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Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage

  1. Alice Rumbold1,*,
  2. Philippa Middleton2,
  3. Ning Pan2,
  4. Caroline A Crowther2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 19 JAN 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004073.pub3


How to Cite

Rumbold A, Middleton P, Pan N, Crowther CA. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004073. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004073.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, The Robinson Institute, Adelaide, NT, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Alice Rumbold, The Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, Ground Floor, Norwich Centre, 55 King William Road, Adelaide, NT, SA 5006, Australia. alice.rumbold@adelaide.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 JAN 2011

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Briscoe 1959 {published data only}
Chappell 1999 {published data only}
  • Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briely AL, Kelly FJ, Lee R, Hunt BJ, et al. Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:810-6.
Christian 2003 {published data only}
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ 2003;326(7389):571.
  • Christian P, Shrestha J, LeClerq S, Khatry SK, Jiang T, Wagner T, et al. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:3492-8.
  • Christian P, Stewart CP, LeClerq SC, Wu L, Katz J, West KP Jr, et al. Antenatal and postnatal iron supplementation and childhood mortality in rural Nepal: a prospective follow-up in a randomized, controlled community trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(9):1127-36.
  • Christian P, West Jr KP, Khatry SK, Leclerq SC, Pradhan EK, Katz J, et al. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant mortality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:1194-202.
  • Kulkarni B, Christian P, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK. Determinants of compliance to antenatal micronutrient supplementation and women's perceptions of supplement use in rural Nepal. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(1):82-90.
  • Stewart CP, Christian P, LeClerq SC, West KP Jr, Khatry SK. Antenatal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc improves linear growth and reduces peripheral adiposity in school-age children in rural Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(1):132-40.
Correia 1982 {published data only}
  • Correia JM, Silva Cruz A, Silva Meirinho M. The importance of the contribution of folic acid in gestation [Importancia del aporte de acido folico en las gestacion]. Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecologia 1982;25(6):381-6.
Czeizel 1994 {published data only}
Fawzi 1998 {published data only}
  • Baylin A, Villamor E, Rifai N, Msamanga G, Fawzi WW. Effect of vitamin supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant women on the micronutrient status of their infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(8):960-8.
  • Fawzi W, Msamanga G, Renjifo B, Spiegelman D, Urassa E, Hashemi L, et al. Predictors of intrauterine and intrapartum transmission of HIV-1 among Tanzanian women. AIDS 2001;15(9):1157-65.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga G, Hunter D, Urassa E, Renjifo B, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2000;23(3):246-54.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Kupka R, Spiegelman D, Villamor E, Mugusi F, et al. Multivitamin supplementation improves hematologic status in HIV-infected women and their children in Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85(5):1335-43.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spielgelman D, Urassa EJN, McGrath N, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1 infected women in Tanzania. Lancet 1998;351:1477-82.
  • Villamor E, Msamanga G, Saathoff E, Manji K, Fawzi WW. Effect of vitamin supplements on the incidence of malaria among children born to HIV-infected Women. FASEB Journal 2006;20(4 Pt 1):A125.
Fawzi 2007 {published data only}
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Urassa W, Hertzmark E, Petraro P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamins and perinatal outcomes among HIV-negative women in Tanzania. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;356(14):1423-31.
Fleming 1968 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF, Hendrickse JP, Allan NC. The prevention of megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy in Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1968;75:425-32.
Fleming 1986 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF, Ghatoura GBS, Harrison KA, Briggs ND, Dunn DT. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1986;80:211-33.
  • Harrison KA, Fleming AF, Briggs ND, Rossiter CE. Growth during pregnancy in Nigerian teenage primigravidae. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1985;Suppl 5:32-9.
Hemmi 2003 {published data only}
  • Hemmi H, Endo T, Kitajima Y, Manase K, Hata H, Kudo R. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on serum progesterone levels in patients with a luteal phase defects. Fertility & Sterility 2003;80(2):456-61.
