bruun 1990

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN10
Norm
Age46


InterventionsSR341
Dur4


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1065 Bruun 1990 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN12
Hyp
Age47


InterventionsSR331
Dur4


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1066 Sharma 1990

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN15
Norm
Age24


InterventionsSR192 (210.7-18.7)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1067 Sharma 1990,2

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN 40 (M/F:40/0)(B/W/A.0/40/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR 214 (239-25)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 5. 40 of 45 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1068 SE Friberg 1990

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN10
Norm
Age33


InterventionsSR117
Dur 13


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo:4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1069 Del Rio 1990

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 15 (B/W/A 0/15/0)
Hypertension, Age 49


InterventionsSR 100 (190-90)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP, chol, trig


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1070 P Parker 1990

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN31
Hyp
Age50


InterventionsSR73
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes1990 + 1990 b Included 63
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1071 P Parker 1990 b

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN28
Hyp
Age54


InterventionsSR49
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes1990 + 1990 b Included 63
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskB - Unclear

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1072 MBP P Mtabaji 1990

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN30 (Black)
Norm
Age


InterventionsSR272
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP +1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1073 Sharma 1991

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN13
Norm
Age25


InterventionsSR 246
Dur6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo


Notes1991 + 1991b
included 25
LoFo. 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1074 SE Howe 1991

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 100 (M/F:52/48)(B/W/A.0/100/0)
Normotension
Age 13


InterventionsSR 81 (179-98)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:10. 90 of 100 completed the study. IT:No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1075 SE Mascioli 1991

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 48 (M/F:38/10)
Norm
Age52


InterventionsSR70
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notesincluded 50
LoFo. 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1076 Carney 1991

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN11
Hyp
Age54


InterventionsSR102
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1077 SE Singer 1991

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN21(6 blacks)
Hyp
Age54


InterventionsSR91
Dur30


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1078 MBP SE Egan 1991

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN27
Hyp
Age39


InterventionsSR194 (214-21)
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
Renin
NA l
Chol
LDL


NotesEandomisation schedule
LoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskA - Adequate

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1079 Gow 1992

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 9
Norm
Age not given


InterventionsSR 94 (111-17)
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1080 Huggins 1992

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 9 (M/F:7/2)(B/W/A.0/9/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR 97 (170-73)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1081 P TOHP I 1992

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN744 (131 blacks)
Norm
Age43


InterventionsSR 47
Dur 550


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 50
IT: yes


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskA - Adequate

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1082 P Cobiac 1992

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN52
Norm
Age66


InterventionsSR75
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 114(1992+1992b)
LoFo: 8
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1083 P Cobiac 1992 b

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN54
Norm
Age67


InterventionsSR73
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 114(1992+1992b)
LoFo: 8
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1084 Benetos 1992

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN20
Hyp
Age42


InterventionsSR78
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA
A


NotesIncluded 22
LoFO: 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1085 P Sciarrone 1992

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN91
Hyp
Age54


InterventionsSR82
Dur 56


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


Notes95 included
LoFO: 4
IT: No
Lipid values were estimated on the basis of initial values(table 2) and changes (figure 4)


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1086 P Jula 1992

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN35
Hyp
Age43


InterventionsSR146
Dur180


OutcomesNA
A


NotesIncluded 91
Hormones available in a subgroup


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1087 P Jula 1992(2)

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN36
Hyp
Age45


InterventionsSR82
Dur180


OutcomesRenin
Aldosterone


NotesIncluded 91
Hormones available in a subgroup


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1088 Ruppert 1993

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN30
Norm
Age46
saltsensitive


InterventionsSR270
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1089 Ruppert 1993 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN108
Norm
Age36
saltresistant


InterventionsSR275
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1090 Ruppert 1993 c

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN25
Norm
Age35
counteresulatory


InterventionsSR280
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1091 Burnier 1993

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN16
Norm
Age29


InterventionsSR186
Dur6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1092 Burnier 1993 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN7
Norm
Age29


InterventionsSR218
Dur 6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo:1
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1093 Sharma 1993

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN16
Norm
Age24


InterventionsSR 224
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1094 Sharma 1993,2

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 15 (M/F:15/0)(B/W/A.0/15/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR 198 (219-21)
Dur 6


