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Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression

  1. Jaap Wijkstra1,*,
  2. Jeroen Lijmer2,
  3. Huibert Burger3,4,
  4. John Geddes5,
  5. Willem A Nolen4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group

Published Online: 26 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004044.pub3


How to Cite

Wijkstra J, Lijmer J, Burger H, Geddes J, Nolen WA. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004044. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004044.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    UMCU, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands

  2. 2

    UMCU, Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands

  3. 3

    University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen, Netherlands

  4. 4

    University Hospital Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Groningen, Netherlands

  5. 5

    University of Oxford/Warneford Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oxford, UK

*Jaap Wijkstra, Department of Psychiatry, UMCU, B.01.206, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, Netherlands. J.Wijkstra@umcutrecht.nl.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 26 NOV 2013

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (30 JUL 2015)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Anton 1990 {published data only}
Bruijn 1996 {published data only}
  • Bruijn JA, Moleman P, Mulder PG, van den Broek WW. Depressed in-patients respond differently to imipramine and mirtazapine. Pharmacopsychiatry 1999;32(3):87-92.
  • Bruijn JA, Moleman P, Mulder PG, van den Broek WW, van Hulst AM, van der Mast RC, et al. A double-blind, fixed blood-level study comparing mirtazapine with imipramine in depressed in-patients. Psychopharmacology 1996;127(3):231-7.
Meyers 2009 {published data only}
  • Andreescu C, Mulsant BH, Peasley-Miklus C, Rothschild AJ, Flint AJ, Heo M, et al. Persisting low use of antipsychotics in the treatment of major depressive disorder with psychotic features. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007; Vol. 68, issue 2:194-200.
  • Blumberger DM, Mulsant BH, Emeremni C, Houck P, Andreescu C, Mazumdar S, et al. Impact of prior pharmacotherapy on remission of psychotic depression in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2011; Vol. 45, issue 7:896-901.
  • Flint AJ. Challenges in conducting a pharmacotherapy study in psychotic depression. 157th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2004 May 1-6; New York, NY 2004:No. 63D.
  • Meyers B, Rothschild A, Gabriele M, English J, McShea M, Kamara T, et al. Effectiveness of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Combined With Antipsychotic Medication for the Treatment of Psychotic Depression [STOP-PD; NCT00056472]. ClinicalTrials.gov [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov] 2004.
  • Meyers BS. Diagnosis and treatment of psychosis in geriatric major depression. 46th Annual NCDEU (New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit) Meeting; 2006 June 12 - 15; Boca Raton, FL 2006:83.
  • Meyers BS, Flint AJ, Rothschild AJ, Mulsant BH, Whyte EM, Peasley-Miklus C, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of olanzapine plus sertraline vs olanzapine plus placebo for psychotic depression: the study of pharmacotherapy of psychotic depression (STOP-PD). Archives of General Psychiatry 2009; Vol. 66, issue 8:838-47.
  • Meyers BS, Flint AJ, Rothschild AJ, Mulsant BH, Whyte EM, Peasley-Miklus C, et al. Errors in Table in: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Olanzapine Plus Sertraline vs Olanzapine Plus Placebo for Psychotic Depression: the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD). Archives of General Psychiatry 2011;68(6):625-6.
  • Schaffer A, Flint AJ, Smith E, Rothschild AJ, Mulsant BH, Szanto K, et al. Correlates of suicidality among patients with psychotic depression. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 2008;38(4):403-14.
  • Weissman J, Flint A, Meyers B, Ghosh S, Mulsant B, Rothschild A, et al. Factors associated with non-completion in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of olanzapine plus sertraline versus olanzapine plus placebo for psychotic depression. Psychiatry Research 2012;197(3):221-6.
Mulsant 2001 {published data only}