ICMR 2000 {published data only}
  • ICMR Collaborating Centres and Central Technical Co-ordinating Unit. Multicentric study of efficacy of periconceptional folic acid containing vitamin supplementation in prevention of open neural tube defects from India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2000;112:206-11.
Katz 2000 {published data only}
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Yamini S, Stallings R, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;73(6):1045-51.
  • Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, et al. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130(11):2675-82.
  • Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Katz J, Shrestha SR, Pradhan EK, et al. Night blindness of pregnancy in rural Nepal--nutritional and health risk. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998;27(2):231-7.
  • Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152(6):542-7.
  • Katz J, West Jnr KP, Khatry S, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Christian P, et al. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71:1570-6.
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Christian P, Pradhan EK, et al. Twinning rates and survival of twins in rural Nepal. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001;30(4):802-7.
  • West KP Jr, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SR, et al. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. BMJ 1999;318:570-5.
Kirke 1992 {published data only}
Kumwenda 2002 {published data only}
  • Kumwenda D, Miotti PG, Taha TE, Broadhead R, Biggar RJ, Brookes Jackson J, et al. Antenatal vitamin A supplementation increases birth weight and decreases anemia among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35:618-74.
MRC 1991 {published data only}
Osrin 2005 {published data only}
  • Osrin D, Vaidya A, Shrestha Y, Baniya RB, Manandhar DS, Adhikari RK, et al. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight and gestational duration in Nepal: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:955-62.
People's League 1942 {published data only}
  • People's League of Health. Nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers: interim report. Lancet 1942;2:10-2.
  • People's League of Health. The nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers in relation to maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire 1946;53:498-509.
Roberfroid 2008 {published data only}
  • Roberfroid D, Huybregts L, Lanou H, Henry MC, Meda N, Kolsteren FP, et al. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(6):1649-58.
  • Roberfroid D, Huybregts L, Lanou H, Henry MC, Meda N, Menten J, et al. Effects of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal growth: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;88(5):1330-40.
Rumbold 2006 {published data only}
  • Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS, for the ACTS Study Group. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(17):1796-806.
Rumiris 2006 {published data only}
  • Rumiris D, Purwosunu Y, Wibowo N, Farina A, Sekizawa A. Lower rate of preeclampsia after antioxidant supplementation in pregnant women with low antioxidant status. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2006;25(3):241-53.
Rush 1980 {published data only}
  • Rush D, Kristal A, Navarro C, Chaunhan P, Blanc W, Naeye R, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation during pregnancy on placental morphology, pathology and histomorphometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;39:863-71.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. A randomized trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 1980;65(4):683-97.
Schmidt 2001 {published data only}
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, Schultink W, West CE, Hautvast JA, Gross R, et al. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(1):85-90.
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, West CE, Schultink W, Gross R, Hautvast JG. Determinants of weight and length of Indonesian neonates. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(10):947-51.
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG, Karyadi D. Weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation during pregnancy increases vitamin A concentration of breast milk but not iron status in Indonesian lactating women. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(10):2664-9.
  • Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG. Randomised double-blind trial of the effect of vitamin A supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women on morbidity and growth of their infants during the first year of life. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56:338-46.
  • Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG. Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin A status of their infants. British Journal of Nutrition 2001;86:607-15.
Spinnato 2007 {published data only}
  • Spinnato II JA, Freire S, Silva JL, Cunha Rudge MV, Martins-Costa S, Koch MA, et al. Antioxidant therapy to prevent preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;110(6):1311-8.
Steyn 2003 {published data only}
  • Schoeman J, Steyn PS, Odendaal HJ, Grove D. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed at the first antenatal visit better predicts preterm labour than diagnosis later in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2005;25(8):751-3.
  • Steyn PS, Odendaal HJ, Schoeman J, Stander C, Fanie N, Grove D. A randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial of ascorbic acid supplementation for the prevention of preterm labour. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2003;23(2):150-5.
Taylor 1982 {published data only}
The Summit 2008 {published data only}
  • The Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT) Study Group, Shankar AH, Jahari AB, Sebayang SK, Aditiawarman, Apriatni M, et al. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant death in indonesia: a double-blind cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2008;371(9608):215-27.