OutcomesRenin, aldo, NE


NotesLoFo: 5. 15 of 20 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation according to a Latin-Square design

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1095 MBP Fliser 1993

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Norm
Age25
+Doxazosin


InterventionsSR190 (211-21)
Dur8


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
NA
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1096 MBP Fliser 1993 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Norm
Age26
-Doxazosin


InterventionsSR181(199-18)
Dur8


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3)
DBP (MBP-1/3)
NA
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1097 P Nestel 1993

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN36
Norm
Age66


InterventionsSR56
Dur42


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 70 (1993+1993b)
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1098 P Nestel 1993 b

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN30
Norm
Age65


InterventionsSR73
Dur42


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 70 (1993+1993b)
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1099 Donovan 1993

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Norm
Age36


InterventionsSR152
Dur5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo. 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1100 SE Fotherby 1993

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN17
Hyp
Age73


InterventionsSR79
Dur 35


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesIncluded 18
LoFo. 1
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1101 P Redon-Mas 1993

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN418
Hyp
Age55


InterventionsSR104
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes574 included
LoFo: 156
IT: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1102 P Ruilope 1993

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN19
Hyp
Age


InterventionsSR69
Dur21


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo. 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1103 Del Rio 1993

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN30
Hyp
Age49


InterventionsSR151 (198-47)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
Chol
HDL
TG


NotesIncluded 47
LoFo. 17
IT: no


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1104 Overlack 1993

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN30
saltsensitive
Norm
Age46


InterventionsSR270
Dur7


OutcomesAldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1105 Overlack 1993b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN108
saltresistant
Norm
Age36


InterventionsSR275
Dur7


OutcomesAldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1106 Overlack 1993c,

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN25
counterregulatory
Norm
Age35


InterventionsSR279
Dur7


OutcomesAldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High riskoutcome detection blinded

1107 SE MacFadyen 1994

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 12 (M/F:12/0)(B/W/A.0/12/0)
Normotension
Age 24


InterventionsSR 40 (165-115)
Dur 4


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskIndependently prepared schedule by Department of Pharmacy

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1108 Buckley 1994

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN12 (3 blacks)
Hyp
Age49


InterventionsSR 296
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1109 Zoccali 1994

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN 15
Hyp
Age 45


InterventionsSR 163
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1110 P Jula 1994

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN76
Hyp
Age44


InterventionsSR57
Dur365


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
NA
A


NotesIncluded 91
LoFo: 15
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1111 P Howe 1994

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN 56 (M/F:31/25)(B/W/A.0/56/0)
Hypertension
Age 55


InterventionsSR 80 (158-78)
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP, DBP, aldo


NotesLoFo:5. 56 of 61 completed the study. IT:No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1112 Iwaoka 1994

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 31 (M/F:17/14)(B/W/A.0/0/31)
Hypertension
Age 48


InterventionsSR 266 (298-32)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1113 Miller 1995

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 36 (M/F:36/0)(B/W/A.0/36/0)
Normotension
Age 23


InterventionsSR 58 (191-133)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP, NE


NotesLoFo: 4. 36 of 40 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1114 MBP Fliser 1995

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 14 (M/F:14/0)(B/W/A.0/14/0)
Normotension
Age 26


InterventionsSR 180 (203-23)
Dur 7


OutcomesMAP, renin, NE


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1115 Doig 1995

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 81(M/F 81/0 (B/W/A 0/81/0)
Normotension, Age 25


InterventionsSR 112 (130-18)
Dur 4


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1116 Stein 1995

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 7 (M/F:7/0)(B/W/A.0/7/0)
Normotension
Age 33.7


InterventionsSR 183 (201-18)
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, NE


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1117 P Arrol 1995

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 181 (M/F:95/86)(B/W/A.0/181/0)
Hypertension
Age 55


InterventionsSR 16 (122-106)
Dur 182


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 27. 181 of 208 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1118 Draaijer 1995

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 10 (M/F:10/0)(B/W/A.0/10/0)
Hypertension
Age 41


InterventionsSR 131 (283-24)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1119 MBP Overlack 1995

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN11
Hyp
Age61


InterventionsSR240
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1120 MBP Overlack 1995 b

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN27
Hyp
Age40


InterventionsSR249
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1121 MBP Overlack 1995 c

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Hyp
Age43


InterventionsSR234
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
Aldo
Renin
NA


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1122 P Dubbert 1995

MethodsP
SB


ParticipantsN 122 (B/W/A.67/55/0)
Hypertension
Age 62


InterventionsSR 45 (187-142)
Dur 90


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 36. 122 of 158 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Low riskrandom number table

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure stratified by race

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1123 SE Weir 1995

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN11 (8 black)
Hyp
Age60
sodium sensitive


InterventionsSR146
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1124 SE Weir 1995 b

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN11 (6 black)
Hyp
Age60
sodium resistent


InterventionsSR127
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1125 Grey 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN34
Norm
Age23


InterventionsSR133 (185-52)

Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1126 MBP Feldman 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN5
Norm
Age27


InterventionsSR176

Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
NA
A
Chol


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1127 MBP Feldman 1996 b

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN8
Hyp
Age27


InterventionsSR178
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)
NA
A
Chol


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1128 Schorr 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN16
Norm
Age 64


InterventionsSR 74 (175.2-104.8)
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesIncluded 21
LoFo: 5
IT: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1129 Bellini 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 43 (M/F:43/0)(B/W/A.0/43/0)
Hypertension
Age 46


InterventionsSR 121 (233-112)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo, NE


NotesLoFo: 12. 43 of 55 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1130 Inoue 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 14 (M/F:8/6)(B/W/A.4/7/3)
Hypertension
Age 46


InterventionsSR 293 (329-36)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1131 Ferri 1996

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN61
Hyp
Age47


InterventionsSR264
Dur14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


Notes79 were included.
65 were randomised.
LoFo: 4
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1132 SE Ishimitsu 1996

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN HT: 23 (M/F:11/12) NT 7 (M/F:3/4)(B/W/A.0/0/30)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 54


InterventionsSR 194 (217-23)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1133 SE Ishimitsu 1996 b

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN HT: 23 (M/F:11/12) NT 7 (M/F:3/4)(B/W/A.0/0/30)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 54


InterventionsSR 194 (217-23)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1134 SE Cappuccio 1997

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN47
Hyp
Age67


InterventionsSR83
Dur 30


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesIncluded 52
randomised 48
LoFo: 1
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1135 P TOHP II 1997

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN1190 (203 blacks)
High norm
Age 42


InterventionsSR40
Dur 1100


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 99
IT: yes


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low risk

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1136 P van Buul 1997

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 232 (M/F:0/232)(B/W/A.0/232/0)
Normotension
Age 28


InterventionsSR 65 (140-75(week 28))
Dur 196


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 28.. 242 of 270 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskRandomisation by a closed envelope system

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1137 SE Schorr 1997

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN27
Norm
Age25
sodium sensitive


InterventionsSR208
Dur7


OutcomesSBP (MBP+1/3MBP)
DBP (MBP-1/3MBP)


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1138 McCarron 1997

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN99 (24 blacks)
Hyp
Age52


InterventionsSR 55.4 (175.9-120.5)
Dur28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Chol
HDL
LDL
TG


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1139 Meland 1997

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 16 (M/F:13/3)(B/W/A.0/16/0)
Hypertension
Age 50


InterventionsSR 66 (191-125)
Dur 56


OutcomesSBP, DBP, chol, HDL


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1140 Fotherby 1997-BP

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 17 (M/F:4/13)(B/W/A.0/17/0)
Hypertension
Age 73


InterventionsSR 79 (174-95)
Dur 35


OutcomesChol, HDL, LDL, Trig


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1141 Ferri 1998-BP

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN, HT: 39; NT 8 (B/W/A.0/47/0)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 45


InterventionsSR 170 (200-30)
Dur 14


OutcomesChol, HDL, LDL, trig


NotesLoFo: 8 . 39 of 46 randomised hypertensives + 8 controls completed the study.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1142 P Knuist 1998

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 361 (80% Caucasian)
Pregnant women, Normotension
Age 27.5


InterventionsSR 40 (124-84)
Dur 35 (mean duration)


OutcomesDBP


NotesLoFo: 67 (35 LowSalt, 32 NormalSalt) IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskBlock randomisation. Treatment allocation in opaque sealed envelopes.