  • Mulsant BH, Sweet RA, Rosen J, Pollock BG, Zubenko GS, Flynn T, et al. A double-blind randomized comparison of nortriptyline plus perphenazine versus nortriptyline plus placebo in the treatment of psychotic depression in late life. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2001;62(8):597-604.
Rothschild 2004a {published data only}
  • Rothschild AJ, Williamson DJ, Tohen MF, Schatzberg A, Andersen SW, Van Campen LE, et al. A double-blind, randomized study of olanzapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine combination for major depression with psychotic features. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2004; Vol. 24, issue 4:365-73.
  • Williamson DJ, Andersen SW, Campen LE, Sanger TM, Paul S, Corya SA, et al. Olanzapine-fluoxetine combination for difficult-to-treat depression. 154th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2001 May 5-10; New Orleans; LA 2001:NR549.
Rothschild 2004b {published data only}
  • Rothschild AJ, Williamson DJ, Tohen MF, Schatzberg A, Andersen SW, Van Campen LE, et al. A double-blind, randomized study of olanzapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine combination for major depression with psychotic features. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2004;24(4):365-73.
  • Williamson DJ, Andersen SW, Campen LE, Sanger TM, Paul S, et al. Olanzapine-fluoxetine combination for difficult-to-treat depression. 154th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2001 May 5-10; New Orleans; LA 2001:NR549.
Spiker 1985 {published data only}
  • Spiker D, Perel JM, Hanin I, Dealy RS, Griffin SJ, Soloff PH, et al. The pharmacological treatment of delusional depression: part II. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1986;6(6):339-42.
  • Spiker DG, Hanin I, Perel JM, Cofsky JE, Rossi AJ, Sorisio D. Pharmacological treatment of delusional depressives. Psychopharmacology bulletin 1982;18(4):184-6.
  • Spiker DG, Weiss JC, Dealy RS, Griffin SJ, Hanin I, Neil JF, et al. The pharmacological treatment of delusional depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 1985;142(4):430-6.
Spiker 1988 {published data only}
van den Broek 2004 {published data only}
  • van den Broek WW, Birkenhäger TK, Mulder PG, Bruijn J, Moleman P. A double blind study comparing imipramine with fluvoxamine in depressed inpatients. Psychopharmacology 2004; Vol. 175, issue 4:481-6.
Wijkstra 2010 {published data only}
Zanardi 1996 {published data only}
  • Zanardi R, Franchini L, Gasperini M, Perez J, Smeraldi E. Double-blind controlled trial of sertraline versus paroxetine in the treatment of delusional depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;153(12):1631-3.
Zanardi 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Zanardi R, Franchini L, Serretti A, Perez J, Smeraldi E. Venlafaxine versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of delusional depression: a pilot double-blind controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2000;61(1):26-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Belanoff 2001 {published data only}
Bellini 1994 {published data only}
  • Bellini L, Gasperini M, Gatti F, Franchini L, Smeraldi E. A double blind study with fluvoxamine vs. desipramine combined with placebo or haloperidol in delusional depression. Critical Issues in the Treatment of Affective Disorders 1994;9:32-6.
Blasey 2009 {published data only}
  • Blasey CM, DeBattista C, Roe R, Block T, Belanoff JK. Corrigendum to 'A Multisite Trial of Mifepristone for the Treatment of Psychotic Depression: A Site-by-Treatment Interaction' [Contemp. Clin. Trials 30 (2009) 284-288] (DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2009.03.001). Contemporary clinical trials 2010;31(1):134.
  • Blasey CM, DeBattista C, Roe R, Block T, Belanoff JK. Corrigendum to 'A Multisite Trial of Mifepristone for the Treatment of Psychotic Depression: A Site-by-Treatment Interaction' [Contemp. Clin. Trials 30 (2009)284-288] (DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2009.03.001). Contemporary clinical trials 2009;30(5):497.
  • Blasey CM, Debattista C, Roe R, Block T, Belanoff JK. A multisite trial of mifepristone for the treatment of psychotic depression: a site-by-treatment interaction. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2009;30(4):284-8.
Blasey 2011 {published data only}
Cassacchia 1984 {published data only}
  • Casacchia M, Carolei A, Barba C, Frontoni M, Rossi A, Meco G, et al. A placebo-controlled study of the antidepressant activity of moclobemide, a new MAO-A inhibitor. Pharmacopsychiatry 1984;17(4):122-5.
Davidson 1981 {published data only}