Van den Broek 2006 {published data only}
  • Van den Broek N. Vitamin A supplementation for anaemia in pregnancy. Personal communication 1998.
  • Van den Broek NR, White SA, Flowers C, Cook JD, Letsky EA, Tanumihardjo SA, et al. Randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women in rural Malawi found to be anaemic on screening by HemoCue. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2006;113(5):569-76.
Villar 2009 {published data only}
  • Villar J, Purwar M, Merialdi M, Zavaleta N, Ngoc N, Anthony J, et al. Effect of vitamin C & E supplementation of pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia plus low nutritional status: the WHO trial. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2008;27(4):501.
  • Villar J, Purwar M, Merialdi M, Zavaleta N, Thi Nhu Ngoc N, Anthony J, et al. World Health Organisation multicentre randomised trial of supplementation with vitamins C and E among pregnant women at high risk for pre-eclampsia in populations of low nutritional status from developing countries. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2009;116(6):780-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Baumslag 1970 {published data only}
Biswas 1984 {published data only}
  • Biswas MK, Pernoll MJ, Mabie WC. A placebo-controlled comparative trial of various prenatal vitamin formulations in pregnant women. Clinical Therapeutics 1984;6(6):763-7.
Blot 1981 {published data only}
  • Blot I, Papiernik E, Kaltwasser JP, Werner E, Tchernia G. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1981;12:294-304.
Chanarin 1968 {published data only}
Colman 1974 {published data only}
  • Colman N, Barker M, Green R, Metz J. Prevention of folate deficiency in pregnancy by food fortification. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1974;27:339-44.
  • Colman N, Larsen JV, Barker M, Barker A, Green R, Metz J. Prevention of folate deficiency by food fortification. III. Effect in pregnant subjects of varying amounts of added folic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1975;28:465-70.
Coutsoudis 1999 {published data only}
  • Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia HM. Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. South African vitamin A study group. AIDS 1999;13(12):1517-24.
Dawson 1962 {published data only}
Edelstein 1968 {published data only}
  • Edelstein T, Stevens K, Baumslag N, Metz J. Folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy in a population subsisting on a suboptimal diet. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1968;75(2):133-7.
Ferguson 1955 {published data only}
Feyi-Waboso 2005 {published data only}
  • Feyi-Waboso PA, Chris A, Nwaogu GC, Archibong EI, Ejikem EC. The role of parenteral multivitamin preparation (Eldervit-12) in the prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2005;22(2):159-63.
Fletcher 1971 {published data only}
Giles 1971 {published data only}
  • Giles PFH, Harcourt AG, Whiteside MG. The effect of prescribing folic acid during pregnancy on birth weight and duration of pregnancy, a double blind trial. Medical Journal of Australia 1971;5:17-21.
Hampel 1974 {published data only}
  • Hampel KP, Roetz R. Influence of a long term substitution with a folate-iron preparation on serum folate, serum iron and haematological data during pregnancy: result of a prospective study. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkd 1974;34:409-17.
Hankin 1966 {published data only}
  • Hankin ME, Cellier KM. Studies of nutrition in pregnancy V: ascorbic acid levels of blood and milk in pregnancy and lactation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1966;6:153-60.
Hibbard 1968 {published data only}
Hunt 1984 {published data only}
  • Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Coulson AH, et al. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: effects on selected blood constituents and on progress and outcome of pregnancy in low-income women of Mexican descent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;40:508-21.
Huybregts 2009 {published data only}
  • Huybregts L, Roberfroid D, Lanou H, Menten J, Meda N, Van Camp J, et al. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(6):1593-600.
Laurence 1981 {published data only}
  • Laurence KM. Prevention of neural tube defects by improvement in maternal diet and preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Progress in Clincial and Biological Research 1985;163:383-8.
  • Laurence KM, James N, Miller MH, Tennant GB, Campbell H. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural-tube defects. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1981;282:1509-11.
Lira 1989 {published data only}
  • Lira P, Barrena N, Foradori A, Gormaz G, Grebe G. Folate deficiency in pregnancy: effect of supplemental folate [Deficiencia de folatos en el embarazo: Efecto de una suplementacion con acido folico]. Sangre 1989;34(1):24-7.
Lumeng 1976 {published data only}
  • Lumeng L, Cleary RE, Wagner R, Pao-Lo Y, Ting-Kai L. Adequacy of vitamin B6 supplementation during pregnancy: a prospective study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976;29:1379-83.
Marya 1981 {published data only}
Meirinho 1987 {published data only}
  • Meirinho M, Correia JM, Silva Cruz A. Administration of folic acid during pregnancy and trophoblastic disease [Administracion de acido folico en la gestacion y actividad trofoblastica]. Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecologia 1987;30(2):87-91.
Metz 1965 {published data only}
  • Metz J, Festenstein H, Welch P. Effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on tests of folate and vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1965;16:472-9.
Mock 2002 {published data only}
Moldenhauer 2002 {published data only}
  • Moldenhauer J, Guo S, Liang R, Prada J. Dietary intake levels of the antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E are adequately achieved with standard prenatal vitamin supplementation in high risk pregnancy groups [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S99.
Owen 1966 {published data only}
  • Owen GM, Nelsen CE, Baker GL, Connor WE, Jacobs JP. Use of vitamin K1 in pregnancy: effect of serum bilirubin and plasma prothrombin in the newborn. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1967;39(3):368-73.
  • Owen GM, Nelsen CE, Baker GL, Connor WE, Jacobs JP. Use of vitamin K1 in pregnancy: effect on bilirubin metabolism and coagulation mechanism in the newborn. Pediatrics 1966;68(5):850.
Ross 1985 {published data only}
Schuster 1984 {published data only}
  • Schuster K, Bailey LB, Mahan CS. Effect of maternal pyridoxine-HCl supplementation on the vitamin B-6 status of mother and infant and on pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Nutrition 1984;114:977-88.
Semba 2001 {published data only}
Shu 2002 {published data only}
  • Shu J, Miao P, Wang RJ. Clinical observation on effect of Chinese herbal medicine plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone in treating anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion. [Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi/Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine/Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Hui, Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban 2002;22(6):414-6.
Smithells 1981 {published data only}
  • Smithells RW, Sheppard S, Schorah CJ, Sellar MJ, Nevin NC, Harris R, et al. Apparent prevention of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1981;56:911-8.
Suharno 1993 {published data only}
Tanumihardjo 2002 {published data only}
  • Tanumihardjo SA. Vitamin A and iron status are improved by vitamin A and iron supplementation in pregnant Indonesian women. Journal of Nutrition 2002;132:1909-12.
Thauvin 1992 {published data only}
  • Thauvin E, Fusselier M, Arnaud J, Faure H, Favier H, Coudray C, et al. Effects of a multivitamin mineral supplement on zinc and copper status during pregnancy. Biological Trace Elements Research 1992;32:405-14.
Trigg 1976 {published data only}
  • Trigg KH, Rendall EJC, Johnson A, Fellingham FR, Prankerd TAJ. Folate supplements during pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1976;6:228-30.
Ulrich 1999 {published data only}
  • Rolschau J, Kristoffersen K, Ulrich M, Grinsted P, Schaumburg E, Foged N. The influence of folic acid supplement on the outcome of pregnancies in the county of Funen in Denmark. Part I. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1999;87(2):105-10.
  • Ulrich M, Kristoffersen K, Rolschau J, Grinsted P, Schaumburg E, Foged N. The influence of folic acid supplement on the outcome of pregnancies in the county of Funen in Denmark. Part II. Congenital anomalies. A randomised study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1999;87(2):111-3.
  • Ulrich M, Kristoffersen K, Rolschau J, Grinsted P, Schaumburg E, Foged N. The influence of folic acid supplement on the outcome of pregnancies in the county of Funen in Denmark. Part III. Congenital anomalies. An observational study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1999;87(2):115-8.
Villamor 2002 {published data only}
  • Villamor E, Msamanga G, Spielgelman D, Antelman G, Peterson KE, Hunter DJ, et al. Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76:1082-90.
Vutyavanich 1995 {published data only}
  • Vutyavanich T, Wongtra-ngan S, Ruangsri R. Pyroxidone for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173(3):881-4.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Chelchowska 2004 {published data only}
  • Chelchowska M, Laskowska-Klita T, Kubik P, Leibschang J. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the level of MDA and activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in blood of matched maternal-cord pairs [Wplyw suplementacji witaminowo-mineralnej na poziom MDA oraz aktywnosc peroksydazy glutationowej i dysmutazy ponadtlenkowej w krwi kobiet ciezarnych i krwi pepowinowej ich dzieci]. Przeglad Lekarski 2004;61(7):760-3.
Frenzel 1956 {published data only}
  • Frenzel KH, Geissler R. The importance of prophylaxis with multivitamin preparations during pregnancy, childbirth and nursing period [Die Bedeutung der Prophylaxe mit Multivitaminpraparaten wahrend Schwangerschaft, Wochenbett und Stillperiode]. Die Medizinsche Welt 1956;7(20):767-9.
Kubik 2004 {published data only}
  • Kubik P, Kowalska B, Laskowska-Klita T, Chelchowska M, Leibschang J. Effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the status of some microelements in pregnant women [Wplyw suplementacji preparatem witaminowo-mineralnym na status wybranych mikroelementow u kobiet ciezarnych]. Przeglad Lekarski 2004;61(7):764-8.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Fall 2007 {published data only}
  • Fall C. Mumbai maternal nutrition project. Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 15 February 2007).
Johns 2004 {published data only}
  • Johns J. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on women with threatened miscarriage. Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com/mrct) (accessed 6 September 2005) 2004.
Sezikawa 2007 {published data only}
  • Sezikawa A. Antioxidant supplementation in pregnant women with low antioxidant status. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 21 June 2007) 2007.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Alderson 2004
  • Alderson P, Green S, Higgins JPT, editors. Cochrane Reviewers’ Handbook 4.2.2 [updated December 2003]. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Beazley 2002
  • Beazley D, Livingston J, Kao L, Sibai B. Vitamin c and e supplementation in women at high risk for preeclampsia: a double-blind placebo controlled trial [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S76.
Bendich 1993
  • Bendich A, Machlin LJ. The safety of oral intake of vitamin E: data from clinical studies from 1986-1991. In: Packer L, Fuchs J editor(s). Vitamin E in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1993.
Chaudhuri 1969
  • Chaudhuri SK. Effect of nutrient supplementation on the incidence of toxaemia of pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 1969;19:156-61.
Coulam 1991
Czeizel 1994b
  • Czeizel AE, Metneki J, Dudas I. The higher rate of multiple births after periconceptional multivitamin supplementation: an analysis of causes. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae (Roma) 1994;43:175-84.
Di Cintio 2001
  • Di Cintio E, Parazzini F, Chatenoud L, Surace M, Benzi G, Zanconato G, et al. Dietary factors and risk of spontaneous abortion. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2001;95:132-6.
Ericson 2001
  • Ericson A, Kallen B, Aberg A. Use of multivitamins and folic acid in early pregnancy and multiple births in Sweden. Twin Research 2001;4(2):63-6.
Everett 1997
Godfrey 1996
Goyaux 2001
  • Goyaux N, Alihonou E, Diadhiou F, Leke R, Thonneau PF. Complications of induced abortion and miscarriage in three African countries: a hospital-based study among WHO collaborating centres. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2001;80:568-73.
Haas 2009
  • Haas DM, Ramsey PS. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003511.pub2]
Haider 2006
Higgins 2009
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Jauniaux 2000
  • Jauniaux E, Watson AL, Hempstock J, Bao Y-P, Skepper JN, Nurton GJ. Onset of maternal arterial blood flow and placental oxidative stress: a possible factor in human early pregnancy failure. American Journal of Pathology 2000;157:2111-22.
Katz 2001
Lee 1996
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