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)High risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1143 MBP Bech 1998

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 12 (M/F:6/6)(B/W/A.0/12/0)
Normotension
Age 23.8


InterventionsSR 235 (273-38)
Dur 5


OutcomesMAP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1144 Foo 1998

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 18, (8 males, 10 females)
Normotensive
Mean age 51


InterventionsSR 149 (227-78)
Dur 6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin Aldosterone


NotesLoFo: 0

SDs estimated on the basis of p-values


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not desribed

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1145 SE Wing 1998

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN17
Hyp
Age61


InterventionsSR59
Dur42


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes39 included
19 randomised
LoFo: 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1146 Herlitz 1998

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 6 (M/F 6/0)(B/W/A 0/6/0)
treated hypertension (from150/106 to 124/82)
Age 46


InterventionsSR 98 (325-227)
Dur 6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin


NotesIncluded 8
LoFO: 2
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1147 MBP Feldman 1999

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 8 (M/F:8/0)(B/W/A.0/8/0)
Normotension
Age 33


InterventionsSR 159 (207-48)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, chol, NE


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1148 MBP Damasceno 1999

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 39 (19HT and 20NT) (M/F:19/20)(B/W/A 39/0/0)
Hypertension and normotension
Age HT 43; NT 38


InterventionsSR HT: 81 (114-33); NT: 180 (210-30)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1149 Davrath 1999

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN 8
Norm
Age 25


InterventionsSR 95
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin
NA
A


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1150 SE Schorr 1999

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN 187 (M/F:187/0)(B/W/A.0/187/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR 206 (225-19)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 13. 187 of 200 completed study. IT: No.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1151 Uzu 1999

MethodsSB

CO


ParticipantsN70 (Japanese)
Hyp
Age50


InterventionsSR173 (204-31)
Dur7


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1152 MBP SE Chiolero 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN Hyp: 38 (M/F:21/17); Norm: 12 (M/F:6/6) (B/W/A.0/50/0)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 43 and 40


InterventionsSR 183 (255-72) and 201 (265-64)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 5. 38 of 43 and 12 of 12 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1153 Bruun 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 42 (M/F:34/8)(B/W/A.0/42/0)
Normotension
Age 26


InterventionsSR 237 (273-36)
Dur 4


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo, NE, E, chol, HDL, LDL, Trig


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1154 SE Burnier 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 15 (M/F:15/0)(B/W/A.0/15/0)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 22.7


InterventionsSR 131 (144-13)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo, NE, E


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1155 P Heer 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 32 (M/F:32/0)(B/W/A.0/32/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR139 (226-87)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1156 MBP SE Barba 2000

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 7 (M/F:7/0)(B/W/A.0/7/0)
Normotension
Age 32


InterventionsSR 154 (177-23)
Dur 7


OutcomesMAP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1157 Boero 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 13 (M/F:10/3)(B/W/A.0/13/0)
Hypertension
Age 51


InterventionsSR 209 (270-61)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP, Chol, HDL, LDL, Trig,


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1158 Suzuki 2000

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 20 (M/F:9/11)(B/W/A.0/0/20)
Hypertension
Age 59


InterventionsSR 116 (167-51)
Dur 7


Outcomesnocturnal MAP, NE and E


NotesLoFo:0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1159 Ames 2001

MethodsSB
CO


Participants13 (M/F: 6/7)
Hyp
Age 60


InterventionsSR 133 (265-132)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
NA
A
TG:
Chol:
HDL:
LDL:


Notes21 patients included
8 diabetes patients excluded
LoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1160 SE DASH 1, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN54
Norm
Non-black
Age 48


InterventionsSR55
Dur30


OutcomesSBP
DBP not mentioned, see DASH 2


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1161 SE DASH 1b, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN37
Hyp
Non-black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesSBP
DBP not mentioned, see DASH 2b


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1162 SE DASH 1c, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN68
Norm
Black
Age 48


InterventionsSR55
Dur30


OutcomesSBP
DBP not mentioned, see DASH 2c


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1163 SE DASH 1d, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN46
Hyp
Black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesSBP
DBP not mentioned, see DASH 2d


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

1164 SE DASH 2, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN54
Norm
Non-black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesDBP: Table 4: referent+ 50% of female+50% of age = -1.3+0.3+(-0.4) = -1.4


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1165 SE DASH 2b, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN37
Hyp
Non-black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesDBP: -1.2 + hypertensive = -1.4 + (-1.3) = -2.7


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1166 SE DASH 2c, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN68
Norm
Black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesDBP: -1.4 + African American = -1.4 + (-2.5) = -3.9


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1167 SE DASH 2d, 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN46
Hyp
Black
Age 48


InterventionsSR 55
Dur 30


OutcomesDBP: -1.4 + African American + hyperetnesive = -1.2 + (-2.5) + (-1.3) = -5.2


NotesLoFo: 5%
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1168 Cuzzola 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 19
Hyp
Age 47


InterventionsSR 161
Dur: 14


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesData available in patients in upper tertile of sodium excretion (19 of 55 patients)


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)High risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1169 P Seals 2001

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 35 (M/F:0/35)(B/W/A.0/34/1)
Hypertension
Age 64


InterventionsSR 46 (132-86)
Dur 90


OutcomesSBP, DBP, Chol, HDL, LDL, Trig


NotesLoFo: 4. 35 of 39 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1170 P TONE 2001

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN 471
(non-blacks)
Hyp
Age 66


InterventionsSR 40
DUR: 105


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes2001 + 2001b
included 681
LoFo. 68
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1171 P TONE 2001 b

MethodsSB
P


ParticipantsN 142 (blacks)
Hyp
Age 66


InterventionsSR 40
DUR: 105


OutcomesSBP
DBP


Notes2001 + 2001b
included 681
LoFo. 68
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1172 Johnson 2001

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 40
Hypertension
Age 69


InterventionsSR 73 (185-112)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:6; 40 of 46 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskSequenced treatments in Latin square design

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1173 Manunta 2001

MethodsSB
CO


ParticipantsN20 (M/F: 16/4)
Hyp
Age 48


InterventionsSR 110
Dur 14


OutcomesRenin
Aldosteron


Notes138 included in acute study. 20 with SR> 100 mmol included in 14 day study. LoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low riskoutcome detection blinded

1174 MBP Kleij 2002

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 27 (M/F:20/7)(B/W/A.0/27/0)
Norm
Age 24.8


InterventionsSR 186 (236-50)
Dur 7


OutcomesMAP
Ren, Aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1175 MBP SE Kerstens 2003

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 28 (M/F:21/7)(B/W/A.0/28/0)
Norm
Age 24


InterventionsSR 202 (248-42)
Dur 7


OutcomesMAP
Ren, Aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1176 SE Dishy 2003

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 25 (2 blacks, 23 whites)
Norm
Mean age 34 (18-50)


InterventionsSR 300 (321-21)
Dur 6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin A


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1177 SE Nowson 2003

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 108 (M/F:44/64/20 dropouts)(B/W/A.0/108/0)
normotension
Age 47


InterventionsSR 90 (140-50)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin


NotesLoFo: 20. 108 completed study


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1178 Perry 2003

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 15 (M/F:15/0)(B/W/A.0/15/0)
Normotension
Age 26


InterventionsSR 105 (175-70)
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo, NE, Chol, trig


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1179 P Nakamura 2003

MethodsDB
P


ParticipantsN 65 (M/F:41/24)(B/W/A.0/0/65)
Hypertension and normotension
Age 46.6


InterventionsSR 20 (1.4g)
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP, DBP,


NotesLoFo: 0. 71 tested, 46 included.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1180 Palacios 2004

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 40 (M/F:0/23/17 dropouts) (B/W/A.15/8/0)
Normotension
Age 13


InterventionsSR 86 (120-34)
Dur 21


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 17. 23 completed study


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1181 Beeks 2004

MethodsOP

CO


ParticipantsN 117 (M/F:67/50)(B/W/A.0/117/0)
Hyp
Age 54


InterventionsSR 99 (171-72)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1182 Berge-Landry 2004

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 48 (M/F:38/10)(B/W/A.12/34/2)
Hyp
Age 51


InterventionsSR 285 (309-24)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Cho Trig


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1183 Gates 2004

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 12 (M/F:6/6)(B/W/A.0/12/0)
Hyper
Age 64


InterventionsSR 95 (155-60)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Chol, HDL, LDL, Trig, Renin, NE, E


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1184 Harsha 2004

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 193 (M/F:89/104)(B/W/A.57/136/0)
Mixed Hyper/Norm
Age 49


InterventionsSR 77 (141-64)
Dur 30


OutcomesChol, HDL, LDL, Trig, Renin, NE, E


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1185 Zanchi 2004

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 10 (M/F:10/0)(B/W/A.0/10/0)
Normotension
Age 25


InterventionsSR 250 (270-20)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1186 SE Forrester 2005

MethodsOp
CO


Participants56 Jamaicans (M/F: 34/22)
Norm (125.9/76.3)
Mean age 40.8 (25-55)


InterventionsSR 78.8
Dur 21


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskBlock randomisation

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1187 SE Forrester 2005 b

MethodsOp
CO


Participants58 Nigerians (M/F: 34/24)
Norm (114.6/72.9)
Mean age 46.6 (25-55)


InterventionsSR 72.2
Dur 21


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskBlock randomisation

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1188 SE Swift 2005

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 40 (M/F:17/23)(B/W/A 40/0/0)
Hypertension
Age 50


InterventionsSR 78 (167-89)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 7. 40 of 47 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1189 MBP Damgaard 2006

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 14 (M/F:14/0)(B/W/A.0/14/0)
Norm
Age 57


InterventionsSR 129 (188-59)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP
DBP
NE and E


NotesLoFo: 2 excluded because of side effects


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1190 SE Takahashi 2006

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 448 (M/F:145/303)(B/W/A.0/0/448)
Hypertension (107) and normotension (341)
Age 56.4


InterventionsSR 38 (237-199)
Dur 365


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo: 102. 448 of 550 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation: computer generated random number

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1191 SE Melander 2007

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 39 (M/F: 20/19)
Mixed hypertensive and normotensive (144/90.6)
Age 53


InterventionsSR 89 (140-51)
Dur 28


OutcomesSBP
DBP
renin


NotesLoFo: 7. 39 completed. IT: No Diet + salt capsules/placebo


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1192 Townsend 2007

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 20 (M/F:12/8)(B/W/A.10/9/1)
Norm
Age 30


InterventionsSR 171 (194-23)
Dur 6


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Aldo
Renin


NotesLoFo: 2

IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskPrespecified randomised blocked table

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1193 Dengel 2007

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 28, 10 males, 18 females, 5 blacks, 23 whites
Hypertension
Mean age 63


InterventionsSR 155 (191-36)
Dur 8


OutcomesSBP -10
DBP -4
Renin 1.64 ng/s Aldo 334.2


NotesLoFo: 0

Blood pressure effects estimated from figure 1. The effects of two genotype groups were added to one group and calculated as simple means.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskrandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1194 Tzemos 2008

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 16 (M/F:16/0)(B/W/A.0/16/0)
Normotension
Age 27


InterventionsSR 149 (225-76)
Dur 5


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo, chol, HDL, LDL, Trig,


NotesLoFo: 0


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1195 SE Jessani 2008

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 184 (M/F:87/97)(B/W/A.0/184/0)
Normotension
Age 50


InterventionsSR 81 (138-57)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP


NotesLoFo:16; 184 of 200 completed the study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low riskRandomisation by computer generated numbers

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1196 Paulsen 2009

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsN 22 (M/F:12/10)(B/W/A.0/22/0)
Normotension
Age 47


InterventionsSR 47 (357-310)
Dur 4


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 5. 22 of 27 completed study. IT: No.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1197 Dickinson 2009

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 29 (M/F: 7/22)
Normotension (116/73)
Mean age 63


InterventionsSR 92 (156-64)
Dur 14


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 3

IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Low riskcomputer generated

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1198 SE He 2009

MethodsDB
CO


ParticipantsWhites: 77; Blacks: 75; Asians: 35
Hypertension (Baseline BP 147/91)
Mean Age 50


InterventionsSR 55 (165-110)
Dur 42


OutcomesSBP
DBP
Renin Aldosterone


NotesLoFO: W/B/A: 6/6/6
IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Random sequence generation (selection bias)Low riskcomputer generated, ethnic stratfication

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Low risktablets supplied by independent company

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1199 P Meland 2009

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 46 (M/F:34/12)(B/W/A.0/46/0)
Hypertension
Age 56


