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Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders

  • Review
  • Intervention




Music therapy is a therapeutic method that uses musical interaction as a means of communication and expression. The aim of the therapy is to help people with serious mental disorders to develop relationships and to address issues they may not be able to using words alone.


To review the effects of music therapy, or music therapy added to standard care, compared with 'placebo' therapy, standard care or no treatment for people with serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (December 2010) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, handsearching of music therapy journals and manual searches of reference lists.

Selection criteria

All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared music therapy with standard care, placebo therapy, or no treatment.

Data collection and analysis

Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. We excluded data where more than 30% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. We synthesised non-skewed continuous endpoint data from valid scales using a standardised mean difference (SMD). If statistical heterogeneity was found, we examined treatment 'dosage' and treatment approach as possible sources of heterogeneity.

Main results

We included eight studies (total 483 participants). These examined effects of music therapy over the short- to medium-term (one to four months), with treatment 'dosage' varying from seven to 78 sessions. Music therapy added to standard care was superior to standard care for global state (medium-term, 1 RCT, n = 72, RR 0.10 95% CI 0.03 to 0.31, NNT 2 95% CI 1.2 to 2.2). Continuous data identified good effects on negative symptoms (4 RCTs, n = 240, SMD average endpoint Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) -0.74 95% CI -1.00 to -0.47); general mental state (1 RCT, n = 69, SMD average endpoint Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) -0.36 95% CI -0.85 to 0.12; 2 RCTs, n=100, SMD average endpoint Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) -0.73 95% CI -1.16 to -0.31); depression (2 RCTs, n = 90, SMD average endpoint Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) -0.63 95% CI -1.06 to -0.21; 1 RCT, n = 30, SMD average endpoint Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D) -0.52 95% CI -1.25 to -0.21 ); and anxiety (1 RCT, n = 60, SMD average endpoint SAS -0.61 95% CI -1.13 to -0.09). Positive effects were also found for social functioning (1 RCT, n = 70, SMD average endpoint Social Disability Schedule for Inpatients (SDSI) score -0.78 95% CI -1.27 to -0.28). Furthermore, some aspects of cognitive functioning and behaviour seem to develop positively through music therapy. Effects, however, were inconsistent across studies and depended on the number of music therapy sessions as well as the quality of the music therapy provided.

Authors' conclusions

Music therapy as an addition to standard care helps people with schizophrenia to improve their global state, mental state (including negative symptoms) and social functioning if a sufficient number of music therapy sessions are provided by qualified music therapists. Further research should especially address the long-term effects of music therapy, dose-response relationships, as well as the relevance of outcomes measures in relation to music therapy.

Résumé scientifique

Musicothérapie pour les personnes souffrant de schizophrénie et de troubles de type schizophrénique


Contrôler les effets de la musicothérapie, ou de la musicothérapie utilisée en complément de soins standards, comparés à une thérapie « placebo », des soins standards ou l’absence de traitement chez des personnes atteintes de graves troubles mentaux, comme la schizophrénie.

Stratégie de recherche documentaire

Nous avons effectué des recherches dans le registre des essais du groupe Cochrane sur la schizophrénie (décembre 2010) et contacté les auteurs des études correspondantes. Nous avons également effectué des recherches manuelles dans les journaux de musicothérapie et les listes bibliographiques.

Critères de sélection

Tous les essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR) qui comparaient la musicothérapie à des soins standards, une thérapie placebo ou l’absence de traitement.

Notes de traduction








Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register(2010年12月)を検索し、さらに関連性のある研究報告の著者に連絡して補足資料を得た。音楽療法の雑誌と参考文献リストをハンドサーチした。