  • Davidson JR, McLeod MN, Turnbull CD, Miller RD. A comparison of phenelzine and imipramine in depressed inpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1981;42(10):395-7.
DeBattista 2006 {published data only}
  • DeBattista C, Belanoff J, Glass S, Khan A, Horne RL, Blasey C, et al. Mifepristone versus placebo in the treatment of psychosis in patients with psychotic major depression. Biological Psychiatry 2006;15(12):1343-9.
Ebert 1997 {published data only}
Flores 2006 {published data only}
Friedman 1966 {published data only}
  • Friedman AS, Granick S, Cohen HW, Cowitz B. Imipramine (Tofranil vs. placebo in hospitalized psychotic depressives. (a comparison of patients' self-ratings, psychiatrists' ratings and psychological test scores). Journal of Psychiatric Research 1966;4(1):13-36.
Künzel 2008 {published data only}
  • Künzel HE, Ackl N, Hatzinger M, Held K, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Ising M, et al. Outcome in delusional depression comparing trimipramine monotherapy with a combination of amitriptyline and haloperidol - a double-blind multicenter trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2009;43(7):702-10.
Malison 1999 {published data only}
  • Malison RT, Anand A, Pelton GH, Kirwin P, Carpenter L, McDougle CJ, et al. Limited efficacy of ketoconazole in treatment-refractory major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999;19(5):466-70.
McLaughlin 1969 {published data only}
  • McLaughlin BE. Therapy for psychotic and psychoneurotic depression with thiothixene and perphenazine-amitriptyline (a double-blind clinical study). Diseases of the Nervous System 1969;30(2):85-8.
Müller 1998 {published data only}
  • Muller-Siecheneder F, Muller MJ, Hillert A, Szegedi A, Wetzel H, Benkert O. Risperidone versus haloperidol and amitriptyline in the treatment of patients with a combined psychotic and depressive syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1998;18(2):111-20.
Navarro 2001 {published data only}
Nelson 1984 {published data only}
Spiker 1982 {published data only}
  • Spiker DG, Hanin I, Perel JM, Cofsky JE, Rossi AJ, Sorisio D. Pharmacological treatment of delusional depressives. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1982;18(4):184-6.
Zanardi 1998 {published data only}
  • Zanardi R, Franchini L, Gasperini M, Lucca A, Smeraldi E, Perez J. Faster onset of action of fluvoxamine in combination with pindolol in the treatment of delusional depression: a controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1998;18(6):441-6.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Alderson 2004
  • Alderson P, Green S, Higgins JPT. Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook 4.2.2. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004.
APA 1980
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), 3rd edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.
APA 1987
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), 3rd edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1987.
APA 1994
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 4th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
APA 2000
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
APA 2010
  • American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2010.
Coryell 1984
Coryell 1998
DerSimonian 1986
Dutch Guideline 2009
  • Trimbos, CBO, NHG, LEVV, NVvP, NIP. Dutch Multidisciplinairy Guideline for Depression [Multidisciplinaire Richtlijn Depressie]. Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2009.
Farahani 2012
  • Farahani A, Corell CU. Are antipsychotics or antidepressants needed for psychotic depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing antidepressant or antipsychotic monotherapy with combination treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2012;73:486-96.
Guy 1976
  • Guy W. Clinical Global Impression. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology, revised. National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, MD 1976.
Hamilton 1960
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Johnson 1991
Licht 2008
Mahli 2009
Montgomery 1979
Nelson 1997
NICE 2009
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The treatment and management of depression in adults (updated version). National Clinical Practice Guideline 90. London: HMSO, 2009.
Ohayon 2002
Parker 1992
Prudic 1990
Prudic 1996
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Wijkstra 2005
Wijkstra 2007
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