InterventionsSR 43 (126-83)
Dur 56


OutcomesSBP, DBP,
Aldo, Chol, Trig


NotesLoFo: 0. 71 tested, 46 included.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1200 SE Pimenta 2009

MethodsOp
CO


ParticipantsN 12 (M/F:4/8)(B/W/A.6/6)
Hypertension
Age 55.5


InterventionsSR 206 (252-46)
Dur 7


OutcomesSBP, DBP, renin, aldo


NotesLoFo: 1. 12 of 13 completed study. IT: No


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not described

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1201 P Nowson 2009

MethodsOp
P


ParticipantsN 111 women
59 normotensives and 35 hypertensives completed
Mean age 59


InterventionsSR 42 (108-66)
Dur 98


OutcomesSBP
DBP


NotesLoFo: 16 IT: No. Two different diets were compared and there was other differences between the diets than sodium intake. These differences were assumed not to influence blood pressure.


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Allocation concealment (selection bias)Unclear riskRandomisation procedure not desribed in detail. randomisation stratified by BMI.

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Selective reporting (reporting bias)Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
High risk

1202 Weir 2010

MethodsCO, SB


ParticipantsN 132 (M/F: 73/59, W/B/A: 115/15/2)

Hypertension

Mean age: 51.5


InterventionsSR 123 (208-85)

28 days


OutcomesSBP

DBP


Notes


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
High risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

1203 Starmans-Kool 2011

MethodsCO

DB


Participants10 males

Normotension

Mean age 32


InterventionsSR 97 (191-94)

14 days


OutcomesSBP

DBP


Notes


Risk of bias

BiasAuthors' judgementSupport for judgement

Blinding (performance bias and detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)
All outcomes
Low risk

 
Characteristics of excluded studies [ordered by study ID]

StudyReason for exclusion

Anderson 1990No data on urine sodium excretion

Dodson 1989Includes only patients with diabetes mellitus

Imanishi M 2001Includes only patients with diabetes mellitus

Miller JA 1997Includes only patients with diabetes mellitus

Mühlhauser I 1996Includes only patients with diabetes mellitus

Palmer 1989No data on urine sodium excretion

Parfrey 1981Withdrawal of paper by the authors due to erroneous form

Ruppert 1991Sub study of Ruppert 1993

Ruppert 1994Sub study of Ruppert 1993

Steegers 1991Sub study of van Buul 1997

 
Comparison 1. Effect of salt reduction on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in whites

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Whites, normotensive, DBP717299Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-0.05 [-0.51, 0.42]

 2 Whites, normotensive, SBP707035Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-1.27 [-1.88, -0.66]

 3 Whites, hypertensive, DBP764903Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-2.75 [-3.34, -2.17]

 4 Whites, hypertensive, SBP744879Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-5.48 [-6.53, -4.43]

 
Comparison 2. Effect of salt reduction on mean blood pressure (MBP) in whites.

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Whites, normotensive, MBP311790Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-0.00 [-0.34, 0.33]

 2 Whites, hypertensive, MBP231511Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-3.56 [-4.07, -3.06]

 
Comparison 3. Effect of salt reduction on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in whites, study duration at least 4 weeks

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Whites, normotensive, DBP204047Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-0.45 [-0.90, 0.00]

 2 Whites, normotensive, SBP193753Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-1.29 [-1.96, -0.62]

 3 Whites, hypertensive, DBP493748Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-2.59 [-3.32, -1.85]

 4 Whites, hypertensive, SBP463543Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-5.18 [-6.43, -3.94]

 
Comparison 4. Effect of salt reduction on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Asians

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Asians, normotensive, DBP3393Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-1.68 [-3.29, -0.06]

 2 Asians, normotensive, SBP3393Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-1.27 [-3.07, 0.54]

 3 Asians, hypertensive, DBP7477Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-2.60 [-4.03, -1.16]

 4 Asians, hypertensive, SBP8477Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-10.21 [-16.98, -3.44]

 
Comparison 5. Effect of salt reduction on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Blacks

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Blacks, normotensive, DBP7506Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-2.01 [-4.37, 0.35]

 2 Blacks, normotensive, SBP7506Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-4.02 [-7.37, -0.68]

 3 Blacks, hypertensive, DBP9674Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-2.40 [-4.68, -0.12]

 4 Blacks, hypertensive, SBP9674Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-6.44 [-8.85, -4.03]

 
Comparison 6. Effect of salt reduction on hormones

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Renin814078Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)1.15 [0.99, 1.30]

 2 Aldosterone593348Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)1.36 [1.15, 1.57]

 3 Adrenaline16608Std. Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)0.30 [0.13, 0.46]

 4 Noradrenaline391570Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)0.52 [0.37, 0.67]

 
Comparison 7. Effect of salt reduction on hormones, study duration at least two weeks

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Renin291650Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)0.67 [0.53, 0.82]

 2 Aldosterone201170Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)0.99 [0.70, 1.28]

 3 Adrenaline8338Std. Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)0.21 [-0.00, 0.43]

 4 Noradrenaline12576Std. Mean Difference (IV, Random, 95% CI)0.17 [0.00, 0.33]

 
Comparison 8. Effect of salt reduction on lipids

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Cholesterol251546Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)5.76 [2.29, 9.24]

 2 Trigyceride191334Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)6.78 [2.81, 10.75]

 3 High density lipoprotein, HDL171210Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)0.09 [-1.44, 1.62]

 4 Low density lipoprotein, LDL161172Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)2.88 [-1.03, 6.79]

 
Comparison 9. Effect of salt reduction on lipids, study duration at least two weeks

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Cholesterol13848Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)2.48 [-2.18, 7.14]

 2 Trigyceride11732Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)7.78 [2.23, 13.34]

 3 High density lipoprotein, HDL11684Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)-0.61 [-2.70, 1.47]

 4 Low density lipoprotein, LDL8546Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)2.45 [-3.15, 8.06]

 
Comparison 10. Effect of moderate salt reduction on lipids

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Cholesterol15820Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)3.86 [-0.74, 8.46]

 2 Trigyceride12688Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)8.03 [2.06, 14.01]

 3 High density lipoprotein, HDL11660Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)-0.40 [-2.22, 1.42]

 4 Low density lipoprotein, LDL9568Mean Difference (IV, Fixed, 95% CI)0.04 [-4.96, 5.04]

 
Comparison 11. Bias analyses

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Whites, normotensive, DBP perf-detec-high49Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-0.05 [-0.59, 0.49]

 2 Whites, normotensive, DBP perf-detec-low21Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-0.03 [-0.99, 0.92]

 3 Whites, normotensive, DBP outc-asses-high29Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)0.04 [-0.78, 0.86]

 4 Whites, normotensive, DBP outc-asses-low414966Mean Difference (Random, 95% CI)-0.11 [-0.68, 0.46]

 5 Whites, normotensive, SBP perf-detec-high496012Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-1.01 [-1.28, -0.74]

 6 Whites, normotensive, SBP perf-detec-low201003Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-1.35 [-1.97, -0.74]

 7 Whites, normotensive, SBP outc-asses-high271965Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-1.32 [-1.79, -0.85]

 8 Whites, normotensive, SBP outc-asses-low425050Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-0.97 [-1.26, -0.67]

 9 Whites, hypertensive, DBP perf-detec-high412827Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-2.56 [-3.05, -2.07]

 10 Whites, hypertensive, DBP perf-detec-low331747Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-2.61 [-3.03, -2.19]

 11 Whites, hypertensive, DBP outc-asses-high241805Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-2.49 [-3.12, -1.87]

 12 Whites, hypertensive, DBP outc-asses-low502808Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-2.62 [-2.99, -2.24]

 13 Whites, hypertensive, SBP perf-detec-high392803Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-4.94 [-5.65, -4.23]

 14 Whites, hypertensive, SBP perf-detec-hlow321673Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.80 [-6.43, -5.16]

 15 Whites, hypertensive, SBP outc-asses-high241805Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.18 [-6.14, -4.22]

 16 Whites, hypertensive, SBP outc-asses-low482784Mean Difference (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.60 [-6.14, -5.06]

 
Table 1. Risk of Bias

SGACB (P+D)IODSRB (P)B (D)

HR2210514310763

LR396011915660103

UR162156234801

Total167167167167167167167

 SG: Sequence generation; AC: Allocation concealment; B: Blinding; P: Performance; D: Detection; IOD: Incomplete outcome data; SR: Selective reporting; HR: High risk; LR: Low risk; UR: Unclear risk.