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Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage

  1. Alice Rumbold1,*,
  2. Philippa Middleton2,
  3. Ning Pan2,
  4. Caroline A Crowther2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 19 JAN 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004073.pub3


How to Cite

Rumbold A, Middleton P, Pan N, Crowther CA. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004073. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004073.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, The Robinson Institute, Adelaide, NT, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Alice Rumbold, The Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, Ground Floor, Norwich Centre, 55 King William Road, Adelaide, NT, SA 5006, Australia. alice.rumbold@adelaide.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 JAN 2011

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. Risk of bias graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. Risk of bias summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study
[Figure 3]
Figure 3. Funnel plot of comparison: 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), outcome: 1.1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths)
[Figure 4]
Figure 4. Funnel plot of comparison: 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), outcome: 1.2 Early or late miscarriage
[Figure 5]
Figure 5. Funnel plot of comparison: 5 Multivitamin, outcome: 5.1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths)
[Figure 6]
Figure 6. Funnel plot of comparison: 5 Multivitamin, outcome: 5.2 Early or late miscarriage
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 3 Placental abruption.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 5 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 6 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 7 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 8 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 9 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 10 Very preterm birth.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 11 Birthweight.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 12 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 13 Congenital malformations.
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 14 Multiple pregnancy.
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 15 Apgar score less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 17 Anaemia (maternal).
[Analysis 1.18]
Analysis 1.18. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 18 Anaemia (infant).
[Analysis 1.19]
Analysis 1.19. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 19 Placental weight.
[Analysis 1.20]
Analysis 1.20. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 20 Method of feeding.
[Analysis 1.24]
Analysis 1.24. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 24 Any adverse effects of vitamin supplementation sufficient to stop supplementation.
[Analysis 1.26]
Analysis 1.26. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 26 Gynaecological hospital admission.
[Analysis 1.27]
Analysis 1.27. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 27 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 1.29]
Analysis 1.29. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 29 Duration of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 1.30]
Analysis 1.30. Comparison 1 Any vitamins versus no vitamins (or minimal vitamins), Outcome 30 Side effects.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Any vitamins (by quality), Outcome 1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriage or combined miscarriages and stillbirths).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Any vitamins (by quality), Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Any vitamins (by quality), Outcome 3 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 1 Total fetal loss.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 3 Antepartum haemorrhage and placental abruption.
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 4 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 5 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 3.6]
Analysis 3.6. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 6 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 3.7]
Analysis 3.7. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 7 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 3.8]
Analysis 3.8. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 8 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 3.9]
Analysis 3.9. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 9 Very preterm birth.
[Analysis 3.10]
Analysis 3.10. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 10 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 3.11]
Analysis 3.11. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 11 Birthweight.
[Analysis 3.12]
Analysis 3.12. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 12 Congenital malformations.
[Analysis 3.13]
Analysis 3.13. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 13 Apgar score less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 3.14]
Analysis 3.14. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 14 Any adverse effects of vitamin supplementation sufficient to stop supplementation.
[Analysis 3.15]
Analysis 3.15. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 15 Gynaecological hospital admission.
[Analysis 3.16]
Analysis 3.16. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 16 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 3.17]
Analysis 3.17. Comparison 3 Vitamin C, Outcome 17 Side effects.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 3 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 4 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 5 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 6 Birthweight.
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 7 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 4.8]
Analysis 4.8. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 8 Multiple pregnancy.
[Analysis 4.9]
Analysis 4.9. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 9 Very preterm birth.
[Analysis 4.10]
Analysis 4.10. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 10 Maternal anaemia.
[Analysis 4.11]
Analysis 4.11. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 11 Infant anaemia.
[Analysis 4.12]
Analysis 4.12. Comparison 4 Vitamin A, Outcome 12 Poor growth at childhood follow up.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths).
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 3 Placental abruption.
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 4 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 5 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 6 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 5.7]
Analysis 5.7. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 7 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 5.8]
Analysis 5.8. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 8 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 5.9]
Analysis 5.9. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 9 Very preterm birth.
[Analysis 5.10]
Analysis 5.10. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 10 Birthweight.
[Analysis 5.11]
Analysis 5.11. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 11 Small-for-gestational age (birthweight less than the 10th percentile or < 2500 g.
[Analysis 5.12]
Analysis 5.12. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 12 Congenital malformations.
[Analysis 5.13]
Analysis 5.13. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 13 Multiple pregnancy.
[Analysis 5.14]
Analysis 5.14. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 14 Maternal anaemia.
[Analysis 5.15]
Analysis 5.15. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 15 Breastfeeding.
[Analysis 5.16]
Analysis 5.16. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 16 Poor growth at childhood follow up: Underweight in childhood (6-8 years of age).
[Analysis 5.17]
Analysis 5.17. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 17 Poor growth at childhood follow up: Stunting in childhood (6-8 years of age).
[Analysis 5.18]
Analysis 5.18. Comparison 5 Multivitamin, Outcome 18 Additional outcomes - infant death.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 1 Total fetal loss (including miscarriages or combined miscarriages and stillbirths).
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 2 Early or late miscarriage.
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 3 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 4 Stillbirth.
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 5 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 6 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 6.7]
Analysis 6.7. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 7 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 6.8]
Analysis 6.8. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 8 Birthweight.
[Analysis 6.9]
Analysis 6.9. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 9 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 6.10]
Analysis 6.10. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 10 Congenital malformations.
[Analysis 6.11]
Analysis 6.11. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 11 Multiple pregnancy.
[Analysis 6.12]
Analysis 6.12. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 12 Maternal anaemia.
[Analysis 6.13]
Analysis 6.13. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 13 Poor growth in childhood: Stunting in childhood (6-8 years of age).
[Analysis 6.14]
Analysis 6.14. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 14 Poor growth in childhood: Underweight in childhood (6-8 years of age).
[Analysis 6.15]
Analysis 6.15. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 15 Placental weight.
[Analysis 6.16]
Analysis 6.16. Comparison 6 Folic acid, Outcome 16 Additional outcomes - infant death.