合計483例を対象とした8件の研究を選択した。これらの研究では、7~78セッションの異なる治療「量」で、音楽療法の効果を短期~中期的(1~4カ月)に調べた。音楽療法を標準治療に上乗せすると、全体的な状態に関して、標準治療単独に対して優越性を示した(中期間、1件のRCT、n = 72、RR 0.10 95% CI 0.03~0.31、治療必要数(NNT) 2 95% CI 1.2~2.2)。連続データ 以下に対する良好な効果が認められた。陰性症状(4件のRCT、n = 240、陰性症状評価尺度(SANS)のSMD平均エンドポイント -0.74 95% CI -1.00~-0.47)。全般的な精神状態(1件のRCT、n = 69、陽性・陰性症状尺度(PANSS)のSMD平均エンドポイント -0.36 95% CI -0.85~0.12;2件のRCT、n=100、簡易精神症状評価尺度(BPRS)のSMD平均エンドポイント -0.73 95% CI -1.16~-0.31)。うつ病(2件のRCT、n = 90、自己評価式抑うつ尺度(SDS)のSMD平均エンドポイント -0.63 95% CI -1.06 ~-0.21;1件のRCT、n = 30、ハミルトンうつ病評価尺度(Ham-D)のSMD平均エンドポイント-0.52 95% CI -1.25~-0.21)。不安(1件のRCT、n = 60、自己評価式不安尺度(SAS)のSMD平均エンドポイント -0.61 95% CI -1.13~-0.09)。また、社会的機能に良好な効果がみられた(1件のRCT、n = 70、Social Disability Schedule for Inpatients(SDSI)スコアのSMD平均エンドポイント -0.78 95% CI -1.27~-0.28)。さらに、音楽療法によって、認知機能と行動に良好な発達がみられると考えられる。しかし、効果には研究間で一貫性がなく、音楽療法のセッション数と音楽療法の質によって異なる。




《実施組織》厚生労働省「「統合医療」に係る情報発信等推進事業」(eJIM:[2015.12.30]《注意》この日本語訳は、臨床医、疫学研究者などによる翻訳のチェックを受けて公開していますが、訳語の間違いなどお気づきの点がございましたら、eJIM事務局までご連絡ください。なお、2013年6月からコクラン・ライブラリーのNew review, Updated reviewとも日単位で更新されています。eJIMでは最新版の日本語訳を掲載するよう努めておりますが、タイム・ラグが生じている場合もあります。ご利用に際しては、最新版(英語版)の内容をご確認ください。

Plain language summary

Music therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like disorders

Music therapy is a therapeutic method that uses music experiences to help people with serious mental disorders to develop relationships and to address issues they may not be able to using words alone. Studies to date have examined the effects of music therapy as an add-on treatment to standard care. The results of these studies suggest that music therapy improves global state and may also improve mental state and functioning if a sufficient number of music therapy sessions are provided.

Résumé simplifié

Musicothérapie pour le traitement de la schizophrénie ou de troubles de type schizophrénique

Notes de traduction





《実施組織》厚生労働省「「統合医療」に係る情報発信等推進事業」(eJIM:[2015.12.30]《注意》この日本語訳は、臨床医、疫学研究者などによる翻訳のチェックを受けて公開していますが、訳語の間違いなどお気づきの点がございましたら、eJIM事務局までご連絡ください。なお、2013年6月からコクラン・ライブラリーのNew review, Updated reviewとも日単位で更新されています。eJIMでは最新版の日本語訳を掲載するよう努めておりますが、タイム・ラグが生じている場合もあります。ご利用に際しては、最新版(英語版)の内容をご確認ください。

Laički sažetak

Terapija glazbom za shizofreniju i shizofreniji slične poremećaje

Terapija glazbom (muzikoterapija) je terapeutska metoda koja koristi glazbene doživljaje kako bi pomogla osobama s teškim mentalnim poremećajima u razvoju odnosa i rješavanju problema, što ne bi mogli uz korištenje isključivo riječi. Dosadašnje studije su proučavale učinke muzikoterapije kao dodatne terapije, uz standardnu skrb. Rezultati tih studija su pokazali kako terapija glazbom poboljšava opće stanje, uz poboljšanje mentalnog stanja i funkcioniranja ukoliko je proveden dovoljan broj seansi muzikoterapije.

Bilješke prijevoda

Hrvatski Cochrane
Prevela: Dina Bošnjak
Ovaj sažetak preveden je u okviru volonterskog projekta prevođenja Cochrane sažetaka. Uključite se u projekt i pomozite nam u prevođenju brojnih preostalih Cochrane sažetaka koji su još uvijek dostupni samo na engleskom jeziku. Kontakt: